Early Modern SPICE chart
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Regions 1450-1750
SOCIALPOLITICAL
INTERACTION (w/env.)
CULTUREECONOMIC
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Latin America
Distinct new culture emerges;
Conquests in Caribbean,Vermin, mosquitoesTreaty of Tordesillas; Catholicismencomienda system in
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sociedad de castas
South America & Mesoamer-
transferred to Amer.;introduced to natives by JesuitsAmerican colonies
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Atlantic Slave Trade beginsica; part of European .
deforestation, depletion
missions; unique culture emerges with
coerced labor (e.g. mit'a)
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mining, plantation workmaritime empireof soil; Col. Exchange;
blend of European, African & American
sugar plantations, raw
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patriarchal
viceroy: monarch's represen-
disease via Europeinfluences; European universities,
materials for manufacturing
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tative; mit'a system adapted
Atlantic Slave Tradeprinting presses introducedin parent country
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native population Europeans' superior weaponry used
*impacted by mercantilism
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plummets, overall pop.
to defeat native civilizations; galleons
economic dependency
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replenished by end of era
silver exports
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Ottoman Empire
Women in elite classesGunpowder land empireDefeated Byz. Empire;Hagia Sophia converted to mosque;Empire became difficult
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were veiled and secluded
expansion, focus on warfare;
Indian Ocean Trade
Muslim but tolerant towards other relig-
to administer due to size
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in harem; women in lower
elevated slave to prominent
the Muslim empires
ions; monumental architecture, infrastr-
and lack of progressive
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classes involved in businesspositions (succession
were competing for same
ucture; ignored growing western threat
ideas, lots of trade
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large merchant, artisan class;
issues), centralized gvt.territory/conflict
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diverse societies; extensive Devshirme: Janissariesas they expanded
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slavery but status variedlongest lasting empire
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SafavidSimilar to OttomanSimilar to OttomanSimilar to Ottoman;citizens expected to practice Shi'a Similar to Ottoman
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location: Iran (Persia)Islam; otherwise, similar to Ottoman
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Mughal Indiaoutlawed sati, encouragedgunpowder land empireSouth AsiaMuslim empire: policy of toleranceexported spices, cotton
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widows to remarry; largeemperor, centralized gvt.Indian Ocean trade;
toward Hindus; monumental arch: Taj
textiles, gems - lots of trade
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artisan, merchant classlots of good resourcesMahal; gunpowder used to expand;
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*cotton, spices, gemsignored growing western threat
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European Nation-
elite women see some
parliamentary monarchies &
colonized Americas,
Protestant Ref, resulting civil conflicts
mercantilism - export more
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States
improvements due to Enligh.
absolute monarchiesaccess to good resour-
Enlightenment/Scientific Rev.; Versailles
than import; colonies
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thoughtces; impact of Col Exchlarge militaries, superior weaponsprovided raw materials
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Russia: Romanov
Russian nobles: BoyersAbsolute monarchyLots of expansion
state control over Russian Orth. Church
Focused on agriculture,
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Dynastycossacks: Russian peasantsIvan the Great laid foundt'nrivers: transport,
Peter, Catherine the Great: Westerniz'n
traded with Europe for
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who settled the frontieroverall goals: expansion, communication; warm
(*culture, military) with some notable
luxury goods; mining for
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tsars encouraged serfdomcentralizationwater portsexceptions; Peterhof; elimination of weapons, shipbuilding
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elite women saw gains
Peter the Great: Western'zn:
St. Petersburg:Mongol and many Russian cultural capacities
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essentially no middle class*navy, shipbuilding"window on the west"influences
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located in Asia & Europe
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mostly agricultural, furs
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China: Ming, Qing
Women subservientScholar-gentry & civilLarge empire, Colum.
Zheng He's expeditions discontinued;
Focus on agriculture,
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Patriarchal; removal of allservice exam based onExchange crops intro-Jesuit missionaries tolerated for theirinterest in importing silver,
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Mongol tracesNeo-Confucianism restoredduced (e.g. peanuts):
intellectual dvpmts (clocks, firearms);
exporting luxury goods
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Ming, Qing dynastiespopulation increased
not many conversions to Christianity;
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Decline due to incompetent
relatively isolated; woodblock printing,
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leaders.novels; Ming pottery
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TokugawaRigid social structure ctd.
Tokugawa shogunate: more
Isolation policy in Christian missionaries arrive but By 1630, foreign trade was
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Shogunate(feudalism), emperor was centralized authority response to Europeaneventually Christianity is forbidden;
only allowed in select ports;
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figurehead; daimyos influence
influence; geographyinterest in European firearms, thenstrong internal economy,
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declined; geishas and facilitated isolationmost merchants banned; School of
infrastructure; silver exports
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concubinessilver resources
National Learning; Kabuki theater, high
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literacy rates, woodblock prints; Shinto-
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ist Buddhism remains prevalent
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West AfricaMostly farming; captivesPower shift toward goldSome European portsAnimistic, Muslim religionsTriangular trade
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become slaves; rulers often"slave" coastslave demand>goldprevalent, depending on
slaves for European goods:
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control landslave-gun cycle: warfareokra to Americasregion, some conversions toguns, rum; economic dep.
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yucca to Africa
Christianity; few new intellectual dvpmts
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in this era; slave-gun cycle
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