_Actions Classification 2.0 Beta for Review
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Scroll right to add comments -->Public Comments on Beta Version
v 12 March 2015
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123 (examples, not comprehensive)DefinitionExpositionMapping to v 1.0
Hui Shim TAN, WWF-Malaysia
Charles Latremouille, Nature Conservancy of Canada
Matt Muir
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General Comments (Insert general comments under your name in columns to right)
Note that many conservation strategies may include multiple conservation actions from the following list in combination.
A. TARGET RESTORATION / STRESS REDUCTION ACTIONSActions to directly restore a target or mitigate a stressActions that lead directly to changes in a conservation target.
1. Land/Water Management
Actions directed at conserving or restoring sites, ecosystems and the wider environmentThe term "ecosystem" ≈ "habitat" as used by species managers ≈ 2put PAs into the definition - Actions directed at conserving or restoring protected areas and other sites, ecosystems and the wider environment
1.1 Site/Area Stewardship
Enhancing viability / mitigating stresses for sites and/or ecosystem targets This category contains many different types of "site management" actions. Note that we are including actions addressing existing invasive species, pollution, and geological/climate events as stresses here, even though they are often categorized as direct threats.new category with elements from 2.1, 2.2 & 2.3 (e.g. expands idea of mngmt of invasives)
cutting invasive vines off trees, liming acid lakes, cleaning up oil spills, routine maintenance in a protected area, use of traditional management practices by indigenous peoplesLumping invasive species control with routine maintenance of protected area may cause a problem as we were often using the 'invasive species control" class to querry for such actions and inform fundraising dedicated to invasive species control. Might require sub-classes that would maintain this split...
1.2 Ecosystem & Natural Process (Re)Creation
Restoring missing or severely degraded ecosystems and ecosystem function, especially on a large scaleTo some degree, the difference between 1.1 and 1.2 is a question of scale. For example, although prescribed fire for routine site maintenance could go in 1.1, we propose that prescribed fire, should go here. Likewise, although maintaining a few water control structures could be a site managment task, in general we propose that actions to restore degraded hydrological regimes go here.≈ 2.3 but removing some of the stewardship examples like liming acid lakes or cleaning up oil spillsI find the reference to scale to differentiate between 1.1 and 1.2 quite vague and subjective.
prescribed fire, creating forest corridors, prairie re-creation, replanting mangroves, coral reef restoration, breeching levees, dam removal, taxon substitution to restore ecological functionsWhat do you mean by "creating forest corridors" in the example? I assume you mean planting trees, as opposed to protecting forest corridors...
2. Species Management
Actions directed at conserving or restoring specific speciesThis class contains all actions involved in directly managing or restoring species. The difference between land/water management and species management is defined by the type or unit of biodiversity that the conservation action is targeting. For example, dam breaches aimed at one or several salmon species fit in Species Stewardship; dam breaches aimed at restoring water flow and stream connectivity fit in 1.2. Habitat & Natural Process (Re)Creation.
2.1 Species Stewardship
Enhancing viability / mitigating stresses to specific species targets within their current rangeManaging undesired species that threaten targets (eg invasive species) belongs in 1.1, not here. ≈ 3.2 Species RecoveryI would add to the examples stewardship of natural nesting sites as it is quite a common activity for reptiles for example.
manual pollination of trees, artificial nesting boxes/platforms, clutch manipulation, supplementary feeding, disease/pathogen/parasite management, management of game species
2.2 Species Re-Introduction & Translocation
Re-introducing species to places where they formally occurred or to suitable future habitat or benign introductions of species to an ecosystem≈ 3.3 but adding translocation
re-introduction of wolves, translocation of species imperilled by climate change, benign introductions of top predator fish to an ecosystem
2.3 Ex-Situ Conservation
Protecting biodiversity out of its native habitats wit the aim of ultimately restoring it to these habitatsTo be a true restoration strategy, this approache requires not just doing ex-situ conservation, but also ensuring that the species is ultimately put back into the wild in the appropriate habitats. The educational function of zoos & aquaria belongs in 3.1= 3.4
captive breeding of an endangered frog, artificial propegation of orchids, seed banking, gene banking
B. BEHAVORIAL CHANGE / THREAT REDUCTION ACTIONSActions to get people to stop direct threats or continue/increase positive behaviorsActions that lead directly to threat reduction or opportunity maximization.This "main type" is under-described.
I suggest a new (Level 1) category on "behavioral economics & conservation psychology" (or something along this line) and it's relevant to changing consumption choices and decision making. Under it, the following can be included at level 2: (a) choice architecture & nudges; (b) pull factors (make something attractive, fun, trendy, competitive); ... and probably more....
3. Awareness Raising
Actions designed to make people aware of key issues, thus leading to behavior change≈ 4.3
3.1 Outreach & Communications
Promoting desired behavorial change by providing information through various media and other channelsIncludes "trainings" that are primarily designed to get folks to change a behavior such as not planting invasive species. Is generally non-confrontational and has TOC that says if folks get knowledge and/or awareness, they will then make desired behavorial changes.≈ 4.3 without the protestsDoes this include persuasion...?I think it would help to clarify that this class excludes outreach and communications that do not directly aim at changing behavior (e.g., outreach and communications to tell the public how great of an organization you are).
press briefings, radio soap operas, web blogs, puppet shows, environmental education for kids, community campaigns
3.2 Protests & Civil Disobedience
Promoting desired behavorial change by conducting protests or other confrontational means
Is generally confrontational and has TOC that says we assume the actor knows the consequences of their action, but needs some external pressure to shame or otherwise influence them not to do it. There is also an element of outright preventing the action.
≈ 4.3 without the outreach & communicationsSuggest this to be split into a new (Level 1) category. As indicated, this is about pressuring and shaming, not awareness raising. Where would protest against a specific legislation fall? Here or under 7.1?
tree siting, confronting whaling vessels, protest marches, internet petitions, monkeywrenchingDoes shareholder activism fall under here? It's not really confrontational. There is a grey area between confrontational and non-confrontational approaches?
4. Law Enforcement & Prosecution
Monitoring and enforcing compliance with existing laws, policies & regulations, and standards & codes at all levelsCategory 7 is about creating the laws, policies, etc; this category is about implementing and enforcing them≈ 5.4
4.1 Detection & Arrest
Detecting and/or directly stopping violations of existing laws, policies / regulations and standards / legal codes= finer breakdown of 5.4What about "Detection and education"? Does that fall here or under 3?
patrolling protected areas, customs monitoring of wildlife trafficking, aerial surveilance
4.2 Criminal Prosecution & Conviction
Ensuring sanctions for violations of existing laws, policies / regulations and standards / legal codes= finer breakdown of 5.4
following up on arrests, ensuring that violators are fully punished
4.3 Non-Criminal Compliance Enforcement
Threatening or bringing non-criminal legal action to get indviduals, organizations, or firms to change behaviorCivil refers to the body of law, not the actor....= finer breakdown of 5.4
suing an agency to enforce a policy, suing a company to stop illegal logging, citing homeowners for sewage violations, agency review of policies or projects
5. Livelihood, Economic & Moral Incentives
Actions using livelihood, economic and moral incentives to directly influence behavior or to change attitudes that then lead to behavorial change= 6I would make a reference to Human wellbeing targets in the Open Standards somewhere in this section...
5.1 Linked Enterprises & Livelihoods
Developing enterprises that directly depend on the maintenance of natural resources or provide substitute livelihoods as a means of changing behaviors and attitudes = 6.1
training local people to be ecotourism guides, non-timber forest product harvesting business, wild salmon fishery, subsistence hunting & gathering
5.2 Substitution & Alternative Livelihoods
Promoting alternative products and services that substitute for environmentally damaging onesBanking could also be financial, but get over it....= 6.2
farmed salmon as a replacement for pressure on wild populations, Viagra for rhino horn, recycling and use of recycled materials, training poachers for factory jobs, wetland mitigation, grass & forest banking
5.3 Market Forces
Using market mechanisms to change behaviors and attitudesPrimarily focuses on market forces affecting production / supply of products using natural resources. There can be a legal component (e.g. the policy "cap" part of "cap-and-trade").= 6.3does subsidy reform fall under here?
or somewhere under "C. Enabling condition actions", if so, where specifically?
commodity certification systems, corporate engagement, boycotts of non-dolphin safe tuna, creating cap-and-trade markets for CO2 emissions
5.4 Valuation of / Payments for Ecosystem Services
Using direct or indirect payments or ascribing economic value to change behaviors and attitudesPrimarily focuses on non-market based economic incentives to change behavior. There can be a legal component (e.g. changing tax policies).= expanded version of 6.4
quid-pro-quo payments for ecological services, creating tax incentives for conservation, providing regulatory relief, valuation of flood control services, REDD+, compensation for HWC
5.5 Non-Monetary Values
Using intangible and moral values to change behaviors and attitudesSome potential overlap with 3.1= 6.5
developing religous arguments for conservation, linking conservation to human health
Actions that create the conditions necessary for other conservation efforts to succeedActions that require another action to be completed by somebody in order to ultimately conserve the target(s).
6. Conservation Designation & Planning
Actions to legally or formally protect sites and/or species
This is such a critical strategy for conservation that it gets its own class, even if it could be technically folded into 7. Law & Policy. =1
6.1 Site/Area Protection
Legally or formally establishing or expanding public or private parks, reserves, and other protected areas roughly equivalent to IUCN Categories I-VI= 1.1In my mind, establishing parks and private reserves was a threat reduction action, at least for some threats (e.g., land development) rather than mearly an enabling condition action.
national parks, town wildlife sanctuaries, private reserves, tribally owned hunting grounds
6.2 Easements & Resource Rights
Legally or formally establishing protection or easements of some specific aspect of the resource on public or private lands outside of IUCN Categories I-VIeasements close to 5.4 = 1.2
easements, securing development rights, water/instream flow rights, securing resource tenure rights for local communitiesSame as above, it may not take care of all threats but it purpose is to take care of the most important and immediate threat...
6.3 Land/Water Use Planning & Zoning
Legally or formally designating land or water uses
Includes creating land-use plans that may encompass some protected areas, but does not include efforts that are primarily aimed at creating proected areas.
new category; draws zoning from 5.1 & 5.2
land use planning, designating go/no go areas, wild & scenic river designationSame as above.
6.4 Site/Area Planning & Monitoring
General planning and monitoring of public or private parks, reserves and other protected areas (roughly equivalent to IUCN Categoires I-VI)This category now involves doing the planning and overall monitoring / adaptive mangement for a site. Infrastructure is in 6.4 and administration is in 10.1.≈ 2.1 w/out stewardship, intradiction of poachers, hiring staff, infrastructureWhere would you put forest management planning? It's not planning for a protected area per say but a good forest management plan can be quite positive to protect/restore some species/habitats.
developing a site plan, conducting monitoring or adaptive management
6.5 Site Infrastructure
Creating and maintaing the physical infrastructure for protected areas and other conservation sitesThis category is primarily about the physical establishment of protected areas; routine maintenance belongs in 1.1.draws from 2.1
creating guard posts, fences, roads, recreational areas
6.6 Species Designation, Planning & Monitoring
General designation and management of specific plant and animal populations of concernAs with Category 2, if the action targets 2 or fewer specific species it's species planning, it’s species; if it targets 3 or more, it’s site/area planning. For example fish ladders aimed at one salmon species fit in species recovery; fish ladders aimed at several different species fit in natural process restoration.≈ 3.1 w/out stewardship and dealing with overharvesting of mushrooms or controlling fishing effort
developing specific species mangement plans, conducting monitoring of speciesWhere would ecosystems monitoring fit (e.g., monitoring the loss of wetlands)?
7. Law & Policy
Actions to develop, change, and influence formal legislation, regulations, and voluntary standardsDevelopment of laws and polices except those in 6. Conservation Designation= 5
7.1 Legislation
Making, implementing, changing, influencing, or providing input into formal government sector legislation at all levels: international, national, state/provincial, municipal, tribalPublic legislation refers to the official legal code governing society – what some people refer to as "hard law." Private sector standards and codes are agreements among various organizations. = 5.1 (less zoning)
GLOBAL: promoting conventions on biodiversity, wildlife trade laws like CITES
NATIONAL: work for or against government laws such as the US Endangered Species Act, influencing legislative appropriations
STATE/PROVINCIAL: state ballot initiatives, providing data to state policy makers, developing pollution permitting systems, dam relicensing
MUNICIPAL: countryside laws, species protection laws, hunting bans
TRIBAL: tribal laws
7.2 Policies & Regulations
Making, implementing, changing, influencing, or providing input into policies and regulations affecting the implementation of laws and codes at all levels: international, national, state/provincial, local/community, tribal, privatePolicies and regulations are how legislation gets implemented – what some people refer to as "soft law." This is a relatively narrow definition of the word "policy." = 5.2 (less zoning)
input into agency plans regulating certain species or resources, working with local governments or communities to implement zoning regulations; promoting sustainable harvest of timber on state forest lands
7.3 Private Sector Standards & Codes
Setting, implementing, changing, influencing, or providing input into voluntary standards & professional codes that govern private sector practiceThese are codes of practice that are adopted by an organization or industry on a voluntary (as opposed to mandated) basis. Mandatory laws and regulations fall under 7.1 Legislation or 7.2 Policies & Regulations.= 5.3
Industry agreements, Conservation Measures Partnership (CMP) Open Standards
7.4 Compliance & Enforcement Capacity
Monitoring and enforcing compliance with laws, policies & regulations, and standards & codes at all levelsLaws, policies, regulations, and standards are useless if they are not implemented and enforced. Some organizations merely try to monitor compliance whereas others have the power of enforcement.≈ 5.4 (excluding interdiction and prosecution)
setting up courts, improving courts, strengthening police forces, monitoring efforts
8. Research and Monitoring
Basic and applied research to support conservation work
newOften, the first activity in a strategy is to gather more information. This may involve research or monitoring, or it may simply involve reviewing the literature, developing best management practices, or consulting with experts. Though some of this occurs during the conservation planning process, additional information-gathering steps are frequently identified as actions that must be classified, but that are not clearly covered by this taxonomy. Adding this type of research as category 8.3 would address this gap.
8.1 Basic Research & Status Monitoring
Basic research related to conservation Trigger for actionnewWould you put threat monitoring here (e.g. monitor the pace of clear cut harvesting to see if the threat is increasing in scope)?
research on an endangered species, ecological research, research on effects of climate change
8.2 Effectiveness Monitoring / Adaptive Management
Asessement of and learning about the effectiveness of strategiesResult of actionnew
applied research on specific strategies, developing learning networks, developing standard classifications
9. Education & Training
Enhancing knowledge and skills of specific inviduals
= 4.1 & 4.2
9.1 Formal Education
Enhancing knowledge and skills of students in a formal degree program= 4.1
public schools, colleges & universities, continuing education
9.2 Training & Capacity Development
Enhancing knowledge, skills and information exchange for practitioners, stakeholders, and other relevant individuals in structured settings outside of degree programsTraining is teaching people how to do something; coaching is helping them actually do it.new
workshops or training courses in proscribed fire, coaching project teams, writing how-to manuals for project managers, stakeholder education on specific issues, elders sharing traditional ecological knowledge
10. Institutional Development
Creating the institutions needed to support conservation work
10.1 Organizational Management & Administration
Doing the work needed to establish and operate conservation organizations and agenciesnew
hiring and managing staff for protected areas or conservation agencies
10.2 Institutional & Civil Society Development
Creating or providing non-financial support & capacity building for non-profits, government agencies, communities, and for-profits = 7.1
creating new local land trusts, providing circuit riders to help develop organizational capacity
10.3 Alliance & Partnership Development
Forming and facilitating partnerships, alliances, and networks of organizations= 7.2
meetings & conferences, country networks, Conservation Measures Partnership (CMP), stakeholder engagement
10.4 Financing Conservation
Raising and providing funds for conservation workSome overlap with PES= 7.3
private foundations, government grants, bi- & multi-lateral donor projects, corporate philathropy, national debt-for-nature swapsDoes influencing investors and investment policy fall under here? probably not...
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