Balloon Race: SnakeOil supplements? Public
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namealternativenameprimaryvaluesubcategorycategorytypehighlightmetric_001searchtermnoteslinkfirstsourcesecondsourcethirdsourceID
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supplementalternative nameevidenceconditionconditiontypeone to watch?popularitysearch term notesnotes longsource namesmain study linkCochrane systematic review linkother International review board or metastudy link(s)individual studies link(s)ID
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our score. 0 = harmful 1 = no evidence, 2 = slight, 3 = conflicting/moderate, 4 = promising , 5 = good, 6 = strong Health condition or claim made for supplement (appears in bubble)the type of condition (appears in filter panel)what type of substance is this? (appears in filter panel)few studies / trials but positive potential. 2 trials or fewer, at least 1 with positive result.google hits (used to scale the bubbles).We searched for the supplement name plus conditionThe search we used to get a Google hits figureComments by Cochrane or other review/guidelines or our notes on the evidence.
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abatacept4osteoarthritismusculoskeletalhormone87,500abatacept osteoarthritisAppears to reduce joint pain and improve function.Cochranehttp://www.cochrane.org/CD007277/MUSKEL_abatacept-for-rheumatoid-arthritishttp://www.cochrane.org/CD007277/MUSKEL_abatacept-for-rheumatoid-arthritis1
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agnus castusvitex5PMSwomenplant / herb160,000agnus castus PMSHelps improve PMS symptoms.Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics; The European Menopause Journal, Archives of Women's Mental Health, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Electronic Physicianhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002937817303198https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002937817303198
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5308513/
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00737-017-0791-0
http://www.maturitas.org/article/S0378-5122(09)00031-0/abstract?cc=y=, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s0040400001232
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aloe vera0digestive aiddigestionplant / herb11,800,000aloe vera digestionHARMFUL. Never eat. Ingestion can causes diarrhea, electrolyte imbalance and kidney disfunction.Journal of Environmental Science and Healthhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10590500600614303#.VcDwRZNVhBchttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10590500600614303#.VcDwRZNVhBc3
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aloe vera1burns, cutsgeneral healthplant / herb18,800,000aloe vera burns cutsNo high quality evidence to support aloe vera for treatment of wounds.Cochranehttps://www.cochrane.org/CD008762/WOUNDS_aloe-vera-for-treating-acute-and-chronic-woundshttps://www.cochrane.org/CD008762/WOUNDS_aloe-vera-for-treating-acute-and-chronic-wounds4
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aloe vera2diabetesdiabetesplant / herb27,800,000aloe vera diabetesOne study found diabetes patients with high blood levels of fat (dyslipidemia) benefited from one 300mg capsule every 12 hours for 2 months.Planta Medicahttp://www.omni.org.il/_Uploads/dbsAttachedFiles/Research1.Antihyperglycemic.pdfhttp://www.omni.org.il/_Uploads/dbsAttachedFiles/Research1.Antihyperglycemic.pdf5
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andrographis1respiratory tract infectionsinfectionsplant / herb154,000andrographis respiratory infectionsSlight evidence of reduced symptoms.Otolaryngologic Clinics of North Americahttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0030666512002149http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S00306665120021496
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antioxidants3infertility in mensexual health, men, childrencompound1,900,000antioxidants infertilityEvidence of anti-oxidants as treatment for male infertility is inconclusive.Cochranehttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD007411.pub3/abstracthttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD007411.pub3/abstract7
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antioxidants0mortalitygeneral healthcompound7,330,000antioxidants mortalityTaking antixoxidants have no health benefits. In fact, beta carotene, vitamin A and vitamin E appear to increase the risk of death.Cochranehttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD007176.pub2/abstracthttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD007176.pub2/abstract8
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ashwagandhawithania somnifera4anxiety & stressmental healthplant / herbOTW1,130,000ashwagandha anxiety stressA review of 5 human trials concludes Ashwagandha reduces anxiety & stress. The review calls for more trials. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicinehttp://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/acm.2014.0177http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/acm.2014.01779
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ashwagandhawithania somnifera2erectile dysfunctionsexual healthplant / herb634,000ashwagandha erectile dysfunctionIn a single pilot study on 46 men with low-sperm count, ashwagandha supplementation appeared to increase sperm count & volume. Evidence-based complimentary & alternative medicinehttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clcentral/articles/963/CN-00977963/frame.htmlhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clcentral/articles/963/CN-00977963/frame.html10
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ashwagandhawithania somnifera2rheumatoid arthritis musculoskeletalplant / herb407,000ashwagandha rheumatoid arthritisNo solid evidence.Indian Journal of Medical Researchhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clcentral/articles/011/CN-01197011/frame.htmlhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clcentral/articles/011/CN-01197011/frame.html11
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astaxanthin1oxidative stressgeneral healthcompound261,000astaxanthin oxidative stressNo human trials yet. Cochrane, PLoS Onehttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clcentral/articles/581/CN-00909581/frame.htmlhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clcentral/articles/581/CN-00909581/frame.html
https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0146438
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astragalus2dna damage, immune systemgeneral healthplant / herbOTW740,000astragalus immune systemLimited studies suggest a stengthening of the immune system. More evidence needed.Block, Mead (2003)http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15035888http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1503588813
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astragalus3chronic kidney diseasegeneral healthplant / herb354,000astragalus kidney diseaseLow quality evidence for patients with chronic kidney disease when combined with conventional treatments. Cochranehttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD008369.pub2/abstracthttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD008369.pub2/abstract14
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bee pollen1cancer cancerother3,730,000bee pollen cancerNo evidenceEuropean Journal of Medicinal Chemistryhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20598400http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2059840015
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benfotiamine fat-soluble thiamin3anti-aging, diabetes diabetes, general healthcompound311,000benfotiamine diabetesA study of high-dose benfotiamine (300 mg/day) supplementation over 24 months showed no significant effects.Cochranehttp://www.cochrane.org/CD009403/RENAL_vitamin-b-and-its-derivatives-for-diabetic-kidney-diseasehttp://www.cochrane.org/CD009403/RENAL_vitamin-b-and-its-derivatives-for-diabetic-kidney-diseasehttp://www.researchgate.net/profile/Boris_Mankovsky/publication/274180185_Benfotiamine_Commentary_and_update_on_recent_studies/links/55256a0b0cf24b822b40313b.pdf16
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beta-carotene1cancercancervitamin5,410,000vitamin A beta-carotene cancerThere is no evidence that beta-carotene prevents cancer.PubMedhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18689373http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1868937317
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beta glucans1cancercancercompound280,000beta glucans cancerCompounds found in brewers' yeast and mushrooms. Most studies so far have been done in animals or test tubes, rather than on human subjects. Trials on human subjects are needed. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicinehttp://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/252171/http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/252171/18
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beta glucans2colds, immune systeminfections, respiratorycompoundOTW558,000beta glucans respiratory infectionReduced number of colds by 25% and severity of symptoms by 15%. Might increase the body's ability to fend off infections.Molecular Nutrition and Food Researchhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mnfr.201300338/fullhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mnfr.201300338/full19
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bitter melon1diabetesdiabetesplant / herb1,150,000bitter melon diabetesNot enough evidence to support using bitter melon in diabetes treament.Cochranehttp://www.cochrane.org/CD007845/ENDOC_momordica-charantia-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitushttp://www.cochrane.org/CD007845/ENDOC_momordica-charantia-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus20
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black cohosh2menopausewomenplant / herb530,000black cohosh menopauseInsufficient evidence to claim that black cohosh improves menopause symptoms. Cochranehttp://www.cochrane.org/CD007244/MENSTR_black-cohosh-cimicifuga-spp.-for-menopausal-symptomshttp://www.cochrane.org/CD007244/MENSTR_black-cohosh-cimicifuga-spp.-for-menopausal-symptoms21
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black tea1cancer preventioncancerplant / herb151,000,000black tea cancerReviews have found no association between black tea and ovarian or breast cancer risk.Nutrition and Cancerhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01635581.2014.936947#.Va-yTBNVhBchttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01635581.2014.936947#.Va-yTBNVhBc22
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borage seed oil4rheumatoid arthritismusculoskeletalplant / herb93,300rheumatoid arthritisImproves pain and function, and probably has no adverse effects. Cochranehttp://www.cochrane.org/CD002948/MUSKEL_herbal-therapy-for-rheumatoid-arthritishttp://www.cochrane.org/CD002948/MUSKEL_herbal-therapy-for-rheumatoid-arthritis23
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borage seed oil1eczemaeye & skinplant / herb1,420,000evening primrose oil eczemaA review of 27 studies found no evidence of efficacy.Cochranehttps://www.cochrane.org/CD004416/SKIN_oral-evening-primrose-oil-and-borage-oil-eczema
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bromelain3arthritismusculoskeletalenzyme571,000bromelain arthritisBromelain reduces arthritis symptoms. More research into dosage and side effects required. Annals of Internal Medicine
Common Knowledge
http://commons.pacificu.edu/pa/475/http://commons.pacificu.edu/pa/475/http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1584125824
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butterburpetasites hybridus2migrainespainplant / herb59,700butterbur migrainesButterbur extract may lower the frequency and severity of migraines.Neurologyhttp://www.neurology.org/content/78/17/1346.shorthttp://www.neurology.org/content/78/17/1346.short25
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caffeine5memorycognitioncompound34,200,000caffeine memoryEnhances consolidation of long term memories. Improves memory in young adults during their non-optimal time of day (mornings). Borota et al 2014, Frontiers in Psychologyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24413697http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24413697
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01764/full?utm_medium=google
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caffeine2skin cancercancercompoundOTW19,300,000caffeine skin cancerPopulation studies shows women who consume more than three cups of coffee a day MAY have a lower cancer risk than people who drink less than one cup per month. Song et al. 2012http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/72/13/3282http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/72/13/328227
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caffeine2alzheimer's disease, dementiamental healthplant / herb4,110,000caffeine dementiaCaffiene appears to slow cognitive decline and prevent Alzheimer's. But the results are not definitive. Santos et al 2010http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20182026http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2018202628
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calcium4blood pressurecardiomineral101,000,000calcium blood pressureHigh quality evidence has shown that extra calcium can slightly reduce blood pressure, especially in people younger than 35. Cochranehttp://www.cochrane.org/CD010037/HTN_extra-calcium-to-prevent-high-blood-pressurehttp://www.cochrane.org/CD010037/HTN_extra-calcium-to-prevent-high-blood-pressure29
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calcium4colorectal cancercancermineral10,700,000calcium colorectal cancerNo evidence that calcium supplementation stops colorectal cancer itself, but it does inhibit potentially pre-cancerous colorectal polyps (adenomatous polyps) Cochranehttp://www.cochrane.org/CD003548/COLOCA_daily-intake-of-1-gr-dietary-calcium-may-have-moderate-protective-effect-on-development-of-colorectal-adenomatous-polypshttp://www.cochrane.org/CD003548/COLOCA_daily-intake-of-1-gr-dietary-calcium-may-have-moderate-protective-effect-on-development-of-colorectal-adenomatous-polyps30
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calcium3osteoporosis in postmenopausal womenmusculoskeletal, womenmineral3,710,000calcium postmenopausal osteoporosisCalcium supps might help to prevent fractures, although the results have been contradictory.PubMedhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21289325http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2128932531
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calcium + vit. D5bone healthmusculoskeletalmineral43,900,000calcium vitamin d bone healthA review of 8 studies including 30,970 participants found that calcium plus vitamin D supplementation reduced total fracture risk by 15% and hip fracture risk by 30%. Osteoporosis Internationalhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00198-015-3386-5https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00198-015-3386-532
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calcium + vit. D2breast cancer in premenopausal women, cancercancer, womenmineral52,100,000calcium vitamin D cancerThere is no firm evidence that calcium and vitamin D supplementation decreases cancer risk. Cochranehttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD007469.pub2/abstracthttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD007469.pub2/abstracthttp://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/diet/vitamin-d-fact-sheet#q333
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cannabis4nausea cancerplant / herb703,000cannabis chemotherapy nauseaPromising evidence showing a reduction in nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy. The FDA has approved 2 synthetic cannabis drugs for treating chemo-related nausea. Cochrane, NAPhttp://www.cochrane.org/CD009464/GYNAECA_cannabis-based-medicine-nausea-and-vomiting-people-treated-chemotherapy-cancerhttp://www.cochrane.org/CD009464/GYNAECA_cannabis-based-medicine-nausea-and-vomiting-people-treated-chemotherapy-cancerhttps://www.nap.edu/read/24625/chapter/4#5334
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cannabis3glaucomaeye & skinplant / herb1,490,000cannabis glaucomaDefinitely lowers eye pressure, but only temporarily (3-4hrs). Since Glaucoma is a long-term disease, a LOT of cannabis would be required to maintain low pressure levels. Also, cannabis might cause additional damage to the eye by restricting blood flow to the optic nerve. American Glaucoma Societyhttps://community.americanglaucomasociety.net/about/statementshttps://community.americanglaucomasociety.net/about/statements35
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cannabis5Multiple Sclerosis (MS)neurologicalplant / herb22,700,000cannabis Multiple Sclerosis MS2 studies involving a total of 790 subjects showed positive results. Improved muscle spasms, pain, sleep quality, and mobility. Cannabis-based drug Sativex is approved for use in MS patients in 30 countries.Journal of Ethnopharmacologyhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874106000821http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037887410600082136
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cannabis4chronic painpainplant / herb79,400,000cannabis painSeveral good quality trials have shown cannabinoids to be modestly effective in treating chronic pain. The harms and side-effects may outweigh the benefits though. Larger and longer trials needed. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Cochranehttps://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD012182.pub2/full?highlightAbstract=cannabis&highlightAbstract=cannabihttps://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD012182.pub2/full?highlightAbstract=cannabis&highlightAbstract=cannabihttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2011.03970.x/full37
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capsaicin1non-allergic rhinitisgeneral healthplant / herb89,900capsaicin non allergic rhinitisCapsaicin comes from chili peppers. Evidence has found that inhaling 4 micrograms at least 5 times a day can reduce inflammation, but the quality of the evidence is low. Who wants to inhale chilli?Cochranehttp://www.cochrane.org/CD010591/ENT_capsaicin-non-allergic-rhinitishttp://www.cochrane.org/CD010591/ENT_capsaicin-non-allergic-rhinitis38
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carnosine1anti-aginggeneral healthcompound292,000carnosine anti agingPromising results in mice and in cell studies, but no human trials yet. Molecules in Focushttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1357272598000600http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S135727259800060039
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cat's claw1cancercancerplant / herb526,000cat's claw cancerNo human trials. Anticancer Researchhttp://europepmc.org/abstract/med/11724307http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/1172430740
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chamomile1bowel disordersdigestionplant / herb765,000chamomile bowel disorderNo high-quality human trials. Der Pharma Chemicahttps://www.derpharmachemica.com/abstract/chamomile-efficacy-in-patients-of-the-irritable-bowel-syndrome-6898.htmlhttps://www.derpharmachemica.com/abstract/chamomile-efficacy-in-patients-of-the-irritable-bowel-syndrome-6898.html41
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chocolate, dark3blood pressurecardioplant / herbOTW26,800,000dark chocolate blood pressureChemicals known as flavanols, found in cocoa products, are thought to widen blood vessels and cause a minor drop in blood pressure. Further trials are needed to ascertain long-term efficacy. Does not apply to mllk chocolate.Cochranehttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD008893.pub2/abstracthttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD008893.pub2/abstract42
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chlorella(algae)4blood pressure, cholesterol, cardiovascular diseasecardioalga948,000chlorella blood pressureSignificantly decreases blood pressure, blood glucose, and some cholesterols.Meta-analysis on 19 RCTs with 797 subjects indicated that Chlorella administration significantly decreased the levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose whereas changes in triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and body mass index were not statistically significant.Clinical Nutritionhttps://www.clinicalnutritionjournal.com/article/S0261-5614(17)31351-1/fulltexthttps://www.clinicalnutritionjournal.com/article/S0261-5614(17)31351-1/fulltext43
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chromium2diabetesdiabetesmineralOTW7,520,000chromium diabetesMight lower blood glucose levels. It might also help with fat loss, which could benefit those with diabetes. Cochranehttp://www.cochrane.org/CD010063/ENDOC_chromium_picolinate_supplementation_for_overweight_or_obese_peoplehttp://www.cochrane.org/CD010063/ENDOC_chromium_picolinate_supplementation_for_overweight_or_obese_people44
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cinnamon1diabetesdiabetesplant / herb24,200,000cinnamon diabetesNo more effective than placebo in controlling glucose levels. Cochranehttp://www.cochrane.org/CD007170/ENDOC_cinnamon-for-diabetes-mellitushttp://www.cochrane.org/CD007170/ENDOC_cinnamon-for-diabetes-mellitus45
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coconut oil3obesitycardio, general healthplant / herb10,100,000coconut oil obesity30ml of coconut oil per day might help to reduce waist size, but possibly because the fat in coconut oil isn't as easily stored.Cochranehttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clcentral/articles/529/CN-00721529/frame.htmlhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clcentral/articles/529/CN-00721529/frame.html46
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coffee6heart diseasecardioplant / herb134,000,000coffee heart diseaseA metastudy found that the more coffee a person drinks, the lower their risk of cardiovascular disease. The optimum amount of coffee for this benefit was 3-5 per day. Epidemiology and Preventionhttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/129/6/643.longhttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/129/6/643.long47
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coffee3mortalitygeneral healthplant / herb54,600,000coffee mortalityA large statistical study of over 650,000 people found that coffee drinking reduced all cause mortality, whether it was instant, ground, or decaffeinated. JAMA International Medicinehttps://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/article-abstract/2686145https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/article-abstract/268614548
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colostrinin1alzheimer's diseasemental healthcompoundOTW8,280colostrinin alzheimer's diseaseA few small human studies suggest possible effects on Alzheimers.The Journal of Nutritional Health and Aginghttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=new%20insights%20colostrininhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=new%20insights%20colostrinin49
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CoQ10ubiquinol3diabetesdiabetesenzyme1,190,000CoQ10 diabetesCoQ10 improves insulin secretion in those with type 2 diabetes. However, human trials have been tiny. Biofactorshttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/biof.1038/abstract?userIsAuthenticated=false&deniedAccessCustomisedMessage=http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/biof.1038/abstract?userIsAuthenticated=false&deniedAccessCustomisedMessage=50
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CoQ10ubiquinol1migrainepainenzyme340,000CoQ10 migraineSome tentative evidence on migraine sensitivity. But much more research needed.Sagehttp://cep.sagepub.com/content/31/8/897.shorthttp://cep.sagepub.com/content/31/8/897.short51
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CoQ101blood pressurecardioenzyme1,390,000coq10 blood pressurePooled data from two trials showed that CoQ10 did not affect blood pressure compared to placebo.Cochranehttp://www.cochrane.org/CD007435/HTN_coenzyme-q10-high-blood-pressurehttp://www.cochrane.org/CD007435/HTN_coenzyme-q10-high-blood-pressure52
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cranberrycranberry juice, cranberries1urinary tract infectionsurinary, womenplant / herb880,000cranberry urinary tract infectionsNo statistically significant evidence that cranberry juice or supplements prevent UTIs. Cochranehttp://www.cochrane.org/CD001321/RENAL_cranberries-for-preventing-urinary-tract-infectionshttp://www.cochrane.org/CD001321/RENAL_cranberries-for-preventing-urinary-tract-infections53
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creatine & CoQ10 3cognitionmental healthcompound326,000creatine CoQ10 cognitionCreatine doesn't have a significant effect in those with normal brain function, but it can benefit those with impaired brain function when combined with CoQ10. European Neurologyhttp://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/377676http://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/37767654
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dandeliondandelion soup3tonsillitisinfectionsplant / herb338,000dandelion tonsillitisDandelion might have antimicrobial properties, which could help with throat infections. Evidence-Based Health Carehttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD004877.pub3/abstracthttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD004877.pub3/abstract55
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devil's claw4arthritismusculoskeletalplant / herb226,000devil's claw arthritisDevil's Claw extract can reduce lower back pain by blocking the pathways that cause joint inflammation. Cochranehttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD004504.pub4/abstracthttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD004504.pub4/abstract56
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DHEA3memory in young mencognition, mencompoundOTW2,000,000DHEA memoryDHEA might improve memory in young men. Cochranehttp://www.cochrane.org/CD006221/DEMENTIA_no-current-evidence-for-an-improvement-in-memory-or-other-aspects-of-cognitive-function-of-non-demented-older-people-following-dhea-supplementshttp://www.cochrane.org/CD006221/DEMENTIA_no-current-evidence-for-an-improvement-in-memory-or-other-aspects-of-cognitive-function-of-non-demented-older-people-following-dhea-supplements57
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DHEA1ageinggeneral healthcompound260,000DHEA ageingDHEA has no beneficial impact on body composition, performance etc. PubMedhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17050889http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1705088958
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dong quai0menopause in breast cancer patientscancer, reproductiveplant / herb343,000dong quai menopauseHARMFUL. Long term safety data is non-existent. May increase risk of cancer.Lau et al. 2005http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20833608http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20833608http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16278617?dopt=Abstract59
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echinacea3coldsinfectionsplant / herb743,000echinacea coldsEchinacea might have a slight impact on preventing and treating colds, but the results are statistically insignificant. Cochranehttp://www.cochrane.org/CD000530/ARI_echinacea-for-preventing-and-treating-the-common-coldhttp://www.cochrane.org/CD000530/ARI_echinacea-for-preventing-and-treating-the-common-cold60
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ecklonia cava seaweed 3cholesterol, weight lossweight control, cardioalga62,600ecklonia cava cholesterolThere's evidence that seaweed supplements can combat several mechanisms behind the onset of cardiovascular disease. Ecklonia in particular has been shown to decrease cholesterol.A review suggests there is evidence that diet supplementation with whole macroalgae or products of macroalgae origin can ameliorate several mechanisms underlying the onset and propagation of CVDs. One study of ecklonia cava in particular (80 subjects) concluded that ECE supplementation improved blood lipid profiles through decreasing total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels which are known as major cardiovascular risk factors. More studies are needed to establish the long-term safety and effectiveness.Marine Drugshttps://www.mdpi.com/1660-3397/13/11/6838/htmhttps://www.mdpi.com/1660-3397/13/11/6838/htm61
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eggshell membrane5joints, arthritisgeneral healthother148,000eggshell membrane arthritisEgg shell membrane eases joints by increasing cell production and decreasing inflammation. 500mg a day gives rapid results. Cochranehttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clcentral/articles/993/CN-00718993/frame.htmlhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clcentral/articles/993/CN-00718993/frame.html62
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elderberry1fluinfectionsplant / herbOTW1,740,000elderberry fluEelderberry extract Sambucol may be useful for the treatment of viral influenza infections. More rigorous studies needed.Phytotherapy Researchhttp://www.actahort.org/books/1061/1061_12.htmhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19548290http://www.actahort.org/books/1061/1061_12.htm63
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elk velvet antler1rheumatoid arthritismusculoskeletalanimal product45,300elk velvet antler arthritisNo good quality evidence for elk velvet antler as a treatment for arthritis.Claims made for velvet antler supplements do not appear to be based upon rigorous research from human trials.The New Zealand Medical Journalhttp://majsivi.wdfiles.com/local--files/2012:1214/Gilbey2012.pdfhttp://majsivi.wdfiles.com/local--files/2012:1214/Gilbey2012.pdf64
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evening primrose oil1PMSreproductive, womenplant / herb692,000evening primrose oil PMSEvening primrose oil is no more effective than placebo. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecologyhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/0167482X.2010.538102#.Vcnzd5NVhBchttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/0167482X.2010.538102#.Vcnzd5NVhBc65
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evening primrose oil1eczemaeye & skinplant / herb1,420,000evening primrose oil eczemaA review of 27 studies found no evidence of efficacy.Cochranehttps://www.cochrane.org/CD004416/SKIN_oral-evening-primrose-oil-and-borage-oil-eczema
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feverfew5migrainepainplant / herb8,970,000fish oil omega 3 low sperm countFeverfew reduces migraine frequency by just over half a migraine a month. Cochranehttp://www.cochrane.org/CD002286/SYMPT_feverfew-for-preventing-migrainehttp://www.cochrane.org/CD002286/SYMPT_feverfew-for-preventing-migraine66
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fish oil / omega 32cystic fibrosisgeneral healthcompound9,790,000fish oil omega 3 cystic fibrosisEvidence is poor.Cochranehttps://www.cochrane.org/CD002201/CF_use-omega-3-supplements-people-cystic-fibrosishttp://www.cochrane.org/CD002201/CF_use-omega-3-supplements-people-cystic-fibrosis67
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fish oil / omega 31Alzheimer's, dementiamental healthcompound2,650,000fish oil omega 3 Alzheimer'sIn the largest and longest study of its kind, researchers found that fish oil/omega 3 had no statistically significant impact on cognitive decline.The Journal of the American Medical Associationhttp://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=2429713http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=242971368
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fish oil / omega 31asthmarespiratorycompound3,950,000fish oil omega 3 asthmaReview of trials found that people with asthma changing their diets to include more fish oil DID NOT improve their asthma.Cochranehttps://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD001283/abstracthttps://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD001283/abstracthttp://erj.ersjournals.com/content/16/5/861.short69
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fish oil / omega 32cancer symptomscancercompound159,000,000fish oil omega 3 cancer symptomsFish oil can counter chemotherapy-related damage to white blood cells. Lipidshttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11745-011-3643-0#page-2http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11745-011-3643-0#page-270
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fish oil / omega 32child intelligencemental health, childrencompound31,900,000fish oil omega 3 child intelligenceFish oil supplementation has a very minor positive impact on some measures of learning and performance.PubMedhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20171055http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2017105571
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fish oil / omega 33colorectal cancercancercompound47,600,000fish oil omega 3 colorectal cancerIt is thought that omega 3 reduces the risk of colorectal cancer and is effective in its treatment. PubMedhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7373878/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7373878/http://gut.bmj.com/content/early/2011/04/13/gut.2010.233718.full.pdf+html?hwshib2=authn%3A1439389225%3A20150811%253Aa4d0ff88-5170-49d2-91d9-7d94a4d81dd6%3A0%3A0%3A0%3Aa7F3BE99QRz8a3GQ7Dlevw%3D%3D72
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fish oil / omega 31Crohn's diseasedigestioncompound31,800,000fish oil omega 3 Crohn's diseaseNo beneficial effect for those with Crohn's Disease.Cochranehttp://www.cochrane.org/reviews/en/ab006320.htmlhttp://www.cochrane.org/reviews/en/ab006320.html73
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fish oil / omega 31low sperm countreproductivecompound15,200,000fish oil omega 3 diabetesA small study of 211 men it was found that omega 3 supplementation significantly increased sperm count. Cochranehttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clcentral/articles/203/CN-00780203/frame.htmlhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clcentral/articles/203/CN-00780203/frame.html74
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fish oil / omega 31diabetesdiabetescompound15,200,000fish oil omega 3 diabetesProbably no beneficial effect for those with type 2 diabetes. Cochranehttp://www.cochrane.org/CD003205/ENDOC_omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-pufa-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitushttp://www.cochrane.org/CD003205/ENDOC_omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-pufa-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus75
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fish oil / omega 30prostate cancercancercompound1,610,000fish oil omega 3 prostate cancerHAMRFUL? Recent studies have linked fish oil intake with increased prostate cancer risk.Journal of the National Cancer Institutue.http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2013/07/09/jnci.djt174.abstracthttp://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2013/07/09/jnci.djt174.abstract76
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fish oil / omega 32psychosismental healthcompound440,000omega 3 fish oil psychosisIn one study, supplementation delayed the onset of psychosis in those on track to develop certain mental health conditions. Nature Communicationshttp://www.nature.com/ncomms/2015/150811/ncomms8934/full/ncomms8934.htmlhttp://www.nature.com/ncomms/2015/150811/ncomms8934/full/ncomms8934.html77
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fish oil / omega 32depressionmental healthcompound6,800,000fish oil omega 3 depressionLow quality evidence. Cochranehttp://www.cochrane.org/CD004692/DEPRESSN_omega-3-fatty-acids-depression-adultshttp://www.cochrane.org/CD004692/DEPRESSN_omega-3-fatty-acids-depression-adults78
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fish oil / omega 3 (in pregnancy)5preterm birthreproductivecompound212,000,000fish oil omega 3 preterm birthA meta-analysis concluded that preterm birth & early preterm birth were reduced in women receiving omega-3. Cochranehttps://www.cochrane.org/CD003402/PREG_omega-3-fatty-acid-addition-during-pregnancyhttps://www.cochrane.org/CD003402/PREG_omega-3-fatty-acid-addition-during-pregnancy79
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flax seeds1breast cancercancer, womenplant / herb1,320,000flax seeds breast cancerPopulation studies indicate a slight possibility flaxeed could reduce breast cancer tumour growth. No controlled trials have been carried out.Cancer Causes Controlhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10552-013-0155-7#page-2http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10552-013-0155-7#page-280
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folic acid5birth defectschildrenvitamin1,780,000folic acid birth defectsFolic acid helps to prevent birth defects, but timing of supplementation is important. Cochranehttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD007950.pub2/fullhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD007950.pub2/full81
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folic acid0cancercancervitamin19,000,000folic acid cancerPOTENTIALLY HARMFUL. When combined with vitamin B12 can be associated with increased cancer risk.Cochranehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7527439/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7527439/http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD007950/frame.html82
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GABA3stress, anxietymental healthcompound3,880,000gaba stress anxietySome suggestive evidence for effect on anxiety & stress.Frontiers in Neurosciencehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7527439/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29168225https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29168225http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3985106/83
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garlic1blood pressurecardioplant / herb24,700,000garlic blood pressureGarlic might reduce blood pressure, but further research is required.Cochranehttp://www.cochrane.org/CD007653/HTN_garlic-for-hypertensionhttp://www.cochrane.org/CD007653/HTN_garlic-for-hypertension84
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garlicaged garlic extract2cancer treatmentcancervegetable19,300,000garlic cancer treatmentDue to anticancer properties of aged garlic, its consumption along with healthy diet may have beneficial effects on cancer. More clinical trials necessary.International Journal of Preventative Medicinehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6212616/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6212616/85
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garlic 3cancer preventioncancerplant / herb8,080,000garlic cancer preventionGarlic might prevent certain cancers, but there is a lack of clinical trial evidence. The WHO recommends consuming at least one clove a day for general health benefits. National Cancer Institutehttp://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Prevention/garlic-and-cancer-preventionhttp://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Prevention/garlic-and-cancer-prevention86
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garlic 1coldsinfectionsplant / herb3,370,000garlic coldsInsufficient evidnce for effects on the common cold.Cochrane: Garlic for the common coldhttps://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD006206.pub4/full?highlightAbstract=withdrawn%7Cgarlic%7Ccoldhttps://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD006206.pub4/full?highlightAbstract=withdrawn%7Cgarlic%7Ccold87
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ginger4nausea and vomitingdigestionplant / herb10,100,000ginger nauseaGinger prevents nausea and vomitting for some people in certain circumstances.Annals of Oncologyhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3995184/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3995184/https://academic.oup.com/annonc/article/28/10/2547/389633988
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gingko biloba1dementiamental healthplant / herb428,000ginkgo biloba dementiaInsufficient clinical trial evidence for the use of ginkgo bilboa as a treatment for dementia.University of Oxford Medical Sciences Divisionhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20040554http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2004055489
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ginseng1cognitive performancemental healthplant / herb797,000ginseng cognitive functionNo convincing evidence for ginseng enhancing cognition in healthy people, and only low quality evidence that it helps dementia patients. Cochranehttp://www.cochrane.org/CD007769/DEMENTIA_no-convincing-evidence-of-a-cognitive-enhancing-effect-of-panax-ginseng.http://www.cochrane.org/CD007769/DEMENTIA_no-convincing-evidence-of-a-cognitive-enhancing-effect-of-panax-ginseng.90
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glucosamine3arthritis, joint painmusculoskeletalcompound4,830,000glucosamine arthritisStudies using a specific brand of glucosamine (Rotta) found that patients' pain decreased. However, studies using other brands found no difference between glucosamine and placebo. Cochranehttp://www.cochrane.org/CD002946/MUSKEL_glucosamine-for-osteoarthritishttp://www.cochrane.org/CD002946/MUSKEL_glucosamine-for-osteoarthritis91
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glutaminel-glutamine1gastrointestinal disease in infantsdigestion, childrencompound1,850,000glutamine gastrointestinal diseaseInsufficient evidence to determine whether glutamine supplements are beneficial or harmful.Cochranehttps://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD005947.pub4/full?highlightAbstract=disease%7Cinfants%7Cglutamin%7Cgastrointestin%7Cyoung%7Cfor%7Csupplementation%7Cwithdrawn%7Cdiseas%7Cglutamine%7Cinfant%7Cgastrointestinal%7Cwith%7Csever%7Cfour%7Csupplement%7Cseverehttps://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD005947.pub4/full?highlightAbstract=disease%7Cinfants%7Cglutamin%7Cgastrointestin%7Cyoung%7Cfor%7Csupplementation%7Cwithdrawn%7Cdiseas%7Cglutamine%7Cinfant%7Cgastrointestinal%7Cwith%7Csever%7Cfour%7Csupplement%7Csevere92
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glutamine1mortality in preterm infantsgeneral healthcompound248,000glutamine pretermNo evidence. Cochranehttp://www.cochrane.org/CD001457/NEONATAL_glutamine-supplementation-prevent-morbidity-and-mortality-preterm-infantshttp://www.cochrane.org/CD001457/NEONATAL_glutamine-supplementation-prevent-morbidity-and-mortality-preterm-infants93
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goji berrywolfberry1eye healtheye & skinplant / herb1,880,000goji berry eye healthSupplementation for 90 days appeared to show some improvements in eye-health for seniors. But more research is needed. Optometry and Vision Sciencehttp://journals.lww.com/optvissci/Abstract/2011/02000/Goji_Berry_Effects_on_Macular_Characteristics_and.12.aspxhttp://journals.lww.com/optvissci/Abstract/2011/02000/Goji_Berry_Effects_on_Macular_Characteristics_and.12.aspx94
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grape seed extract1wound healing, swellingpainplant / herb735,000grape seed extract wound healingSome preliminary evidence Examine.comhttps://examine.com/supplements/grape-seed-extract/http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/gjhs/article/view/4001595
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