supplementalternative nameevidenceconditionconditiontypeone to watch?popularitysearch term notesnotes longsource namesmain study linkCochrane systematic review linkother International review board or metastudy link(s)individual studies link(s)ID
our score. 0 = harmful 1 = no evidence, 2 = slight, 3 = conflicting/moderate, 4 = promising , 5 = good, 6 = strong Health condition or claim made for supplement (appears in bubble)the type of condition (appears in filter panel)what type of substance is this? (appears in filter panel)few studies / trials but positive potential. 2 trials or fewer, at least 1 with positive hits (used to scale the bubbles).We searched for the supplement name plus conditionThe search we used to get a Google hits figureComments by Cochrane or other review/guidelines or our notes on the evidence.
abatacept4osteoarthritismusculoskeletalhormone87,500abatacept osteoarthritisAppears to reduce joint pain and improve function.Cochrane
agnus castusvitex5PMSwomenplant / herb160,000agnus castus PMSHelps improve PMS symptoms.Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics; The European Menopause Journal, Archives of Women's Mental Health, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Electronic Physician,
aloe vera0digestive aiddigestionplant / herb11,800,000aloe vera digestionHARMFUL. Never eat. Ingestion can causes diarrhea, electrolyte imbalance and kidney disfunction.Journal of Environmental Science and Health
aloe vera1burns, cutsgeneral healthplant / herb18,800,000aloe vera burns cutsNo high quality evidence to support aloe vera for treatment of wounds.Cochrane
aloe vera2diabetesdiabetesplant / herb27,800,000aloe vera diabetesOne study found diabetes patients with high blood levels of fat (dyslipidemia) benefited from one 300mg capsule every 12 hours for 2 months.Planta Medica
andrographis1respiratory tract infectionsinfectionsplant / herb154,000andrographis respiratory infectionsSlight evidence of reduced symptoms.Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
antioxidants3infertility in mensexual health, men, childrencompound1,900,000antioxidants infertilityEvidence of anti-oxidants as treatment for male infertility is inconclusive.Cochrane
antioxidants0mortalitygeneral healthcompound7,330,000antioxidants mortalityTaking antixoxidants have no health benefits. In fact, beta carotene, vitamin A and vitamin E appear to increase the risk of death.Cochrane
ashwagandhawithania somnifera4anxiety & stressmental healthplant / herbOTW1,130,000ashwagandha anxiety stressA review of 5 human trials concludes Ashwagandha reduces anxiety & stress. The review calls for more trials. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine
ashwagandhawithania somnifera2erectile dysfunctionsexual healthplant / herb634,000ashwagandha erectile dysfunctionIn a single pilot study on 46 men with low-sperm count, ashwagandha supplementation appeared to increase sperm count & volume. Evidence-based complimentary & alternative medicine
ashwagandhawithania somnifera2rheumatoid arthritis musculoskeletalplant / herb407,000ashwagandha rheumatoid arthritisNo solid evidence.Indian Journal of Medical Research
astaxanthin1oxidative stressgeneral healthcompound261,000astaxanthin oxidative stressNo human trials yet. Cochrane, PLoS One
astragalus2dna damage, immune systemgeneral healthplant / herbOTW740,000astragalus immune systemLimited studies suggest a stengthening of the immune system. More evidence needed.Block, Mead (2003)
astragalus3chronic kidney diseasegeneral healthplant / herb354,000astragalus kidney diseaseLow quality evidence for patients with chronic kidney disease when combined with conventional treatments. Cochrane
bee pollen1cancer cancerother3,730,000bee pollen cancerNo evidenceEuropean Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
benfotiamine fat-soluble thiamin3anti-aging, diabetes diabetes, general healthcompound311,000benfotiamine diabetesA study of high-dose benfotiamine (300 mg/day) supplementation over 24 months showed no significant effects.Cochrane
beta-carotene1cancercancervitamin5,410,000vitamin A beta-carotene cancerThere is no evidence that beta-carotene prevents cancer.PubMed
beta glucans1cancercancercompound280,000beta glucans cancerCompounds found in brewers' yeast and mushrooms. Most studies so far have been done in animals or test tubes, rather than on human subjects. Trials on human subjects are needed. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
beta glucans2colds, immune systeminfections, respiratorycompoundOTW558,000beta glucans respiratory infectionReduced number of colds by 25% and severity of symptoms by 15%. Might increase the body's ability to fend off infections.Molecular Nutrition and Food Research
bitter melon1diabetesdiabetesplant / herb1,150,000bitter melon diabetesNot enough evidence to support using bitter melon in diabetes treament.Cochrane
black cohosh2menopausewomenplant / herb530,000black cohosh menopauseInsufficient evidence to claim that black cohosh improves menopause symptoms. Cochrane
black tea1cancer preventioncancerplant / herb151,000,000black tea cancerReviews have found no association between black tea and ovarian or breast cancer risk.Nutrition and Cancer
borage seed oil4rheumatoid arthritismusculoskeletalplant / herb93,300rheumatoid arthritisImproves pain and function, and probably has no adverse effects. Cochrane
borage seed oil1eczemaeye & skinplant / herb1,420,000evening primrose oil eczemaA review of 27 studies found no evidence of efficacy.Cochrane
bromelain3arthritismusculoskeletalenzyme571,000bromelain arthritisBromelain reduces arthritis symptoms. More research into dosage and side effects required. Annals of Internal Medicine
Common Knowledge
butterburpetasites hybridus2migrainespainplant / herb59,700butterbur migrainesButterbur extract may lower the frequency and severity of migraines.Neurology
caffeine5memorycognitioncompound34,200,000caffeine memoryEnhances consolidation of long term memories. Improves memory in young adults during their non-optimal time of day (mornings). Borota et al 2014, Frontiers in Psychology
caffeine2skin cancercancercompoundOTW19,300,000caffeine skin cancerPopulation studies shows women who consume more than three cups of coffee a day MAY have a lower cancer risk than people who drink less than one cup per month. Song et al. 2012
caffeine2alzheimer's disease, dementiamental healthplant / herb4,110,000caffeine dementiaCaffiene appears to slow cognitive decline and prevent Alzheimer's. But the results are not definitive. Santos et al 2010
calcium4blood pressurecardiomineral101,000,000calcium blood pressureHigh quality evidence has shown that extra calcium can slightly reduce blood pressure, especially in people younger than 35. Cochrane
calcium4colorectal cancercancermineral10,700,000calcium colorectal cancerNo evidence that calcium supplementation stops colorectal cancer itself, but it does inhibit potentially pre-cancerous colorectal polyps (adenomatous polyps) Cochrane
calcium3osteoporosis in postmenopausal womenmusculoskeletal, womenmineral3,710,000calcium postmenopausal osteoporosisCalcium supps might help to prevent fractures, although the results have been contradictory.PubMed
calcium + vit. D5bone healthmusculoskeletalmineral43,900,000calcium vitamin d bone healthA review of 8 studies including 30,970 participants found that calcium plus vitamin D supplementation reduced total fracture risk by 15% and hip fracture risk by 30%. Osteoporosis International
calcium + vit. D2breast cancer in premenopausal women, cancercancer, womenmineral52,100,000calcium vitamin D cancerThere is no firm evidence that calcium and vitamin D supplementation decreases cancer risk. Cochrane
cannabis4nausea cancerplant / herb703,000cannabis chemotherapy nauseaPromising evidence showing a reduction in nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy. The FDA has approved 2 synthetic cannabis drugs for treating chemo-related nausea. Cochrane, NAP
cannabis3glaucomaeye & skinplant / herb1,490,000cannabis glaucomaDefinitely lowers eye pressure, but only temporarily (3-4hrs). Since Glaucoma is a long-term disease, a LOT of cannabis would be required to maintain low pressure levels. Also, cannabis might cause additional damage to the eye by restricting blood flow to the optic nerve. American Glaucoma Society
cannabis5Multiple Sclerosis (MS)neurologicalplant / herb22,700,000cannabis Multiple Sclerosis MS2 studies involving a total of 790 subjects showed positive results. Improved muscle spasms, pain, sleep quality, and mobility. Cannabis-based drug Sativex is approved for use in MS patients in 30 countries.Journal of Ethnopharmacology
cannabis4chronic painpainplant / herb79,400,000cannabis painSeveral good quality trials have shown cannabinoids to be modestly effective in treating chronic pain. The harms and side-effects may outweigh the benefits though. Larger and longer trials needed. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Cochrane
capsaicin1non-allergic rhinitisgeneral healthplant / herb89,900capsaicin non allergic rhinitisCapsaicin comes from chili peppers. Evidence has found that inhaling 4 micrograms at least 5 times a day can reduce inflammation, but the quality of the evidence is low. Who wants to inhale chilli?Cochrane
carnosine1anti-aginggeneral healthcompound292,000carnosine anti agingPromising results in mice and in cell studies, but no human trials yet. Molecules in Focus
cat's claw1cancercancerplant / herb526,000cat's claw cancerNo human trials. Anticancer Research
chamomile1bowel disordersdigestionplant / herb765,000chamomile bowel disorderNo high-quality human trials. Der Pharma Chemica
chocolate, dark3blood pressurecardioplant / herbOTW26,800,000dark chocolate blood pressureChemicals known as flavanols, found in cocoa products, are thought to widen blood vessels and cause a minor drop in blood pressure. Further trials are needed to ascertain long-term efficacy. Does not apply to mllk chocolate.Cochrane
chlorella(algae)4blood pressure, cholesterol, cardiovascular diseasecardioalga948,000chlorella blood pressureSignificantly decreases blood pressure, blood glucose, and some cholesterols.Meta-analysis on 19 RCTs with 797 subjects indicated that Chlorella administration significantly decreased the levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose whereas changes in triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and body mass index were not statistically significant.Clinical Nutrition
chromium2diabetesdiabetesmineralOTW7,520,000chromium diabetesMight lower blood glucose levels. It might also help with fat loss, which could benefit those with diabetes. Cochrane
cinnamon1diabetesdiabetesplant / herb24,200,000cinnamon diabetesNo more effective than placebo in controlling glucose levels. Cochrane
coconut oil3obesitycardio, general healthplant / herb10,100,000coconut oil obesity30ml of coconut oil per day might help to reduce waist size, but possibly because the fat in coconut oil isn't as easily stored.Cochrane
coffee6heart diseasecardioplant / herb134,000,000coffee heart diseaseA metastudy found that the more coffee a person drinks, the lower their risk of cardiovascular disease. The optimum amount of coffee for this benefit was 3-5 per day. Epidemiology and Prevention
coffee3mortalitygeneral healthplant / herb54,600,000coffee mortalityA large statistical study of over 650,000 people found that coffee drinking reduced all cause mortality, whether it was instant, ground, or decaffeinated. JAMA International Medicine
colostrinin1alzheimer's diseasemental healthcompoundOTW8,280colostrinin alzheimer's diseaseA few small human studies suggest possible effects on Alzheimers.The Journal of Nutritional Health and Aging
CoQ10ubiquinol3diabetesdiabetesenzyme1,190,000CoQ10 diabetesCoQ10 improves insulin secretion in those with type 2 diabetes. However, human trials have been tiny. Biofactors
CoQ10ubiquinol1migrainepainenzyme340,000CoQ10 migraineSome tentative evidence on migraine sensitivity. But much more research needed.Sage
CoQ101blood pressurecardioenzyme1,390,000coq10 blood pressurePooled data from two trials showed that CoQ10 did not affect blood pressure compared to placebo.Cochrane
cranberrycranberry juice, cranberries1urinary tract infectionsurinary, womenplant / herb880,000cranberry urinary tract infectionsNo statistically significant evidence that cranberry juice or supplements prevent UTIs. Cochrane
creatine & CoQ10 3cognitionmental healthcompound326,000creatine CoQ10 cognitionCreatine doesn't have a significant effect in those with normal brain function, but it can benefit those with impaired brain function when combined with CoQ10. European Neurology
dandeliondandelion soup3tonsillitisinfectionsplant / herb338,000dandelion tonsillitisDandelion might have antimicrobial properties, which could help with throat infections. Evidence-Based Health Care
devil's claw4arthritismusculoskeletalplant / herb226,000devil's claw arthritisDevil's Claw extract can reduce lower back pain by blocking the pathways that cause joint inflammation. Cochrane
DHEA3memory in young mencognition, mencompoundOTW2,000,000DHEA memoryDHEA might improve memory in young men. Cochrane
DHEA1ageinggeneral healthcompound260,000DHEA ageingDHEA has no beneficial impact on body composition, performance etc. PubMed
dong quai0menopause in breast cancer patientscancer, reproductiveplant / herb343,000dong quai menopauseHARMFUL. Long term safety data is non-existent. May increase risk of cancer.Lau et al. 2005
echinacea3coldsinfectionsplant / herb743,000echinacea coldsEchinacea might have a slight impact on preventing and treating colds, but the results are statistically insignificant. Cochrane
ecklonia cava seaweed 3cholesterol, weight lossweight control, cardioalga62,600ecklonia cava cholesterolThere's evidence that seaweed supplements can combat several mechanisms behind the onset of cardiovascular disease. Ecklonia in particular has been shown to decrease cholesterol.A review suggests there is evidence that diet supplementation with whole macroalgae or products of macroalgae origin can ameliorate several mechanisms underlying the onset and propagation of CVDs. One study of ecklonia cava in particular (80 subjects) concluded that ECE supplementation improved blood lipid profiles through decreasing total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels which are known as major cardiovascular risk factors. More studies are needed to establish the long-term safety and effectiveness.Marine Drugs
eggshell membrane5joints, arthritisgeneral healthother148,000eggshell membrane arthritisEgg shell membrane eases joints by increasing cell production and decreasing inflammation. 500mg a day gives rapid results. Cochrane
elderberry1fluinfectionsplant / herbOTW1,740,000elderberry fluEelderberry extract Sambucol may be useful for the treatment of viral influenza infections. More rigorous studies needed.Phytotherapy Research
elk velvet antler1rheumatoid arthritismusculoskeletalanimal product45,300elk velvet antler arthritisNo good quality evidence for elk velvet antler as a treatment for arthritis.Claims made for velvet antler supplements do not appear to be based upon rigorous research from human trials.The New Zealand Medical Journal
evening primrose oil1PMSreproductive, womenplant / herb692,000evening primrose oil PMSEvening primrose oil is no more effective than placebo. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology
evening primrose oil1eczemaeye & skinplant / herb1,420,000evening primrose oil eczemaA review of 27 studies found no evidence of efficacy.Cochrane
feverfew5migrainepainplant / herb8,970,000fish oil omega 3 low sperm countFeverfew reduces migraine frequency by just over half a migraine a month. Cochrane
fish oil / omega 32cystic fibrosisgeneral healthcompound9,790,000fish oil omega 3 cystic fibrosisEvidence is poor.Cochrane
fish oil / omega 31Alzheimer's, dementiamental healthcompound2,650,000fish oil omega 3 Alzheimer'sIn the largest and longest study of its kind, researchers found that fish oil/omega 3 had no statistically significant impact on cognitive decline.The Journal of the American Medical Association
fish oil / omega 31asthmarespiratorycompound3,950,000fish oil omega 3 asthmaReview of trials found that people with asthma changing their diets to include more fish oil DID NOT improve their asthma.Cochrane
fish oil / omega 32cancer symptomscancercompound159,000,000fish oil omega 3 cancer symptomsFish oil can counter chemotherapy-related damage to white blood cells. Lipids
fish oil / omega 32child intelligencemental health, childrencompound31,900,000fish oil omega 3 child intelligenceFish oil supplementation has a very minor positive impact on some measures of learning and performance.PubMed
fish oil / omega 33colorectal cancercancercompound47,600,000fish oil omega 3 colorectal cancerIt is thought that omega 3 reduces the risk of colorectal cancer and is effective in its treatment. PubMed
fish oil / omega 31Crohn's diseasedigestioncompound31,800,000fish oil omega 3 Crohn's diseaseNo beneficial effect for those with Crohn's Disease.Cochrane
fish oil / omega 31low sperm countreproductivecompound15,200,000fish oil omega 3 diabetesA small study of 211 men it was found that omega 3 supplementation significantly increased sperm count. Cochrane
fish oil / omega 31diabetesdiabetescompound15,200,000fish oil omega 3 diabetesProbably no beneficial effect for those with type 2 diabetes. Cochrane
fish oil / omega 30prostate cancercancercompound1,610,000fish oil omega 3 prostate cancerHAMRFUL? Recent studies have linked fish oil intake with increased prostate cancer risk.Journal of the National Cancer Institutue.
fish oil / omega 32psychosismental healthcompound440,000omega 3 fish oil psychosisIn one study, supplementation delayed the onset of psychosis in those on track to develop certain mental health conditions. Nature Communications
fish oil / omega 32depressionmental healthcompound6,800,000fish oil omega 3 depressionLow quality evidence. Cochrane
fish oil / omega 3 (in pregnancy)5preterm birthreproductivecompound212,000,000fish oil omega 3 preterm birthA meta-analysis concluded that preterm birth & early preterm birth were reduced in women receiving omega-3. Cochrane
flax seeds1breast cancercancer, womenplant / herb1,320,000flax seeds breast cancerPopulation studies indicate a slight possibility flaxeed could reduce breast cancer tumour growth. No controlled trials have been carried out.Cancer Causes Control
folic acid5birth defectschildrenvitamin1,780,000folic acid birth defectsFolic acid helps to prevent birth defects, but timing of supplementation is important. Cochrane
folic acid0cancercancervitamin19,000,000folic acid cancerPOTENTIALLY HARMFUL. When combined with vitamin B12 can be associated with increased cancer risk.Cochrane
GABA3stress, anxietymental healthcompound3,880,000gaba stress anxietySome suggestive evidence for effect on anxiety & stress.Frontiers in Neuroscience
garlic1blood pressurecardioplant / herb24,700,000garlic blood pressureGarlic might reduce blood pressure, but further research is required.Cochrane
garlicaged garlic extract2cancer treatmentcancervegetable19,300,000garlic cancer treatmentDue to anticancer properties of aged garlic, its consumption along with healthy diet may have beneficial effects on cancer. More clinical trials necessary.International Journal of Preventative Medicine
garlic 3cancer preventioncancerplant / herb8,080,000garlic cancer preventionGarlic might prevent certain cancers, but there is a lack of clinical trial evidence. The WHO recommends consuming at least one clove a day for general health benefits. National Cancer Institute
garlic 1coldsinfectionsplant / herb3,370,000garlic coldsInsufficient evidnce for effects on the common cold.Cochrane: Garlic for the common cold
ginger4nausea and vomitingdigestionplant / herb10,100,000ginger nauseaGinger prevents nausea and vomitting for some people in certain circumstances.Annals of Oncology
gingko biloba1dementiamental healthplant / herb428,000ginkgo biloba dementiaInsufficient clinical trial evidence for the use of ginkgo bilboa as a treatment for dementia.University of Oxford Medical Sciences Division
ginseng1cognitive performancemental healthplant / herb797,000ginseng cognitive functionNo convincing evidence for ginseng enhancing cognition in healthy people, and only low quality evidence that it helps dementia patients. Cochrane
glucosamine3arthritis, joint painmusculoskeletalcompound4,830,000glucosamine arthritisStudies using a specific brand of glucosamine (Rotta) found that patients' pain decreased. However, studies using other brands found no difference between glucosamine and placebo. Cochrane
glutaminel-glutamine1gastrointestinal disease in infantsdigestion, childrencompound1,850,000glutamine gastrointestinal diseaseInsufficient evidence to determine whether glutamine supplements are beneficial or harmful.Cochrane
glutamine1mortality in preterm infantsgeneral healthcompound248,000glutamine pretermNo evidence. Cochrane
goji berrywolfberry1eye healtheye & skinplant / herb1,880,000goji berry eye healthSupplementation for 90 days appeared to show some improvements in eye-health for seniors. But more research is needed. Optometry and Vision Science
grape seed extract1wound healing, swellingpainplant / herb735,000grape seed extract wound healingSome preliminary evidence Examine.com