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Shulaveri-6000-5800McGovern 2009 mentions positive results for tartaric acid/tartrate from stone (?) vessels, pre-pottery Neolithic (ca. 6000 BC?) (p. 80)Residue evidence for wine consumption41.37670944.829384
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Dikili Tash-4460-4000Large quantity of grape pips and pressed skins from House 1, c14 dated to 4460-4000 BC (Valamoti et al. 2007, 55-58).Archaeological evidence for grape processing41.01030324.30899
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Godin Tepe-3500-2900Confirmed and published evidence for liquid contents containing tartaric acid/tartrate: jars of Late Uruk period (site periods "Early Period V", 3500-3100 BC and "Late Period V", 3100-2900 BC) (Badler 1996, McGovern and Michel 1996)Residue evidence for wine consumption34.51860948.068647
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Lake Zeribar pollen-4400-4200Identification of grape pollen well outside natural range in core layers dating to ca. 4300 BC (calibrated), indicating cultivation (Miller 2008, p. 940, citing van Zeist and Bottema 1977).Archaeological evidence for domesticated grapes35.53840246.127543
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Myrtos-2300-2200Confirmed and published evidence for tartaric acid/tartrate and tree resins in two pithoi of ca. 2200 BC, identified by McGovern (Tzedakis and Martlew 1999, p. 144)Residue evidence for wine consumption35.006925.5905
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Körtik-10000-8000McGovern 2009 mentions positive results for tartaric acid/tartrate from two chlorite vessels (10000-8000 BC?) (p. 81)Residue evidence for wine consumption37.81433640.983847
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Hajji Firuz Tepe-5400-5000Confirmed and published evidence for liquid contents containing tartaric acid/tartrate: jars of early pottery Neolithic, 5400-5000 BC (McGovern et al. 1996)Residue evidence for wine consumption37.00437345.458728
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Tomb of Scorpion I at Abydos-3200-3150Confirmed and published evidence for tartaric acid/tartrate, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and tree resin (terebinth?), plus grape pips and figs (for yeast?), from jar 156 in tomb of Scorpion 1 (U-j) at Abydos, ca. 3150 BC (McGovern et al. 2009)Residue evidence for wine consumption26.17734831.908559
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Kurban Höyük-2500-2000Charred fruit skins with seeds attached, from layers of "mid to late 3rd millennium BC"; flattening suggests pressing (Miller 2008, p. 942, citing Miller 1984).Archaeological evidence for grape processing37.41946838.333674
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Kurban Höyük (seeds)-3300-3000Finds of undeveloped seeds from the late 4th millennium BC, taken as indicator of domesticated grape by Kroll 1999 (cited in Miller 2008, p. 942).Archaeological evidence for domesticated grapes37.41866838.330499
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Malyan (seeds and wood)-2200-1800Some earlier finds of isolated grape seeds, but in "late third-early second millennium BC", vine wood, mineralized seeds in latrines (Miller 2008, p. 943).Archaeological evidence for domesticated grapes30.011652.4086
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Tel Arad-3200-1900Finds of seeds resembling cultivated vinifera and charred vine wood from the Early Bronze Age (3200-1900 BC in the Levant) (Zohary 1996, p. 28; Miller 2008, p. 938).Archaeological evidence for domesticated grapes31.28019735.126073
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Jericho (seeds)-3700-3200Finds of charred pips as early as Neolithic (Miller 2008, p. 938) and charred fruits with pips by 3200 BC (Zohary 1996, p. 28); outside natural range, so likely to be cultivation, unless imported as raisins.Archaeological evidence for domesticated grapes31.87088335.444003
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Ta'anach-2700-2600Possible "treading and catchment arrangement" for wine-press, with shallow rectangular depression connected to basin with two rock-cut channels (Leonard 1996, p. 235)Archaeological evidence for grape processing32.52142235.220179
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Buto-3100-2600Grape seeds outside native range reported by James 1996, citing Thanheiser 1991, "Early Dynastic"Archaeological evidence for domesticated grapes31.19529730.742478
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Tomb of Semerkhet at Abydos-2925-2900Jar with label identifying it as from royal vineyard (Gausch-Jane et al. 2004)Archaeological evidence for domesticated grapes26.17412231.90818
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Tomb of Semerkhet at Abydos-2925-2900Same jar with vineyard label produced positive results for tartaric acid (Gausch-Jane et al. 2004)Residue evidence for wine consumption26.17415731.908149
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Offering stele of Imti from Saqqara-2700-2600Wine-jars depicted on private offering stele with number "1000" (James 1996, p.202)Textual evidence for elite wine consumption29.85392131.219575
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Biography of Metjen from tomb at Saqqara-2600-2500Biography of major estate manager indicates that among his own landholdings (probably in the Delta) were large vineyards where much wine was made (James 1996, p. 204)Textual evidence for wine production29.85367331.219159
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Lerna-2200-2000Carbonized pips and pottery impressions indicating pips of domesticated type (Renfrew 1996, p. 264)Archaeological evidence for domesticated grapes37.55116822.718085
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Kastanas-2500-2000Carbonized pips with characteristics of domesticated grape, but also presence of pips with characteristics of wild grape (Renfrew 1996, p. 264)Archaeological evidence for domesticated grapes40.82508722.646329
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Mari-1750-1700Extensive archival evidence on clay tablets for the use of wine in royal gift-exchange, diplomatic hosting, trade (Powell 1996)Textual evidence for elite wine consumption34.552571340.8878088
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Carchemish-1750-1700Archival evidence from Mari for trade in wine with starting point centered at Carchemish; prices suggest it was production area (Powell 1996)Textual evidence for wine production36.8316666438.01546335
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Kültepe (Kanesh)-2000-1800Inference from the presence of wine in the archives of the Old Assyrian traders at Kanesh; infrequent references, so being traded but not in quantity, thus probably an exotic and expensive item (cf Powell 1996)Textual evidence for elite wine consumption38.85067935.634879
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Tell al-Rimah (Karana'a)-1800-1700Tablet evidence for the consumption of wine by king and visiting royalty, mention of wineskins, ancient name itself associated with grapevines (Powell 1996, 115)Textual evidence for elite wine consumption36.25676742.450188
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Tell el-Dab'a (Avaris)-1640-1530Indirect evidence for wine production, in the form of Canaanite jars and a possible pressing floor (unconfirmed) (Leonard 1996, 239; Lesko 1996, 228)Archaeological evidence for grape processing30.7866331.823419
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Monastiraki-1900-1700Oak lactones and resinated wine in a tripod cooking pot, suggesting resinated wine aged in oak barrels (Tzedakis and Martlew 2001, p. 146, id McGovern)Residue evidence for wine consumption35.22795524.667616
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Chania (Splanzia)-1700-1400"Greek grog" of wine, mead, and beer possibly consumed in conical cups in LMIA sanctuary context (Tzedakis and Martlew 2001, p. 167, id McGovern)Residue evidence for wine consumption35.5166524.022183
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Mycenae (cult center)-1300-1200Resinated wine and wine identified in series of vessels from the cult center, including a Canaanite jar, a kylix, a stirrup jar, and an amphora (Tzedakis and Martlew 2001, p. 189, id McGovern)Residue evidence for wine consumption37.72982922.756835
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Pylos-1300-1200Linear B tablets recording use of wine in religious ritual, plus iconographic evidence of seated people drinking (cf Palmer 1994)Textual evidence for elite wine consumption37.0274921.694955
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Pylos-1300-1200Linear B tablets recording collection of wine from various places in the region (cf Palmer 1994)Textual evidence for wine production37.02735221.694468
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Ugarit-1400-1200Mentions of wine-drinking parties in marzeah documentsTextual evidence for elite wine consumption35.60193835.783896
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Ugarit-1400-1200Mentions of vineyards held in common to supply the drinking needs of the bei marzeahTextual evidence for wine production35.60305635.786394
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Bogazköy (Hattusha)-1500-1200Palace archives recording wine distributed to royal court (Gorny 1996)Textual evidence for elite wine consumption40.0111487134.61521626
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Bogazköy (Hattusha)-1500-1200Palace archives mentioning vineyards and viticulture in area of Hittite empire (Gorny 1996)Textual evidence for wine production40.02007734.615793
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Malqata (palace)-1400-1350Labels on jars indicating royal vineyards in Egypt producing wine (Lesko 1996)Textual evidence for wine production25.71492632.592155
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Malqata (palace)-1400-1350Labels on jars indicating intended consumption at jubilee or celebratory occasions (Lesko 1996)Textual evidence for elite wine consumption25.71438432.59257
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Poggiomarino-900-800Woody parts of vines and flattened grape skins understood as remains of grape pressing (Cicirelli et al. 2008)Archaeological evidence for grape processing40.79457914.575083
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Poggiomarino-900-800Recent approach using modern comparanda estimates that 90% of the grape remains recorded at this settlement are from domesticated grapes; also finds of vine branches that appear to be pruning debris (Cicirelli et al. 2008)Archaeological evidence for domesticated grapes40.79481214.574607
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Ebla-2500-1800Indirect textual/iconographic evidence for wine consumption in two references to the marzeah in texts of the second half of the third millennium (McLaughlin 2001), together with two basins with representation of drinkers and military or hunting scenes from 1850-1800 BCTextual evidence for elite wine consumption35.79836.798
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Areni-1 Cave-4200-3700Extensive evidence for large-scale wine production, perhaps in conjunction with funerary activities, in cave in Armenia; remains include pressing areas, fermentation vats (Barnard et al. 2010)Archaeological evidence for grape processing39.72083345.183889
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Areni-1 Cave-4200-3700Residue analysis with positive results for malvidin and/or syringic acid in storage jars from wine-processing area (Barnard et al. 2010)Residue evidence for wine consumption39.72083345.183889
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Sitagroi-2500-2300Eleven pips with domesticated morphological characteristics from Sitagroi IV layers (Late Neolithic) (Renfrew 1996, p. 262)Archaeological evidence for domesticated grapes41.11666724.033333
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Çesme-Baglararsi-1800-1600"Wine House" excavated in MMIII layers of Anatolian harbor settlement: contains plastered basins and pits, storage room, grape pips, drinking pottery, described as "area where the grapes were pressed, made into wine, stored and consumed" (Sahoglu 2007, p. 315)Archaeological evidence for grape processing38.31982426.304658
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Lattara (Lattes)-450-400Limestone press apparently used for grape pressing, found in conjunction with carbonized grape seeds and other grape remains in a complex in the urban center (McGovern et al. 2013, p. 10148-10149)Archaeological evidence for grape processing43.5655353.906928
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