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twri01D14721
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
01-D1TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Water temperature-influential factors, field measurement, and data presentation
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1975
U.S. Government Printing Office,
Stevens, Herbert H.; Ficke, John F.; Smoot, George F.
This manual contains suggested procedures for collecting and reporting of water-temperature data on streams, lakes and reservoirs, estuaries, and ground water. Among the topics discussed are the selection of equipment and measuring sites, objectives and accuracy of measurements, and data processing and presentation. Background information on the influence of temperature on water quality and the factors influencing water temperature are also presented.
U.S. Government Printing Office,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Water temperature-influential factors, field measurement, and data presentation; 1975; TWRI; 01-D1; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Stevens, Herbert H.; Ficke, John F.; Smoot, George F.
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ENGLISH
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3
twri01D24645
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
01-D2TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Guidelines for collection and field analysis of ground-water samples for selected unstable constituents
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1976
U.S. Geological Survey
Reston, VA
Wood, Warren W.
The unstable nature of many chemical and physical constituents in ground water requires special collection procedures and field analysis immediately after collection. This report describes the techniques and equipment commonly used m the collection and field analysis of samples for pH, temperature, carbonate, bicarbonate, specific conductance, Eh, and dissolved oxygen.
Reston, VAnull,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Guidelines for collection and field analysis of ground-water samples for selected unstable constituents; 1976; TWRI; 01-D2; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Wood, Warren W.
Englishhttp://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri1-d2/
4
twri02D14630
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
02-D1TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Application of surface geophysics to ground-water investigations
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1974
U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Geological Survey : U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Eaton, Gordon P.; Mabey, Don R.
This manual reviews the standard methods of surface geophysics applicable to ground-water investigations. It covers electrical methods, seismic and gravity methods, and magnetic methods. The general physical principles underlying each method and its capabilities and limitations are described. Possibilities for non-uniqueness of interpretation of geophysical results are noted. Examples of actual use of the methods are given to illustrate applications and interpretation in selected geohydrologic environments. The objective of the manual is to provide the hydrogeologist with a sufficient understanding of the capabilities, imitations, and relative cost of geophysical methods to make sound decisions as to when to use of these methods is desirable. The manual also provides enough information for the hydrogeologist to work with a geophysicist in designing geophysical surveys that differentiate significant hydrogeologic changes.
U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Geological Survey : U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Application of surface geophysics to ground-water investigations; 1974; TWRI; 02-D1; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Eaton, Gordon P.; Mabey, Don R.
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ENGLISH
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5
twri02D24687
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
02-D2TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Application of seismic-refraction techniques to hydrologic studies
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1988
U.S. G.P.O.,
Haeni, F.P.
During the past 30 years, seismic-refraction methods have been used extensively in petroleum, mineral, and engineering investigations and to some extent for hydrologic applications. Recent advances in equipment, sound sources, and computer interpretation techniques make seismic refraction a highly effective and economical means of obtaining subsurface data in hydrologic studies. Aquifers that can be defined by one or more high-seismic-velocity surface, such as (1) alluvial or glacial deposits in consolidated rock valleys, (2) limestone or sandstone underlain by metamorphic or igneous rock, or (3) saturated unconsolidated deposits overlain by unsaturated unconsolidated deposits, are ideally suited for seismic-refraction methods. These methods allow economical collection of subsurface data, provide the basis for more efficient collection of data by test drilling or aquifer tests, and result in improved hydrologic studies. This manual briefly reviews the basics of seismic-refraction theory and principles. It emphasizes the use of these techniques in hydrologic investigations and describes the planning, equipment, field procedures, and interpretation techniques needed for this type of study. Further-more, examples of the use of seismic-refraction techniques in a wide variety of hydrologic studies are presented.
U.S. G.P.O.,null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Application of seismic-refraction techniques to hydrologic studies; 1988; TWRI; 02-D2; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Haeni, F.P.
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ENGLISH
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6
twri02E14693
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
02-E1TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Application of borehole geophysics to water-resources investigations
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1971
U.S. G.P.O.,
Keys, W.S.; MacCary, L.M.
This manual is intended to be a guide for hydrologists using borehole geophysics in ground-water studies. The emphasis is on the application and interpretation of geophysical well logs, and not on the operation of a logger. It describes in detail those logging techniques that have been utilized within the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, and those used in petroleum investigations that have potential application to hydrologic problems. Most of the logs described can be made by commercial logging service companies, and many can be made with small water-well loggers. The general principles of each technique and the rules of log interpretation are the same, regardless of differences in instrumentation. Geophysical well logs can be interpreted to determine the lithology, geometry, resistivity, formation factor, bulk density, porosity, permeability, moisture content, and specific yield of water-bearing rocks, and to define the source, movement, and chemical and physical characteristics of ground water. Numerous examples of logs are used to illustrate applications and interpretation in various ground-water environments. The interrelations between various types of logs are emphasized, and the following aspects are described for each of the important logging techniques: Principles and applications, instrumentation, calibration and standardization, radius of investigation, and extraneous effects.
U.S. G.P.O.,null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Application of borehole geophysics to water-resources investigations; 1971; TWRI; 02-E1; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Keys, W.S.; MacCary, L.M.
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ENGLISH
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7
twri02E24694
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
02-E2TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Borehole geophysics applied to ground-water investigations
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1990
U.S. G.P.O. ;For sale by the Books and Open-File Reports Section, U.S. Geological Survey,
Keys, W.S.
The purpose of this manual is to provide hydrologists, geologists, and others who have the necessary background in hydrogeology with the basic information needed to apply the most useful borehole-geophysical-logging techniques to the solution of problems in ground-water hydrology. Geophysical logs can provide information on the construction of wells and on the character of the rocks and fluids penetrated by those wells, as well as on changes in the character of these factors over time. The response of well logs is caused by petrophysical factors, by the quality, temperature, and pressure of interstitial fluids, and by ground-water flow. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of analog records and computer analysis of digitized logs are used to derive geohydrologic information. This information can then be extrapolated vertically within a well and laterally to other wells using logs. The physical principles by which the mechanical and electronic components of a logging system measure properties of rocks, fluids, and wells, as well as the principles of measurement, must be understood if geophysical logs are to be interpreted correctly. Plating a logging operation involves selecting the equipment and the logs most likely to provide the needed information. Information on well construction and geohydrology is needed to guide this selection. Quality control of logs is an important responsibility of both the equipment operator and the log analyst and requires both calibration and well-site standardization of equipment. Logging techniques that are widely used in ground-water hydrology or that have significant potential for application to this field include spontaneous potential, resistance, resistivity, gamma, gamma spectrometry, gamma-gamma, neutron, acoustic velocity, acoustic televiewer, caliper, and fluid temperature, conductivity, and flow. The following topics are discussed for each of these techniques: principles and instrumentation, calibration and standardization, volume of investigation, extraneous effects, and interpretation and applications.
U.S. G.P.O. ;For sale by the Books and Open-File Reports Section, U.S. Geological Survey,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Borehole geophysics applied to ground-water investigations; 1990; TWRI; 02-E2; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Keys, W.S.
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ENGLISH
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8
twri02F14717
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
02-F1TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Application of drilling, coring, and sampling techniques to test holes and wells
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1989
U.S. G.P.O. ; for sale by the Books and Open-File Reports Section, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO,
Shuter, Eugene; Teasdale, Warren E.
The purpose of this manual is to provide ground-water hydrologists with a working knowledge of the techniques of test drilling, auger drilling, coring and sampling, and the related drilling and sampling equipment. For the most part, the techniques discussed deal with drilling, sampling, and completion of test holes in unconsolidated sediments because a hydrologist is interested primarily in shallow-aquifer data in this type of lithology. Successful drilling and coring of these materials usually is difficult, and published research information on the subject is not readily available. The authors emphasize in-situ sampling of unconsolidated sediments to obtain virtually undisturbed samples. Particular attention is given to auger drilling and hydraulic-rotary methods of drilling because these are the principal means of test drilling performed by the U.S. Geological Survey during hydrologic studies. Techniques for sampling areas contaminated by solid or liquid waste are discussed. Basic concepts of well development and a detailed discussion of drilling muds, as related to hole conditioning, also are included in the report. The information contained in this manual is intended to help ground-water hydrologists obtain useful subsurface data and samples from their drilling programs.
U.S. G.P.O. ; for sale by the Books and Open-File Reports Section, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Application of drilling, coring, and sampling techniques to test holes and wells; 1989; TWRI; 02-F1; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Shuter, Eugene; Teasdale, Warren E.
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9
twri03A14668
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-A1TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
General field and office procedures for indirect discharge measurements
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1967
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
Benson, M.A.; Dalrymple, Tate
The discharge of streams is usually measured by the current-meter method. During flood periods, however, it is frequently impossible or impractical to measure the discharges by this method when they occur. Consequently, many peak discharges must be determined after the passage of the flood by indirect methods, such as slope-area, contracted-opening, flow-over-dam, and flow-through-culvert, rather than by direct current-meter measurement. Indirect methods of determining peak discharge are based on hydraulic equations which relate the discharge to the water-surface profile and the geometry of the channel. A field survey is made after the flood to determine the location and elevation of high-water marks and the characteristics of the channel. Detailed descriptions of the general procedures used in collecting the field data and in computing the discharge are given in this report. Each of the methods requires special procedures described in subsequent chapters.
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
General field and office procedures for indirect discharge measurements; 1967; TWRI; 03-A1; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Benson, M.A.; Dalrymple, Tate
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ENGLISH
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10
twri03A104691
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-A10TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGSDischarge ratings at gaging stations
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1984
U.S. Geological Survey,
Kennedy, E.J.
A discharge rating is the relation of the discharge at a gaging station to stage and sometimes also to other variables. This chapter of 'Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations' describes the procedures commonly used to develop simple ratings where discharge is related only to stage and the most frequently encountered types of complex ratings where additional factors such as rate of change in stage, water-surface slope, or index velocity are used. Fundamental techniques of logarithmic plotting and the applications of simple storage routing to rating development are demonstrated. Computer applications, especially for handheld programmable calculators, and data handling are stressed.
U.S. Geological Survey,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Discharge ratings at gaging stations; 1984; TWRI; 03-A10; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Kennedy, E.J.
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ENGLISH
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11
twri03A114719
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-A11TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Measurement of discharge by the moving-boat method
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1969
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
Smoot, George F.; Novak, Charles E.
This chapter describes the procedures for measuring discharge in large streams by the moving-boat technique. During the traverse of a boat across a stream, a sonic sounder records the geometry of the cross section, and a continuously operating current meter senses the combined stream and boat velocities. These data are converted to discharge for the cross section quickly, efficiently, and inexpensively. Measurements obtained by the moving-boat technique compare within 5 percent of measurements obtained by conventional means. Field and office procedures applicable to this method are outlined. Theory of technique is developed and equipment required is described. Selection and preparation of the cross section is detailed. A complete facsimile example of computation of a moving-boat measurement is given, and the determination and application of adjustment factors are described.
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Measurement of discharge by the moving-boat method; 1969; TWRI; 03-A11; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Smoot, George F.; Novak, Charles E.
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ENGLISH
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12
twri03A124727
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-A12TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGSFluorometric procedures for dye tracing
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1986
Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey ;For sale by the Books and Open-File Reports Section, U.S. Geological Survey,
Wilson, James F.; Cobb, Ernest D.; Kilpatrick, F.A.
This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.
Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey ;For sale by the Books and Open-File Reports Section, U.S. Geological Survey,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing; 1986; TWRI; 03-A12; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Wilson, James F.; Cobb, Ernest D.; Kilpatrick, F.A.
Revision - 1986
ENGLISH
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13
twri03A12_1968
4728
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-A12TWRI
document needed; not
AVAIL WH 1/2015
Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1968
U.S.G.P.O.,
Wilson, James F.
This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.
U.S.G.P.O.,nullTHUMBNAIL
Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing; 1968; TWRI; 03-A12; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Wilson, James F.
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ENGLISH
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14
twri03A134690
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-A13TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Computation of continuous records of streamflow
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1983
U.S. G.P.O.,
Kennedy, E.J.
Records of continuous streamflow, published in the U.S. Geological Survey annual Water Data Reports for the States and territories, are computed from field data, mainly discharge measurements and recorder charts or tapes. This manual describes the computation procedures used and some details of related field operations. It was compiled mostly from unpublished Water Resource Division district manuals edited and supplemented to emphasize digital-recorder and associated computer use. Methods used primarily for graphic-recorder gaging stations and non-recording gages are also included. Reference is made to other publications for some of the more specialized or unusually complex procedures.
U.S. G.P.O.,null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Computation of continuous records of streamflow; 1983; TWRI; 03-A13; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Kennedy, E.J.
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ENGLISH
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15
twri03A144698
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-A14TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGSUse of flumes in measuring discharge
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1983
U.S. Geological Survey ;U.S. G.P.O. ;For sale by the Distribution Branch, U.S. Geological Survey,
Kilpatrick, F.A.; Schneider, V.R.
Flumes for measuring discharge are usually of two general groups-critical-flow flumes and supercritical-flow flumes. In this chapter, the underlying design principles for each group are discussed; the most commonly used flumes are described and their discharge ratings presented. There is also discussion of considerations in choosing and fitting the appropriate flume for a given situation as well as flume construction techniques and operational experiences.
U.S. Geological Survey ;U.S. G.P.O. ;For sale by the Distribution Branch, U.S. Geological Survey,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Use of flumes in measuring discharge; 1983; TWRI; 03-A14; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Kilpatrick, F.A.; Schneider, V.R.
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16
twri03A154679
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-A15TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Computation of water-surface profiles in open channels
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1984
U.S. G.P.O. ;For sale by the Distribution Branch, U.S. Geological Survey,
Davidian, Jacob
The standard step-backwater method of computing water-surface profiles is described in this chapter. The hydraulic principles and assumptions are reviewed, and the field data requirements are described. Certain special cases of backwater curves and certain special field conditions are discussed in detail. The technique is used to establish or extend stage-discharge ratings; to define areas which will be innundated by flood flows of a given frequency; and to compute profiles through various reaches, including multichannel flows, and past control structures such as bridges, culverts, and road embankments. A brief description of analysis of floodways and effects of encroachments is also presented.
U.S. G.P.O. ;For sale by the Distribution Branch, U.S. Geological Survey,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Computation of water-surface profiles in open channels; 1984; TWRI; 03-A15; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Davidian, Jacob
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17
twri03A164695
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-A16TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Measurement of discharge using tracers
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1985
U.S. G.P.O.,
Kilpatrick, F.A.; Cobb, Ernest D.
The development of fluorescent dyes and fluorometers that can measure these dyes at very low concentrations has made dye-dilution methods practical for measuring discharge. These methods are particularly useful for determining discharge under certain flow conditions that are unfavorable for current meter measurements. These include small streams, canals, and pipes where 1. Turbulence is excessive for current-meter measurement but conducive to good mixing. 2. Moving rocks and debris may damage instruments placed in the flow. 3. Cross-sectional areas or velocities are indeterminate or changing. 4. The flow is unsteady, such as the flow that exists with storm-runoff events on small streams and urban storm-sewer systems. 5. The flow is physically inaccessible or unsafe. From a practical standpoint, such methods are limited primarily to small streams, because of the excessively long channel-mixing lengths required for larger streams. Very good accuracy can be obtained provided that 1. Adequate mixing length and time are allowed. 2. Careful field and laboratory techniques are used. 3. Dye losses are not significant. This manual describes the slug-injection and constant-rate injection methods of performing tracer-dilution measurements. Emphasis is on the use of fluorescent dyes as tracers and the equipment, field methods, and laboratory procedures for performing such measurements. The tracer-velocity method is also briefly discussed.
U.S. G.P.O.,null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Measurement of discharge using tracers; 1985; TWRI; 03-A16; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Kilpatrick, F.A.; Cobb, Ernest D.
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18
twri03A174700
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-A17TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGSAcoustic velocity meter systems
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1985
U.S. G.P.O.,
Laenen, Antonius
Acoustic velocity meter (AVM) systems operate on the principles that the point-to-point upstream traveltime of an acoustic pulse is longer than the downstream traveltime and that this difference in traveltime can be accurately measured by electronic devices. An AVM system is capable of recording water velocity (and discharge) under a wide range of conditions, but some constraints apply: 1. Accuracy is reduced and performance is degraded if the acoustic path is not a continuous straight line. The path can be bent by reflection if it is too close to a stream boundary or by refraction if it passes through density gradients resulting from variations in either water temperature or salinity. For paths of less than 100 m, a temperature gradient of 0.1' per meter causes signal bending less than 0.6 meter at midchannel, and satisfactory velocity results can be obtained. Reflection from stream boundaries can cause signal cancellation if boundaries are too close to signal path. 2. Signal strength is attenuated by particles or bubbles that absorb, spread, or scatter sound. The concentration of particles or bubbles that can be tolerated is a function of the path length and frequency of the acoustic signal. 3. Changes in streamline orientation can affect system accuracy if the variability is random. 4. Errors relating to signal resolution are much larger for a single threshold detection scheme than for multiple threshold schemes. This report provides methods for computing the effect of various conditions on the accuracy of a record obtained from an AVM. The equipment must be adapted to the site. Field reconnaissance and preinstallation analysis to detect possible problems are critical for proper installation and operation of an AVM system.
U.S. G.P.O.,null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Acoustic velocity meter systems; 1985; TWRI; 03-A17; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Laenen, Antonius
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19
twri03A184659
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-A18TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Determination of stream reaeration coefficients by use of tracers
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1989
U.S. G.P.O. ;for sale by Books and Open-File Reports Section, U.S. Geological Survey,
Kilpatrick, F.A.; Rathbun, R.E.; Yotsukura, Nobuhiro; Parker, G.W.; DeLong, L.L.
Stream reaeration is the physical absorption of oxygen from the atmosphere by a flowing stream. This is the primary process by which a stream replenishes the oxygen consumed in the biodegradation of organic wastes. Prior to 1965, reaeration rate coefficients could be estimated only by indirect methods. In 1965, a direct method of measuring stream reaeration coefficients was developed whereby a radioactive tracer gas was injected into a stream-the principle being that the tracer gas would be desorbed from the stream inversely to how oxygen would be absorbed. The technique has since been modified by substituting hydrocarbon gases for the radioactive tracer gas. This manual describes the slug-injection and constant-rate-injection methods of measuring gas-tracer desorption. Emphasis is on the use of rhodamine WT dye as a relatively conservative tracer and propane as the nonconservative gas tracer, on planning field tests, on methods of injection, sampling, and analysis, and on techniques for computing desorption and reaeration coefficients.
U.S. G.P.O. ;for sale by Books and Open-File Reports Section, U.S. Geological Survey,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Determination of stream reaeration coefficients by use of tracers; 1989; TWRI; 03-A18; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Kilpatrick, F.A.; Rathbun, R.E.; Yotsukura, Nobuhiro; Parker, G.W.; DeLong, L.L.
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20
twri03A194692
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-A19TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGSLevels at streamflow gaging stations
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1990
U.S. G.P.O. ;For Sale by the Books and Open-File reports Section, U.S. Geological Survey,
Kennedy, E.J.
This manual establishes the surveying procedures for (1) setting gages at a streamflow gaging station to datum and (2) checking the gages periodically for errors caused by vertical movement of the structures that support them. Surveying terms and concepts are explained, and procedures for testing, adjusting, and operating the instruments are described in detail. Notekeeping, adjusting level circuits, checking gages, summarizing results, locating the nearest National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 bench mark, and relating the gage datum to the national datum are also described.
U.S. G.P.O. ;For Sale by the Books and Open-File reports Section, U.S. Geological Survey,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Levels at streamflow gaging stations; 1990; TWRI; 03-A19; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Kennedy, E.J.
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21
twri03A24678
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-A2TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Measurement of peak discharge by the slope-area method
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1968
Department of the Interior :for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U. S. Govt. Print. Off.,
Dalrymple, Tate; Benson, M.A.
This chapter describes application of the Manning equation to measure peak discharge in open channels. Field and office procedures limited to this method are described. Selection of reaches and cross sections is detailed, discharge equations are given, and a complete facsimile example of computation of a slope-area measurement is also given.
Department of the Interior :for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U. S. Govt. Print. Off.,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Measurement of peak discharge by the slope-area method; 1968; TWRI; 03-A2; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Dalrymple, Tate; Benson, M.A.
-
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri3-a2/
22
twri03A204697
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-A20TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Simulation of soluble waste transport and buildup in surface waters using tracers
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1993
U.S. G.P.O. ;For sale by U.S. Geological Survey, Map Distribution,
Kilpatrick, F.A.
Soluble tracers can be used to simulate the transport and dispersion of soluble wastes that might have been introduced or are planned for introduction into surface waters. Measured tracer-response curves produced from the injection of a known quantity of soluble tracer can be used in conjunction with the superposition principle to simulate potential waste buildup in streams, lakes, and estuaries. Such information is particularly valuable to environmental and water-resource planners in determining the effects of proposed waste discharges. The theory, techniques, analysis, and presentation of results of tracer-waste simulation tests in rivers, lakes, and estuaries are described. This manual builds on other manuals dealing with dye tracing by emphasizing the expanded use of data from time-of-travel studies.
U.S. G.P.O. ;For sale by U.S. Geological Survey, Map Distribution,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Simulation of soluble waste transport and buildup in surface waters using tracers; 1993; TWRI; 03-A20; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Kilpatrick, F.A.
-
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri3-a20/
23
twri03A214725
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-A21TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGSStream-gaging cableways
Tue, 1 Aug 1995 00:00 -0500
1995
U.S. G.P.O. ;for sale by the U.S. Geological Survey, Information Services,
Wagner, C. Russell
This manual provides a series of standard designs for stream-gaging cableways used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). It provides helpful information on construction, inspection, and maintenance of cableways.
U.S. G.P.O. ;for sale by the U.S. Geological Survey, Information Services,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Stream-gaging cableways; 1995; TWRI; 03-A21; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Wagner, C. Russell
-
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri3-a21/
24
twri03A34669
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-A3TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Measurement of peak discharge at culverts by indirect methods
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1968
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
Bodhaine, G.L.
This chapter classifies culvert flow into six types, gives discharge equations based on continuity and energy equations, and describes procedures for measuring peak discharges using culverts in the field. Discharge coefficients for a variety of geometries and flow types arc given. Ten examples detail step-by-step computation procedures.
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Measurement of peak discharge at culverts by indirect methods; 1968; TWRI; 03-A3; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Bodhaine, G.L.
-
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri3-a3/
25
twri03A44703
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-A4TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Measurement of peak discharge at width contractions by indirect methods
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1967
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
Matthai, Howard Frederick
This chapter describes procedures for measuring peak discharges using open-channel width contractions. Field and office procedures limited to this method are described. The discharge equation based on the continuity and energy equations between an approach cross section and the contracted section under a bridge or contraction is given. Contractions are classified into four geometric types. Discharge coefficients and computation procedures are given with a complete facsimile example of computation of a contracted-opening measurement. Additional procedures are given for multiple-opening contractions.
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Measurement of peak discharge at width contractions by indirect methods; 1967; TWRI; 03-A4; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Matthai, Howard Frederick
-
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri3-a4/
26
twri03A54688
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-A5TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Measurement of peak discharge at dams by indirect methods
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1967
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
Hulsing, Harry
This chapter describes procedures for measuring peak discharges using dams, weirs, and embankments. Field and office procedures limited to this method are described. Discharge coefficients and formulas are given for three general classes of weirs-sharp-crested, broad-crested, and round-crested-and for highway embankments and weirs of unusual shape. The effects of submergence are defined for most forms.
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Measurement of peak discharge at dams by indirect methods; 1967; TWRI; 03-A5; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Hulsing, Harry
-
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri3-a5/
27
twri03A64673
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-A6TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGSGeneral procedure for gaging streams
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1968
U. S. Govt. Print. Off. : for sale by the Branch of Distribution, U. S. Geological Survey,
Carter, R.W.; Davidian, Jacob
This chapter briefly describes the objectives and procedures used in obtaining streamflow records. It is considered an introduction to other chapters on surface-water techniques which treat individual procedures in greater detail.
U. S. Govt. Print. Off. : for sale by the Branch of Distribution, U. S. Geological Survey,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
General procedure for gaging streams; 1968; TWRI; 03-A6; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Carter, R.W.; Davidian, Jacob
-
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri3-A6/
28
twri03A74672
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-A7TWRI
document needed; not
AVAIL WH 1/2015
Stage measurement at gaging stations
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1968
U. S. Govt. Print. Off. : for sale by the Branch of Distribution, U. S. Geological Survey,
Buchanan, Thomas J.; Somers, William P.
Continuous measurements of stream stage are used in determining records of stream discharge. In addition a record of stream stage is useful in itself, as in designing structures affected by stream elevation or in planning the use of flood plains. This report describes instruments and structures commonly used in obtaining a record of stream stage.
U. S. Govt. Print. Off. : for sale by the Branch of Distribution, U. S. Geological Survey,
null,html,html,pdf
THUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE,INDEX PAGE,DOCUMENT
Stage measurement at gaging stations; 1968; TWRI; 03-A7; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Buchanan, Thomas J.; Somers, William P.
-
ENGLISH
http://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/03a07/report-thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/tm3a7/
http://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri3a7/
http://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/03a07/report.pdf
tm3A7
29
twri03A84671
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-A8TWRIUSGS Numbered Series
Discharge measurements at gaging stations
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1969
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
Buchanan, Thomas J.; Somers, William P.
The techniques used in making discharge measurements at gaging stations are described in this report. Most of the report deals with the current-meter method of measuring discharge, because this is the principal method used in gaging streams. The use of portable weirs and flumes, floats, and volumetric tanks in measuring discharge are briefly described.
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
null,html,pdf
THUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE,DOCUMENT
Discharge measurements at gaging stations; 1969; TWRI; 03-A8; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Buchanan, Thomas J.; Somers, William P.
1969
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri3a8/
http://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri3a8/pdf/TWRI_3-A8.pdf
30
twri03A94696
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-A9TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Measurement of time of travel in streams by dye tracing
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1989
U.S. G.P.O. ;For sale by the U.S. Geological Survey, Books and Open-File Reports,
Kilpatrick, F.A.; Wilson, James F.
The use of fluorescent dyes and tracing techniques provides a means for measuring the time-of-travel and dispersion characteristics of steady and gradually varied flow in streams. Measurements of the dispersion and concentration of dyes give insight into the behavior of soluble contaminants that may be introduced into a stream. This manual describes methods of measuring time of travel of water and waterborne solutes by dye tracing. The fluorescent dyes, measuring equipment used, and the field and laboratory procedures are also described. Methods of analysis and presentation to illustrate time-oftravel and dispersion characteristics of streams are provided.
U.S. G.P.O. ;For sale by the U.S. Geological Survey, Books and Open-File Reports,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Measurement of time of travel in streams by dye tracing; 1989; TWRI; 03-A9; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Kilpatrick, F.A.; Wilson, James F.
Revision - 1989
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri3-a9/
31
twri03A9_1982
4657
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-A9TWRIUSGS Numbered Series
Measurement of time of travel and dispersion in streams by dye tracing
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1982
U.S. G.P.O.,
Hubbard, E.F.; Kilpatrick, F.A.; Martens, L.A.; Wilson, J.F., Jr.
The use of fluorescent dyes and tracing techniques provides a means for measuring the time-of-travel and dispersion characteristics of steady and gradually varied flow in streams. Measurements of the dispersion and concentration of dyes give insight into the behavior of soluble contaminants that may be introduced into a stream. This manual describes methods of measuring time of travel of water and waterborne solutes by dye tracing. The fluorescent dyes, measuring equipment used, and the field and laboratory procedures are also described. Methods of analysis and presentation to illustrate time-oftravel and dispersion characteristics of streams are provided.
U.S. G.P.O.,null,pdfTHUMBNAIL,DOCUMENT
Measurement of time of travel and dispersion in streams by dye tracing; 1982; TWRI; 03-A9; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Hubbard, E.F.; Kilpatrick, F.A.; Martens, L.A.; Wilson, J.F., Jr.
1982
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri3-a9/pdf/twri_3-a9_ver1.pdf
32
twri03B14720
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-B1TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Aquifer-test design, observation, and data analysis
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1971
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
Stallman, Robert W.
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Aquifer-test design, observation, and data analysis; 1971; TWRI; 03-B1; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Stallman, Robert W.
-
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri3-b1/
33
twri03B24667
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-B2TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Introduction to ground-water hydraulics, a programmed text for self-instruction
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1976
U.S. G.P.O.,
Bennett, Gordon D.
U.S. G.P.O.,null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Introduction to ground-water hydraulics, a programmed text for self-instruction; 1976; TWRI; 03-B2; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Bennett, Gordon D.
-
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/twri03b2.PNGhttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri3-b2/
34
twri03B2_spanish
4666
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-B2TWRIUSGS Numbered Series
Introduccion a la hidraulica de aguas subterraneas : un texto programado para auto-ensenanza
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 07:00 -0600
1987
U.S Government Printing Office
Washington
Bennett, Gordon D.
Este ' texto programado esta diseflado para ayudarle a comprender la teoria de la hidniulica de aguas subterraneas por medio de la auto-enseflanza. La instrucci6n programada es un enfoque a una materia, un metodo de aprender;que no elimina el esfuerzo mental del proceso de aprendizaje. Algunas secciones de este programa necesitan solamente ser leidas; otras tendrian que ser elaboradas con lapiz y papel. Algunas preguntas pueden ser contestadas directamente; otras requieren calculos. A medida que se avanza en el texto, tendra que consultar frecuentemente textos o referencias sobre matematicas, mecanica de fluidos e hidrologia. En cada una de las ocho partes del texto, inicie el programa de instrucci6n leyendo la Secci6n 1. Elija una respuesta a la pregunta al final de la secci6n y dirijase a la nueva secci6n indicada al lado de la respuesta escogida. Si su respuesta fue correcta, pase a la secci6n que contiene materia nueva y otra pregunta, y proceda tal como en la Secci6n 1. Si su respuesta no fue correcta, dirijase a la secci6n que contiene explicaciones adicionales sobre el tema anterior y que le indica volver a la pregunta inicial e intentar de nuevo. En este caso, valdra Ia pena repasar el material de la secci6n anterior. Continue de esta man era en el programa hasta que llegue a Ia secci6n que indica el final de la parte. Observe que aunque las secciones estan en orden numerico en cada una de las ocho partes, por lo general, usted no procedeni en secuencia numerica (Secci6n 1 ala Secci6n 2, etc.) de principia a fin.
Washingtonnull,nullTHUMBNAIL,DOCUMENT
Introduccion a la hidraulica de aguas subterraneas : un texto programado para auto-ensenanza; 1987; TWRI; 03-B2; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Bennett, Gordon D.
-Spanish
http://pubs.usgs.gov/unnumbered/4666/report-thumb.jpg
http://pubs.usgs.gov/unnumbered/4666/report.pdf
35
twri03B34708
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-B3TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Type curves for selected problems of flow to wells in confined aquifers
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1980
U.S. G.P.O.,
Reed, J.E.
This report presents type curves and related material for 11 conditions of flow to wells m confined aquifers. These solutions, compiled from hydrologic literature, span an interval of time from Theis (1935) to Papadopulos, Bredehoeft, and Cooper (1973). Solutions are presented for constant discharge, constant drawdown, and variable discharge for pumping wells that fully penetrate leaky and nonleaky aquifers. Solutions for wells that partially penetrate leaky and nonleaky aquifers are included. Also, solutions are included for the effect of finite well radius and the sudden injection of a volume of water for nonleaky aquifers. Each problem includes the partial differential equation, boundary and initial conditions, and solutions. Programs in FORTRAN for calculating additional function values are included for most of the solutions.
U.S. G.P.O.,null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Type curves for selected problems of flow to wells in confined aquifers; 1980; TWRI; 03-B3; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Reed, J.E.
-
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri3-b3/
36
twri03B44675
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-B4TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Regression modeling of ground-water flow
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1990
U.S. Geological Survey ;For sale by Books and Open-File Reports Section, U.S. Geological Survey,
Cooley, Richard L.; Naff, Richard L.
U.S. Geological Survey ;For sale by Books and Open-File Reports Section, U.S. Geological Survey,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Regression modeling of ground-water flow; 1990; TWRI; 03-B4; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Cooley, Richard L.; Naff, Richard L.
1990
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri3-b4/
37
twri03B4_supp
4676
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-B4TWRI
document needed; not
AVAIL WH 1/2015
Regression modeling of ground-water flow; Supplement 1 : modifications to the computer code for nonlinear regression solution of steady-state ground-water flow problems
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1993
U.S.G.P.O. ;U.S. Geological Survey, Books and Open-File Reports Section [distributor],
Cooley, Richard L.
U.S.G.P.O. ;U.S. Geological Survey, Books and Open-File Reports Section [distributor],
nullTHUMBNAIL
Regression modeling of ground-water flow; Supplement 1 : modifications to the computer code for nonlinear regression solution of steady-state ground-water flow problems; 1993; TWRI; 03-B4; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Cooley, Richard L.
Supplimental 1
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpg
38
twri03B54681
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-B5TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Definition of boundary and initial conditions in the analysis of saturated ground-water flow systems - An introduction
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1987
U.S. G.P.O.,
Franke, O. Lehn; Reilly, Thomas E.; Bennett, Gordon D.
Accurate definition of boundary and initial conditions is an essential part of conceptualizing and modeling ground-water flow systems. This report describes the properties of the seven most common boundary conditions encountered in ground-water systems and discusses major aspects of their application. It also discusses the significance and specification of initial conditions and evaluates some common errors in applying this concept to ground-water-system models. An appendix is included that discusses what the solution of a differential equation represents and how the solution relates to the boundary conditions defining the specific problem. This report considers only boundary conditions that apply to saturated ground-water systems.
U.S. G.P.O.,null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Definition of boundary and initial conditions in the analysis of saturated ground-water flow systems - An introduction; 1987; TWRI; 03-B5; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Franke, O. Lehn; Reilly, Thomas E.; Bennett, Gordon D.
-
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri3-b5/
39
twri03B64709
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-B6TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
The principle of superposition and its application in ground-water hydraulics
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1987
U.S. G.P.O.,
Reilly, Thomas E.; Franke, O. Lehn; Bennett, Gordon D.
The principle of superposition, a powerful mathematical technique for analyzing certain types of complex problems in many areas of science and technology, has important applications in ground-water hydraulics and modeling of ground-water systems. The principle of superposition states that problem solutions can be added together to obtain composite solutions. This principle applies to linear systems governed by linear differential equations. This report introduces the principle of superposition as it applies to ground-water hydrology and provides background information, discussion, illustrative problems with solutions, and problems to be solved by the reader.
U.S. G.P.O.,null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
The principle of superposition and its application in ground-water hydraulics; 1987; TWRI; 03-B6; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Reilly, Thomas E.; Franke, O. Lehn; Bennett, Gordon D.
-
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri3-b6/
40
twri03B74726
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-B7TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Analytical solutions for one-, two-, and three-dimensional solute transport in ground-water systems with uniform flow
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1992
U.S. G.P.O. ;Book and Open-File Report Sales [distributor],
Wexler, Eliezer J.
Analytical solutions to the advective-dispersive solute-transport equation are useful in predicting the fate of solutes in ground water. Analytical solutions compiled from available literature or derived by the author are presented for a variety of boundary condition types and solute-source configurations in one-, two-, and three-dimensional systems having uniform ground-water flow. A set of user-oriented computer programs was created to evaluate these solutions and to display the results in tabular and computer-graphics format. These programs incorporate many features that enhance their accuracy, ease of use, and versatility. Documentation for the programs describes their operation and required input data, and presents the results of sample problems. Derivations of selected solutions, source codes for the computer programs, and samples of program input and output also are included.
U.S. G.P.O. ;Book and Open-File Report Sales [distributor],
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Analytical solutions for one-, two-, and three-dimensional solute transport in ground-water systems with uniform flow; 1992; TWRI; 03-B7; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Wexler, Eliezer J.
-
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri3-b7/
41
twri03B84916
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-B8TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
System and boundary conceptualization in ground-water flow simulation
Sun, 1 Apr 2001 00:00 -0600
2001
Reilly, T.E.
Ground-water models attempt to represent an actual ground-water system with a mathematical counterpart. The conceptualization of how and where water originates in the ground-water-flow system and how and where it leaves the system is critical to the development of an accurate model. The mathematical representation of these boundaries in the model is important because many hydrologic boundary conditions can be mathematically represented in more than one way. The determination of which mathematical representation of a boundary condition is best usually is dependent upon the objectives of the study. This report focuses on the specific aspect of describing different ways to simulate, in a numerical model, the physical features that act as hydrologic boundaries in an actual ground-water system. The ramifications, benefits, and limitations of each approach are enumerated, and descriptions of the representation of boundaries in models for Long Island, New York, and the Middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico, illustrate the application of some of the methods.
USGS-TWRI book 3, chap. B8. 29 p.
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
System and boundary conceptualization in ground-water flow simulation; 2001; TWRI; 03-B8; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Reilly, T.E.
-
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri-3_B8/
42
twri03C14685
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-C1TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGSFluvial sediment concepts
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1970
Government Printing Office,
Guy, Harold P.
This report is the first of a series concerned with the measurement of and recording of information about fluvial sediment and with related environmental data needed to maintain and improve basic sediment knowledge. Concepts presented in this report involve (1) the physical characteristics of sediment which include aspects relative 'to weathering, soils, resistance to erosion, and particle size, (2) sediment erosion, transport, and deposition characteristics, which include aspects relative to fine sediment and overland flow, coarse sediment and streamflow, variations in stream sediment concentration, deposition, and denudation, (3) geomorphic considerations, which include aspects relative to the drainage basin, mass wasting, and channel properties, (4) economic aspects, and (5) data needs and program objectives to be attained through the use of several kinds of sediment records.
Government Printing Office,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Fluvial sediment concepts; 1970; TWRI; 03-C1; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Guy, Harold P.
-
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri3-c1/
43
twri03C24680
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-C2TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Field methods for measurement of fluvial sediment
Mon, 1 Jun 1998 00:00 -0500
1999
U.S. Geological Survey ;Information Services,
Edwards, Thomas K.; Glysson, G. Douglas
This chapter describes equipment and procedures for collection and measurement of fluvial sediment. The complexity of the hydrologic and physical environments and man's ever-increasing data needs make it essential for those responsible for the collection of sediment data to be aware of basic concepts involved in processes of erosion, transport, deposition of sediment, and equipment and procedures necessary to representatively collect sediment data. In addition to an introduction, the chapter has two major sections. The 'Sediment-Sampling Equipment' section encompasses discussions of characteristics and limitations of various models of depth- and point-integrating samplers, single-stage samplers, bed-material samplers, bedload samplers, automatic pumping samplers, and support equipment. The 'Sediment-Sampling Techniques'` section includes discussions of representative sampling criteria, characteristics of sampling sites, equipment selection relative to the sampling conditions and needs, depth and point-integration techniques, surface and dip sampling, determination of transit rates, sampling programs and related data, cold-weather sampling, bed-material and bedload sampling, measuring total sediment discharge, and measuring reservoir sedimentation rates.
U.S. Geological Survey ;Information Services,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Field methods for measurement of fluvial sediment; 1999; TWRI; 03-C2; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Edwards, Thomas K.; Glysson, G. Douglas
Revision - 1999
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri3-c2/
44
twri03C2_1970
4684
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-C2TWRIUSGS Numbered Series
Field methods for measurement of fluvial sediment
Mon, 1 Jun 1998 00:00 -0500
1970
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
Guy, Harold P.; Norman, Vernon W.
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
null,pdfTHUMBNAIL,DOCUMENT
Field methods for measurement of fluvial sediment; 1970; TWRI; 03-C2; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Guy, Harold P.; Norman, Vernon W.
1970
ENGLISH
http://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/03c02-1970/report-thumb.jpg
http://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/03c02-1970/report.pdf
twri03C2
45
twri03C2_1998
38352
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-C2TWRI
document needed not AVAIL WH 1/2015
Field methods for measurement of fluvial sediment
Mon, 1 Jun 1998 00:00 -0500
1998
Edwards, Thomas K.; Glysson, G. Douglas
The complexity of hydrologic and physical environments and man's ever-increasing data needs make it essential for those who collect sediment data to be aware of basic concepts involved in the processes of erosion, transport, and deposition of sediment, and of the equipment and procedures necessary to representatively sample sediment and measure its concentration. This report describes equipment and procedures for the collection and measurement of fluvial sediment.
80 p. Supercedes OFR 86-531.
nullTHUMBNAIL
Field methods for measurement of fluvial sediment; 1998; TWRI; 03-C2; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Edwards, Thomas K.; Glysson, G. Douglas
1998 Edition
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpg
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
twri03C2
46
twri03C34707
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
03-C3TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Computation of fluvial-sediment discharge
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1972
U.S. Govt. Print. Off. : for sale by the Branch of Distribution, U.S. Geological Survey,
Porterfield, George
This report is one of a series concerning the concepts, measurement, laboratory procedures, and computation of fluvial-sediment discharge. Material in this report includes procedures and forms used to compile and evaluate particle-size and concentration data, to compute fluvial-sediment discharge, and to prepare sediment records for publication.
U.S. Govt. Print. Off. : for sale by the Branch of Distribution, U.S. Geological Survey,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Computation of fluvial-sediment discharge; 1972; TWRI; 03-C3; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Porterfield, George
-
ENGLISH
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47
twri04A14713
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
04-A1TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGSSome statistical tools in hydrology
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1968
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
Riggs, H.C.
This chapter of 'Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations' provides background material needed for understanding the statistical procedures most useful in hydrology; it furnishes detailed procedures, with examples, of regression analyses; it describes analysis of variance and covariance and discusses the characteristics of hydrologic data.
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Some statistical tools in hydrology; 1968; TWRI; 04-A1; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Riggs, H.C.
-
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri4a1/
48
twri04A24710
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
04-A2TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGSFrequency curves
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1968
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
Riggs, H.C.
This manual describes graphical and mathematical procedures for preparing frequency curves from samples of hydrologic data. It also discusses the theory of frequency curves, compares advantages of graphical and mathematical fitting, suggests methods of describing graphically defined frequency curves analytically, and emphasizes the correct interpretations of a frequency curve.
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Frequency curves; 1968; TWRI; 04-A2; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Riggs, H.C.
-
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri4a2/
49
twri04A347512
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
04-A3TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGSStatistical Methods in Water Resources
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
2002
Helsel, Dennis R.; Hirsch, Robert M.
523 p.null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Statistical Methods in Water Resources; 2002; TWRI; 04-A3; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Helsel, Dennis R.; Hirsch, Robert M.
-
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri4a3/
50
twri04B14711
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
04-B1TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGSLow-flow investigations
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1972
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
Riggs, H.C.
This manual describes methods of defining the low-flow characteristics of streams, shows how certain basin characteristics influence the mean and variability of annual low flows, and recommends procedures for data collection, analysis, and reporting.
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Low-flow investigations; 1972; TWRI; 04-B1; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Riggs, H.C.
-
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri4b1/
51
twri04B24714
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
04-B2TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGSStorage analyses for water supply
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1973
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
Riggs, H.C.; Hardison, C.H.
This manual briefly describes various methods of storage analysis and recommends one method for use by the U.S. Geological Survey to produce draft-storage relations useful to planners and designers. The recommended method is described in detail.
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Storage analyses for water supply; 1973; TWRI; 04-B2; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Riggs, H.C.; Hardison, C.H.
-
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri4b2/
52
twri04B34712
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
04-B3TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Regional analyses of streamflow characteristics
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1973
U. S. Govt. Print. Off.,
Riggs, H.C.
This manual describes various ways of generalizing streamflow characteristics and evaluates the applicability and reliability of each under various hydrologic conditions. Several alternatives to regionalization are briefly described.
U. S. Govt. Print. Off.,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Regional analyses of streamflow characteristics; 1973; TWRI; 04-B3; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Riggs, H.C.
-
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri4b3/
53
twri04D14689
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
04-D1TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Computation of rate and volume of stream depletion by wells
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1968
U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Geological Survey :For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O.,
Jenkins, C.T.
When field conditions approach certain assumed conditions, the depletion in flow of a nearby stream caused by pumping a well can be calculated readily by using dimensionless curves and tables. Computations can be made of (1) the rate of stream depletion at any time during the pumping period or the following nonpumping period, (2) the volume of water induced from the stream during any period, pumping or non-pumping, and (3) the effects, both in rate and volume of stream depletion, of any selected pattern of intermittent pumping. Sample computations illustrate the use of the curves and tables. An example shows that intermittent pumping may have a pattern of stream depletion not greatly different from a pattern for steady pumping of an equal volume. The residual effects of pumping, that is, effects after pumping stops, on streamflow may often be greater than the effects during the pumping period. Adequate advance planning that includes consideration of residual effects thus is essential to effective management of a stream-aquifer system.
U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Geological Survey :For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O.,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Computation of rate and volume of stream depletion by wells; 1968; TWRI; 04-D1; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Jenkins, C.T.
-
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri4d1/
54
twri05A14661
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
05-A1TWRIUSGS Numbered Series
Methods for determination of inorganic substances in water and fluvial sediments
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1989
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Fishman, Marvin J., (Edited By); Friedman, Linda C.
Chapter Al of the laboratory manual contains methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey to analyze samples of water, suspended sediments, and bottom material for their content of inorganic constituents. Included are methods for determining the concentration of dissolved constituents in water, the total recoverable and total of constituents in water-suspended sediment samples, and the recoverable and total concentrations of constituents in samples of bottom material. The introduction to the manual includes essential definitions and a brief discussion of the use of significant figures in calculating and reporting analytical results. Quality control in the water-analysis laboratory is discussed, including the accuracy and precision of analyses, the use of standard-reference water samples, and the operation of an effective quality-assurance program. Methods for sample preparation and pretreatment are given also. A brief discussion of the principles of the analytical techniques involved and their particular application to water and sediment analysis is presented. The analytical methods of these techniques are arranged alphabetically by constituent. For each method, the general topics covered are the application, the principle of the method, the interferences, the apparatus and reagents required, a detailed description of the analytical procedure, reporting results, units and significant figures, and analytical precision data, when available. More than 126 methods are given for the determination of 70 inorganic constituents and physical properties of water, suspended sediment, and bottom material.
Geological Survey (U.S.)
null,html,pdf
THUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE,DOCUMENT
Methods for determination of inorganic substances in water and fluvial sediments; 1989; TWRI; 05-A1; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Fishman, Marvin J., (Edited By); Friedman, Linda C.
3rd Edition
ENGLISH
http://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/05a01/report-thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri5-a1/
http://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/05a01/report.pdf
55
twri05A1_1970
4670
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
05-A1TWRIUSGS Numbered Series
Methods for collection and analysis of water samples for dissolved minerals and gases
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1970
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
Brown, Eugene; Skougstad, Marvin W.; Fishman, Marvin J.
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
null,nullTHUMBNAIL,DOCUMENT
Methods for collection and analysis of water samples for dissolved minerals and gases; 1970; TWRI; 05-A1; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Brown, Eugene; Skougstad, Marvin W.; Fishman, Marvin J.
1st Edition
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/twri05A1_1970.PNG
http://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/05a01-1979/report.pdf
twri05A1_1979,twri05A1
56
twri05A1_1979
4662
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
05-A1TWRI
document needed; not
AVAIL WH 1/2015
Methods for determination of inorganic substances in water and fluvial sediments
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1979
U.S. Government Printing Office
Brown, Eugene; Skougstad, Marvin W.; Fishman, M.J.
<p>Chapter Al of the manual contains methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey to collect, preserve, and analyze water samples for their content of dissolved minerals and gases. Among the topics discussed are selection of sampling sites, frequency of sampling, sampling equipment, sample preservation, laboratory equipment and instrumental techniques, accuracy and precision of analysis, and reporting of results. Seventy-six analytical procedures are given for determining 55 water properties. Listed below are the water properties for which analytical pro- cedures are given, and the principal procedure for the determination of each.</p>
U.S. Government Printing Office
nullTHUMBNAIL
Methods for determination of inorganic substances in water and fluvial sediments; 1979; TWRI; 05-A1; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Brown, Eugene; Skougstad, Marvin W.; Fishman, M.J.
2nd Edition
Englishhttp://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpg
twri05A1
57
twri05A24665
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
05-A2TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Determination of minor elements in water by emission spectroscopy
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1971
U.S. Govt. Print. Off., For sale by the Superintendent of Documents,
Barnett, Paul R.; Mallory, E.C.
With the emission spectrograph, the analyst is able to determine many minor elements simultaneously in water samples. Spectrographic methods differ chiefly in techniques of preconcentrating the elements. For waters with dissolved solids of less than 1,000 milligrams per liter, the method of evaporating to dryness and determining the elements in the dried residue is sensitive, precise, and reasonably accurate. The lower limits of detection vary with the quantity of dissolved solids. Twenty-four elements are determined by this method. For waters with more than 1,000 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids, it is necessary to separate the minor elements from the major constituents before spectrographically determining the former, in order to achieve adequate lower limits of detection. Such procedures generally require more time than the residue method. In the first of two such procedures given, 21 of the metallic elements are precipitated with thioacetamide prior to spectrographic determination. In an alternate procedure, 18 elements are precipitated quantitatively with complexing reagents 8-hydroxyquinoline, tannic acid, and thioanlide. This method is faster than the thioacetamide method, but at the sacrifice of some elements. A Fortran IV computer program for processing densitometric data is given in the section 'Computer Program.'
U.S. Govt. Print. Off., For sale by the Superintendent of Documents,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Determination of minor elements in water by emission spectroscopy; 1971; TWRI; 05-A2; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Barnett, Paul R.; Mallory, E.C.
-
ENGLISH
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58
twri05A34663
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
05-A3TWRIUSGS Numbered Series
Methods for the determination of organic substances in water and fluvial sediments
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1987
U.S. G.P.O.,
Wershaw, R. L., (Edited By); Fishman, M.J.; Grabbe, R.R.; Lowe, L.E.
This manual describes analytical methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey to determine organic substances in water, water-suspended-sediment mixtures, and bottom material. Some of the analytical procedures yield determinations for specific com-pounds, whereas others provide a measure of the quantity of groups of compounds present in the sample. Examples of the first category are procedures for the organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides, chlorophenoxy acid and triazine herbicides, and specific substituted phenols. Examples of the second category are the various organic carbon analyses and the polychlorinated biphenyl methods. The analytical methods are presented in a standard format; topics covered include conditions for application of the method, a summary of the method, interferences, required apparatus and reagents, analytical procedures, calculations, reporting of results, and estimation of precision.
U.S. G.P.O.,null,pdfTHUMBNAIL,DOCUMENT
Methods for the determination of organic substances in water and fluvial sediments; 1987; TWRI; 05-A3; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Wershaw, R. L., (Edited By); Fishman, M.J.; Grabbe, R.R.; Lowe, L.E.
Revision - 1987
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri5a3/pdf/twri_5-A3.pdf
59
twri05A3_1972
38353
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
05-A3TWRIUSGS Numbered Series
Methods for analysis of organic substances in water
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1972
U.S. G.P.O.,
Goerlitz, D.F.; Brown, Eugene
U.S. G.P.O.,null,pdfTHUMBNAIL,DOCUMENT
Methods for analysis of organic substances in water; 1972; TWRI; 05-A3; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Goerlitz, D.F.; Brown, Eugene
-
ENGLISH
http://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/05a03/report-thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/05a03/report.pdf
60
twri05A44660
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
05-A4TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Methods for collection and analysis of aquatic biological and microbiological samples
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1989
Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey ;For sale by the Books and Open-File Reports Section,
Britton, Linda J., (Edited By); Greeson, Phillip E.
Chapter A4 contains methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey to collect, preserve, and analyze water to determine its biological and microbiological properties. Part 1 consists of detailed descriptions of more than 45 individual methods, including those for bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, seston, periphyton, macrophytes, benthic invertebrates, fish and other vertebrates, cellular contents, productivity, and bioassays. Each method is summarized, and the applications, interferences, apparatus, reagents, analyses, calculations, reporting of results, precisions, and references are given. Part 2 consists of a glossary. Part 3 is a list of taxonomic references.
Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey ;For sale by the Books and Open-File Reports Section,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Methods for collection and analysis of aquatic biological and microbiological samples; 1989; TWRI; 05-A4; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Britton, Linda J., (Edited By); Greeson, Phillip E.
Revision - 1989
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri5a4/
61
twri05A4_1973
39538
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
05-A4TWRI
document needed; not
AVAIL WH 1/2015
Methods for collection and analysis of aquatic biological and microbiological samples
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1973
U.S. Government Printing Office
Slack, K.V.; Averett, R.C.; Greeson, Phillip E.; Lipscomb, R.G.
No abstract available.
U.S. Government Printing Office
nullTHUMBNAIL
Methods for collection and analysis of aquatic biological and microbiological samples; 1973; TWRI; 05-A4; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Slack, K.V.; Averett, R.C.; Greeson, Phillip E.; Lipscomb, R.G.
Englishhttp://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpg
62
twri05A4_1977
38287
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
05-A4TWRIUSGS Numbered Series
Methods for collection and analysis of aquatic biological and microbiological samples
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1977
U.S. Government Printing Office
Greeson, Phillip E., (Edited By); Ehlke, T.A.; Irwin, G.A.; Lium, B.W.; Slack, K.V.
Chapter A4 contains methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey to collect, preserve, and analyze waters to determine their biological and microbiological properties. Part 1 discusses biological sampling and sampling statistics. The statistical procedures are accompanied by examples. Part 2 consists of detailed descriptions of more than 45 individual methods, including those for bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, seston, periphyton, macrophytes, benthic invertebrates, fish and other vertebrates, cellular contents, productivity, and bioassays. Each method is summarized, and the application, interferences, apparatus, reagents, collection, analysis, calculations, reporting of results, precision and references are given. Part 3 consists of a glossary. Part 4 is a list of taxonomic references.
U.S. Government Printing Office
null,pdfTHUMBNAIL,DOCUMENT
Methods for collection and analysis of aquatic biological and microbiological samples; 1977; TWRI; 05-A4; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Greeson, Phillip E., (Edited By); Ehlke, T.A.; Irwin, G.A.; Lium, B.W.; Slack, K.V.
1977 Revision
English
http://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/05a04-1977/report-thumb.jpg
http://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/05a04-1977/report.pdf
63
twri05A4_1988
4658
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
05-A4TWRI
document needed; not
AVAIL WH 1/2015
Methods for collection and analysis of aquatic biological and microbiological samples
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1988
U.S. Government Printing Office
Britton, Linda J.
No abstract available.
U.S. Government Printing Office
nullTHUMBNAIL
Methods for collection and analysis of aquatic biological and microbiological samples; 1988; TWRI; 05-A4; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Britton, Linda J.
1988 Revision
Englishhttp://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpg
64
twri05A4_supp
4664
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
05-A4TWRI
document needed; not
AVAIL WH 1/2015
A Supplement to Methods for collection and analysis of aquatic biological and microbiological samples
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1979
U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Geological Survey,
Greeson, Phillip E., (Edited By)
U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Geological Survey,
nullTHUMBNAIL
A Supplement to Methods for collection and analysis of aquatic biological and microbiological samples; 1979; TWRI; 05-A4; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Greeson, Phillip E., (Edited By)
Supplimental
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpg
65
twri05A54723
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
05-A5TWRIUSGS Numbered Series
Methods for determination of radioactive substances in water and fluvial sediments
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1977
U.S. Government Printing Office
Thatcher, Leland Lincoln; Janzer, Victor J.; Edwards, Kenneth W.
Analytical methods for the determination of some of the more important components of fission or neutron activation product radioactivity and of natural radioactivity found in water are reported. The report for each analytical method includes conditions for application of the method, a summary of the method, interferences, required apparatus and reagents, analytical procedures, calculations, reporting of results, and estimation of precision. The fission product isotopes considered are cesium-137, strontium-90, and ruthenium-106. The natural radioelements and isotopes considered are uranium, lead-210, radium-226, radium-228, tritium, and carbon-14. A gross radioactivity survey method and a uranium isotope ratio method are given. When two analytical methods are in routine use for an individual isotope, both methods are reported with identification of the specific areas of application of each. Techniques for the collection and preservation of water samples to be analyzed for radioactivity are discussed.
U.S. Government Printing Office
null,html,null
THUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE,DOCUMENT
Methods for determination of radioactive substances in water and fluvial sediments; 1977; TWRI; 05-A5; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Thatcher, Leland Lincoln; Janzer, Victor J.; Edwards, Kenneth W.
Englishhttp://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri5a5/
http://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri5a5/pdf/TWRI_5-A5.pdf
66
twri05A64682
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
05-A6TWRIUSGS Numbered Series
Quality assurance practices for the chemical and biological analyses of water and fluvial sediments
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1982
U.S. Government Printing Office
Friedman, Linda C.; Erdmann, David E.
This chapter contains practices used by the U.S. Geological Survey to assure the quality of analytical data for water, fluvial sediment, and aquatic organisms. These practices are directed primarily toward personnel making water quality measurements. Some detail specific quality control techniques, others document quality assurance procedures being used by the Central Laboratories System of the U.S. Geological Survey, and still others describe various statistical techniques and give examples of their use in evaluating and assuring the quality of analytical data. The practices are arranged into eight sections: Analytical Methods Development Procedures, Standard Quantitative Analysis Techniques, Instrumental Techniques, Reference Material, Laboratory Quality Control; Quality Assurance Monitoring; Documentation, Summary, and Evaluation of Data, Materials Evaluation. Each section is preceded by a brief description of the material covered. Similarly within each section, each practice is preceded by a description of its application or scope.
U.S. Government Printing Office
null,html,pdf
THUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE,DOCUMENT
Quality assurance practices for the chemical and biological analyses of water and fluvial sediments; 1982; TWRI; 05-A6; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Friedman, Linda C.; Erdmann, David E.
Englishhttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/05a06/report-thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri5a6/
http://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/05a06/report.pdf
67
twri05C14686
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
05-C1TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Laboratory theory and methods for sediment analysis
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1969
U.S. G.P.O. :For sale by Superintendent of Documents,
Guy, Harold P.
The diverse character of fluvial sediments makes the choice of laboratory analysis somewhat arbitrary and the pressing of sediment samples difficult. This report presents some theories and methods used by the Water Resources Division for analysis of fluvial sediments to determine the concentration of suspended-sediment samples and the particle-size distribution of both suspended-sediment and bed-material samples. Other analyses related to these determinations may include particle shape, mineral content, and specific gravity, the organic matter and dissolved solids of samples, and the specific weight of soils. The merits and techniques of both the evaporation and filtration methods for concentration analysis are discussed. Methods used for particle-size analysis of suspended-sediment samples may include the sieve pipet, the VA tube-pipet, or the BW tube-VA tube depending on the equipment available, the concentration and approximate size of sediment in the sample, and the settling medium used. The choice of method for most bed-material samples is usually limited to procedures suitable for sand or to some type of visual analysis for large sizes. Several tested forms are presented to help insure a well-ordered system in the laboratory to handle the samples, to help determine the kind of analysis required for each, to conduct the required processes, and to assist in the required computations. Use of the manual should further 'standardize' methods of fluvial sediment analysis among the many laboratories and thereby help to achieve uniformity and precision of the data.
U.S. G.P.O. :For sale by Superintendent of Documents,
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Laboratory theory and methods for sediment analysis; 1969; TWRI; 05-C1; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Guy, Harold P.
-
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri5c1/
68
twri05C34715
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
05-C3TWRI
document needed; not
AVAIL WH 1/2015
Optical method for determining particle sizes of coarse sediment
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1969
U.S. Geological Survey
Ritter, John R.; Helley, Edward J.
No abstract available.
U.S. Geological Survey
nullTHUMBNAIL
Optical method for determining particle sizes of coarse sediment; 1969; TWRI; 05-C3; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Ritter, John R.; Helley, Edward J.
Englishhttp://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpg
69
twri06A14705
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
06-A1TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
A modular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1988
U.S. G.P.O.,
McDonald, Michael G.; Harbaugh, Arlen W.
This report presents a finite-difference model and its associated modular computer program. The model simulates flow in three dimensions. The report includes detailed explanations of physical and mathematical concepts on which the model is based and an explanation of how those concepts are incorporated in the modular structure of the computer program. The modular structure consists of a Main Program and a series of highly independent subroutines called 'modules.' The modules are grouped into 'packages.' Each package deals with a specific feature of the hydrologic system which is to be simulated, such as flow from rivers or flow into drains, or with a specific method of solving linear equations which describe the flow system, such as the Strongly Implicit Procedure or Slice-Successive Overrelaxation. The division of the program into modules permits the user to examine specific hydrologic features of the model independently. This also facilita development of additional capabilities because new packages can be added to the program without modifying the existing packages. The input and output systems of the computer program are also designed to permit maximum flexibility. Ground-water flow within the aquifer is simulated using a block-centered finite-difference approach. Layers can be simulated as confined, unconfined, or a combination of confined and unconfined. Flow associated with external stresses, such as wells, areal recharge, evapotranspiration, drains, and streams, can also be simulated. The finite-difference equations can be solved using either the Strongly Implicit Procedure or Slice-Successive Overrelaxation. The program is written in FORTRAN 77 and will run without modification on most computers that have a FORTRAN 77 compiler. For each program ,module, this report includes a narrative description, a flow chart, a list of variables, and a module listing.
U.S. G.P.O.,null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
A modular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model; 1988; TWRI; 06-A1; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; McDonald, Michael G.; Harbaugh, Arlen W.
-
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri6a1/
70
twri06A1_chinese
38315
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
06-A1TWRI
Table of contents with links to chapters PDFs available at USGS In Chinese only
A Modular Three-Dimensional Finite-Difference Ground-Water Flow Model
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1988
McDonald, Michael G.; Harbaugh, Arlen W.; Guo, Weixing, (translator); Lu, Guoping
This report presents a finite-difference model and its associated modular computer program. The model simulates flow in three dimensions. The report includes detailed explanations of physical and mathematical concepts on which the model is based and an explanation of how those concepts are incorporated in the modular structure of the computer program. The modular structure consists of a Main Program and a series of highly independent subroutines called 'modules.' The modules are grouped into 'packages.' Each package deals with a specific feature of the hydrologic system which is to be simulated, such as flow from rivers or flow into drains, or with a specific method of solving linear equations which describe the flow system, such as the Strongly Implicit Procedure or Slice-Successive Overrelaxation. The division of the program into modules permits the user to examine specific hydrologic features of the model independently. This also facilita development of additional capabilities because new packages can be added to the program without modifying the existing packages. The input and output systems of the computer program are also designed to permit maximum flexibility. Ground-water flow within the aquifer is simulated using a block-centered finite-difference approach. Layers can be simulated as confined, unconfined, or a combination of confined and unconfined. Flow associated with external stresses, such as wells, areal recharge, evapotranspiration, drains, and streams, can also be simulated. The finite-difference equations can be solved using either the Strongly Implicit Procedure or Slice-Successive Overrelaxation. The program is written in FORTRAN 77 and will run without modification on most computers that have a FORTRAN 77 compiler. For each program ,module, this report includes a narrative description, a flow chart, a list of variables, and a module listing.
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A Modular Three-Dimensional Finite-Difference Ground-Water Flow Model; 1988; TWRI; 06-A1; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; McDonald, Michael G.; Harbaugh, Arlen W.; Guo, Weixing, (translator); Lu, Guoping
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CHINESE
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71
twri06A24702
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
06-A2TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Documentation of a computer program to simulate aquifer-system compaction using the modular finite-difference ground-water flow model
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1991
U.S. G.P.O. ;For sale by the Books and Open-File Reports Section, U.S. Geological Survey, Federal Center,
Leake, S.A.; Prudic, David E.
Removal of ground water by pumping from aquifers may result in compaction of compressible fine-grained beds that are within or adjacent to the aquifers. Compaction of the sediments and resulting land subsidence may be permanent if the head declines result in vertical stresses beyond the previous maximum stress. The process of permanent compaction is not routinely included in simulations of ground-water flow. To simulate storage changes from both elastic and inelastic compaction, a computer program was written for use with the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground- water flow model. The new program, the Interbed-Storage Package, is designed to be incorporated into this model. In the Interbed-Storage Package, elastic compaction or expansion is assumed to be proportional to change in head. The constant of proportionality is the product of the skeletal component of elastic specific storage and the thickness of the sediments. Similarly, inelastic compaction is assumed to be proportional to decline in head. The constant of proportionality is the product of the skeletal component of inelastic specific storage and the thickness of the sediments. Storage changes are incorporated into the ground-water flow model by adding an additional term to the right-hand side of the flow equation. Within a model time step, the package appropriately apportions storage changes between elastic and inelastic components on the basis of the relation of simulated head to the previous minimum (preconsolidation) head. Two tests were performed to verify that the package works correctly. The first test compared model-calculated storage and compaction changes to hand-calculated values for a three-dimensional simulation. Model and hand-calculated values were essentially equal. The second test was performed to compare the results of the Interbed-Storage Package with results of the one-dimensional Helm compaction model. This test problem simulated compaction in doubly draining confining beds stressed by head changes in adjacent aquifers. The Interbed-Storage Package and the Helm model computed essentially equal values of compaction. Documentation of the Interbed-Storage Package includes data input instructions, flow charts, narratives, and listings for each of the five modules included in the package. The documentation also includes an appendix describing input instructions and a listing of a computer program for time-variant specified-head boundaries. That package was developed to reduce the amount of data input and output associated with one of the Interbed-Storage Package test problems.
U.S. G.P.O. ;For sale by the Books and Open-File Reports Section, U.S. Geological Survey, Federal Center,
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Documentation of a computer program to simulate aquifer-system compaction using the modular finite-difference ground-water flow model; 1991; TWRI; 06-A2; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Leake, S.A.; Prudic, David E.
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A modular finite-element model (MODFE) for areal and axisymmetric ground-water-flow problems, Part 1: Model Description and User's Manual
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1993
Torak, L.J.
A MODular, Finite-Element digital-computer program (MODFE) was developed to simulate steady or unsteady-state, two-dimensional or axisymmetric ground-water flow. Geometric- and hydrologic-aquifer characteristics in two spatial dimensions are represented by triangular finite elements and linear basis functions; one-dimensional finite elements and linear basis functions represent time. Finite-element matrix equations are solved by the direct symmetric-Doolittle method or the iterative modified, incomplete-Cholesky, conjugate-gradient method. Physical processes that can be represented by the model include (1) confined flow, unconfined flow (using the Dupuit approximation), or a combination of both; (2) leakage through either rigid or elastic confining beds; (3) specified recharge or discharge at points, along lines, and over areas; (4) flow across specified-flow, specified-head, or bead-dependent boundaries; (5) decrease of aquifer thickness to zero under extreme water-table decline and increase of aquifer thickness from zero as the water table rises; and (6) head-dependent fluxes from springs, drainage wells, leakage across riverbeds or confining beds combined with aquifer dewatering, and evapotranspiration. The report describes procedures for applying MODFE to ground-water-flow problems, simulation capabilities, and data preparation. Guidelines for designing the finite-element mesh and for node numbering and determining band widths are given. Tables are given that reference simulation capabilities to specific versions of MODFE. Examples of data input and model output for different versions of MODFE are provided.
USGS-TWRI book 6, chap. A3. 136 p.
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A modular finite-element model (MODFE) for areal and axisymmetric ground-water-flow problems, Part 1: Model Description and User's Manual; 1993; TWRI; 06-A3; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Torak, L.J.
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Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
06-A4TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
A modular finite-element model (MODFE) for areal and axisymmetric ground-water-flow problems, Part 2: Derivation of finite-element equations and comparisons with analytical solutions
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1992
Cooley, Richard L.
MODFE, a modular finite-element model for simulating steady- or unsteady-state, area1 or axisymmetric flow of ground water in a heterogeneous anisotropic aquifer is documented in a three-part series of reports. In this report, part 2, the finite-element equations are derived by minimizing a functional of the difference between the true and approximate hydraulic head, which produces equations that are equivalent to those obtained by either classical variational or Galerkin techniques. Spatial finite elements are triangular with linear basis functions, and temporal finite elements are one dimensional with linear basis functions. Physical processes that can be represented by the model include (1) confined flow, unconfined flow (using the Dupuit approximation), or a combination of both; (2) leakage through either rigid or elastic confining units; (3) specified recharge or discharge at points, along lines, or areally; (4) flow across specified-flow, specified-head, or head-dependent boundaries; (5) decrease of aquifer thickness to zero under extreme water-table decline and increase of aquifer thickness from zero as the water table rises; and (6) head-dependent fluxes from springs, drainage wells, leakage across riverbeds or confining units combined with aquifer dewatering, and evapotranspiration. The matrix equations produced by the finite-element method are solved by the direct symmetric-Doolittle method or the iterative modified incomplete-Cholesky conjugate-gradient method. The direct method can be efficient for small- to medium-sized problems (less than about 500 nodes), and the iterative method is generally more efficient for larger-sized problems. Comparison of finite-element solutions with analytical solutions for five example problems demonstrates that the finite-element model can yield accurate solutions to ground-water flow problems.
viii, 108 p. :ill. ;28 cm.
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A modular finite-element model (MODFE) for areal and axisymmetric ground-water-flow problems, Part 2: Derivation of finite-element equations and comparisons with analytical solutions; 1992; TWRI; 06-A4; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Cooley, Richard L.
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twri06A54918
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
06-A5TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
A modular finite-element model (MODFE) for areal and axisymmetric ground-water-flow problems, Part 3: Design philosophy and programming details
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1993
Torak, L.J.
A MODular Finite-Element, digital-computer program (MODFE) was developed to simulate steady or unsteady-state, two-dimensional or axisymmetric ground-water-flow. The modular structure of MODFE places the computationally independent tasks that are performed routinely by digital-computer programs simulating ground-water flow into separate subroutines, which are executed from the main program by control statements. Each subroutine consists of complete sets of computations, or modules, which are identified by comment statements, and can be modified by the user without affecting unrelated computations elsewhere in the program. Simulation capabilities can be added or modified by either adding or modifying subroutines that perform specific computational tasks, and the modular-program structure allows the user to create versions of MODFE that contain only the simulation capabilities that pertain to the ground-water problem of interest. MODFE is written in a Fortran programming language that makes it virtually device independent and compatible with desk-top personal computers and large mainframes. MODFE uses computer storage and execution time efficiently by taking advantage of symmetry and sparseness within the coefficient matrices of the finite-element equations. Parts of the matrix coefficients are computed and stored as single-subscripted variables, which are assembled into a complete coefficient just prior to solution. Computer storage is reused during simulation to decrease storage requirements. Descriptions of subroutines that execute the computational steps of the modular-program structure are given in tables that cross reference the subroutines with particular versions of MODFE. Programming details of linear and nonlinear hydrologic terms are provided. Structure diagrams for the main programs show the order in which subroutines are executed for each version and illustrate some of the linear and nonlinear versions of MODFE that are possible. Computational aspects of changing stresses and boundary conditions with time and of mass-balance and error terms are given for each hydrologic feature. Program variables are listed and defined according to their occurrence in the main programs and in subroutines. Listings of the main programs and subroutines are given.
USGS-TWRI book 6, chap. A5. 243 p.
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A modular finite-element model (MODFE) for areal and axisymmetric ground-water-flow problems, Part 3: Design philosophy and programming details; 1993; TWRI; 06-A5; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Torak, L.J.
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A coupled surface-water and ground-water flow model (MODBRANCH) for simulation of stream-aquifer interaction
Thu, 1 Aug 1996 00:00 -0500
1996
U.S. G.P.O. ;U.S. Geological Survey, Information Services [distributor],
Swain, Eric D.; Wexler, Eliezer J.
Ground-water and surface-water flow models traditionally have been developed separately, with interaction between subsurface flow and streamflow either not simulated at all or accounted for by simple formulations. In areas with dynamic and hydraulically well-connected ground-water and surface-water systems, stream-aquifer interaction should be simulated using deterministic responses of both systems coupled at the stream-aquifer interface. Accordingly, a new coupled ground-water and surface-water model was developed by combining the U.S. Geological Survey models MODFLOW and BRANCH; the interfacing code is referred to as MODBRANCH. MODFLOW is the widely used modular three-dimensional, finite-difference ground-water model, and BRANCH is a one-dimensional numerical model commonly used to simulate unsteady flow in open- channel networks. MODFLOW was originally written with the River package, which calculates leakage between the aquifer and stream, assuming that the stream's stage remains constant during one model stress period. A simple streamflow routing model has been added to MODFLOW, but is limited to steady flow in rectangular, prismatic channels. To overcome these limitations, the BRANCH model, which simulates unsteady, nonuniform flow by solving the St. Venant equations, was restructured and incorporated into MODFLOW. Terms that describe leakage between stream and aquifer as a function of streambed conductance and differences in aquifer and stream stage were added to the continuity equation in BRANCH. Thus, leakage between the aquifer and stream can be calculated separately in each model, or leakages calculated in BRANCH can be used in MODFLOW. Total mass in the coupled models is accounted for and conserved. The BRANCH model calculates new stream stages for each time interval in a transient simulation based on upstream boundary conditions, stream properties, and initial estimates of aquifer heads. Next, aquifer heads are calculated in MODFLOW based on stream stages calculated by BRANCH, aquifer properties, and stresses. This process is repeated until convergence criteria are met for head and stage. Because time steps used in ground-water modeling can be much longer than time intervals used in surface- water simulations, provision has been made for handling multiple BRANCH time intervals within one MODFLOW time step. An option was also added to BRANCH to allow the simulation of channel drying and rewetting. Testing of the coupled model was verified by using data from previous studies; by comparing results with output from a simpler, four-point implicit, open-channel flow model linked with MODFLOW; and by comparison to field studies of L-31N canal in southern Florida.
U.S. G.P.O. ;U.S. Geological Survey, Information Services [distributor],
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A coupled surface-water and ground-water flow model (MODBRANCH) for simulation of stream-aquifer interaction; 1996; TWRI; 06-A6; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Swain, Eric D.; Wexler, Eliezer J.
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User's guide to SEAWAT; a computer program for simulation of three-dimensional variable-density ground-water flow
Sun, 1 Sep 2002 00:00 -0500
2002
Guo, Weixing; Langevin, C.D.
This report documents a computer program (SEAWAT) that simulates variable-density, transient, ground-water flow in three dimensions. The source code for SEAWAT was developed by combining MODFLOW and MT3DMS into a single program that solves the coupled flow and solute-transport equations. The SEAWAT code follows a modular structure, and thus, new capabilities can be added with only minor modifications to the main program. SEAWAT reads and writes standard MODFLOW and MT3DMS data sets, although some extra input may be required for some SEAWAT simulations. This means that many of the existing pre- and post-processors can be used to create input data sets and analyze simulation results. Users familiar with MODFLOW and MT3DMS should have little difficulty applying SEAWAT to problems of variable-density ground-water flow.
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User's guide to SEAWAT; a computer program for simulation of three-dimensional variable-density ground-water flow; 2002; TWRI; 06-A7; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Guo, Weixing; Langevin, C.D.
Supersedes OFR 01-434
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Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
7-ATWRI
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Instructions for using the punchcard system for the storage and retrieval of ground-water data. (NOTE: This publication is no longer maintained, USGS Library still has a copy)
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1967
U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Geological Survey,
Lang, Solomon Max; Leonard, Alvin Riley
U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Geological Survey,
nullTHUMBNAIL
Instructions for using the punchcard system for the storage and retrieval of ground-water data. (NOTE: This publication is no longer maintained, USGS Library still has a copy); 1967; TWRI; 7-A; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Lang, Solomon Max; Leonard, Alvin Riley
1967
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twri07C14724
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
07-C1TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Finite difference model for aquifer simulation in two dimensions with results of numerical experiments
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1976
U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Geological Survey,
Trescott, Peter C.; Pinder, George Francis; Larson, S.P.
The model will simulate ground-water flow in an artesian aquifer, a water-table aquifer, or a combined artesian and water-table aquifer. The aquifer may be heterogeneous and anisotropic and have irregular boundaries. The source term in the flow equation may include well discharge, constant recharge, leakage from confining beds in which the effects of storage are considered, and evapotranspiration as a linear function of depth to water. The theoretical development includes presentation of the appropriate flow equations and derivation of the finite-difference approximations (written for a variable grid). The documentation emphasizes the numerical techniques that can be used for solving the simultaneous equations and describes the results of numerical experiments using these techniques. Of the three numerical techniques available in the model, the strongly implicit procedure, in general, requires less computer time and has fewer numerical difficulties than do the iterative alternating direction implicit procedure and line successive overrelaxation (which includes a two-dimensional correction procedure to accelerate convergence). The documentation includes a flow chart, program listing, an example simulation, and sections on designing an aquifer model and requirements for data input. It illustrates how model results can be presented on the line printer and pen plotters with a program that utilizes the graphical display software available from the Geological Survey Computer Center Division. In addition the model includes options for reading input data from a disk and writing intermediate results on a disk.
U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Geological Survey,
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Finite difference model for aquifer simulation in two dimensions with results of numerical experiments; 1976; TWRI; 07-C1; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Trescott, Peter C.; Pinder, George Francis; Larson, S.P.
Revision -1976
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A digital model for aquifer evaluation
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1970
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
Pinder, George Francis
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
nullTHUMBNAIL
A digital model for aquifer evaluation; 1970; TWRI; 07-C1; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Pinder, George Francis
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twri07C24699
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
07-C2TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Computer model of two-dimensional solute transport and dispersion in ground water
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1978
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
Konikow, Leonard F.; Bredehoeft, J.D.
This report presents a model that simulates solute transport in flowing ground water. The model is both general and flexible in that it can be applied to a wide range of problem types. It is applicable to one- or two-dimensional problems involving steady-state or transient flow. The model computes changes in concentration over time caused by the processes of convective transport, hydrodynamic dispersion, and mixing (or dilution) from fluid sources. The model assumes that the solute is non-reactive and that gradients of fluid density, viscosity, and temperature do not affect the velocity distribution. However, the aquifer may be heterogeneous and (or) anisotropic. The model couples the ground-water flow equation with the solute-transport equation. The digital computer program uses an alternating-direction implicit procedure to solve a finite-difference approximation to the ground-water flow equation, and it uses the method of characteristics to solve the solute-transport equation. The latter uses a particle- tracking procedure to represent convective transport and a two-step explicit procedure to solve a finite-difference equation that describes the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion, fluid sources and sinks, and divergence of velocity. This explicit procedure has several stability criteria, but the consequent time-step limitations are automatically determined by the program. The report includes a listing of the computer program, which is written in FORTRAN IV and contains about 2,000 lines. The model is based on a rectangular, block-centered, finite difference grid. It allows the specification of any number of injection or withdrawal wells and of spatially varying diffuse recharge or discharge, saturated thickness, transmissivity, boundary conditions, and initial heads and concentrations. The program also permits the designation of up to five nodes as observation points, for which a summary table of head and concentration versus time is printed at the end of the calculations. The data input formats for the model require three data cards and from seven to nine data sets to describe the aquifer properties, boundaries, and stresses. The accuracy of the model was evaluated for two idealized problems for which analytical solutions could be obtained. In the case of one-dimensional flow the agreement was nearly exact, but in the case of plane radial flow a small amount of numerical dispersion occurred. An analysis of several test problems indicates that the error in the mass balance will be generally less than 10 percent. The test problems demonstrated that the accuracy and precision of the numerical solution is sensitive to the initial number of particles placed in each cell and to the size of the time increment, as determined by the stability criteria. Mass balance errors are commonly the greatest during the first several time increments, but tend to decrease and stabilize with time.
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
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Computer model of two-dimensional solute transport and dispersion in ground water; 1978; TWRI; 07-C2; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Konikow, Leonard F.; Bredehoeft, J.D.
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twri07C34716
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
07-C3TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
A model for simulation of flow in singular and interconnected channels
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1981
U.S. G.P.O.,
Schaffranek, Raymond W.; Baltzer, R.A.; Goldberg, D.E.
A one-dimensional numerical model is presented for simulating the unsteady flow in singular riverine or estuarine reaches and in networks of reaches composed of interconnected channels. The model is both general and flexible in that it can be used to simulate a wide range of flow conditions for various channel configurations. The channel geometry of the network to be modeled should be sufficiently simple so as to lend itself to characterization in one spatial dimension. The flow must be substantially homogenous in density, and hydrostatic pressure must prevail everywhere in the network channels. The slope of each channel bottom ought to be mild and reasonably constant over its length so that the flow remains subcritical. The model accommodates tributary inflows and diversions and includes the effects of wind shear on the water surface as a forcing function in the flow equations. Water-surface elevations and flow discharges are computed at channel junctions, as well as at specified intermediate locations within the network channels. The one-dimensional branch-network flow model uses a four-point, implicit, finite-difference approximation of the unsteady-flow equations. The flow equations are linearized over a time step, and branch transformations are formulated that describe the relationship between the unknowns at the end points of the channels. The resultant matrix of branch-transformation equations and required boundary-condition equations is solved by Gaussian elimination using maximum pivot strategy. Five example applications of the flow model are illustrated. The applications cover such diverse conditions as a singular upland river reach in which unsteady flow results from hydropower regulations, coastal rivers composed of sequentially connected reaches subject to unsteady tide-driven flow, and a multiply connected network of channels whose flow is principally governed by wind tides and seiches in adjoining lakes. The report includes a listing of the FORTRAN IV computer program and a description of the input data requirements. Model supporting programs for the processing and input of initial and boundary-value data are identified, various model output formats are illustrated, and instructions are given to permit the production of graphical output using the line printer, electromechanical pen plotters, cathode-ray-tube display units, or microfilm recorders.
U.S. G.P.O.,null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
A model for simulation of flow in singular and interconnected channels; 1981; TWRI; 07-C3; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Schaffranek, Raymond W.; Baltzer, R.A.; Goldberg, D.E.
1981 edition
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4704
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07-C3TWRIUSGS Numbered Series
Preparation of input data for automatic computation of stage-discharge relations at culverts
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1968
[U.S.G.S.?,
Matthai, Howard Frederick; Stull, Harold E.; Davidian, Jacob
[U.S.G.S.?,null,pdfTHUMBNAIL,DOCUMENT
Preparation of input data for automatic computation of stage-discharge relations at culverts; 1968; TWRI; 07-C3; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Matthai, Howard Frederick; Stull, Harold E.; Davidian, Jacob
1968
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83
twri08A14683
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
08-A1TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Methods of measuring water levels in deep wells
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1968
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
Garber, M.S.; Koopman, F.C.
Accurate measurement of water levels deeper than 1,000 feet in wells requires specialized equipment. Corrections for stretch and thermal expansion of measuring tapes must be considered, and other measuring devices must be calibrated periodically. Bore-hole deviation corrections also must be made. Devices for recording fluctuation of fluid level usually require mechanical modification for use at these depths. A multichannel recording device utilizing pressure transducers has been constructed. This device was originally designed to record aquifer response to nearby underground nuclear explosions but can also be used for recording data from multi-well pumping tests. Bottom-hole recording devices designed for oil-field use have been utilized in a limited manner. These devices were generally found to lack the precision required, in ground-water investigations at the Nevada Test Site but may be applicable in other areas. A newly developed bottom-hole recording pressure gauge of improved accuracy has been used with satisfactory results.
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
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Methods of measuring water levels in deep wells; 1968; TWRI; 08-A1; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Garber, M.S.; Koopman, F.C.
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twri08A24677
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
08-A2TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Installation and service manual for the U.S. Geological Survey manometers
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1983
U.S. G.P.O.,
Craig, James D.
The purpose of this manual is to describe the installation, operation, and maintenance of the bubble-gage manometers currently (1982) used by the U.S. Geological Survey. Other applications of these devices, such as the long manometer and differential manometer, are discussed, and accessories available for them are described. The bubble gage (water-stage manometer with gas-purge system) described in the Installation and Service Manual, October 1962, has been extensively modified and developed into the STACOM (stabilized and temperature compensated) device. This chapter is the manual for the STACOM unit and an update of the manual for the screw-type bubble gage. A parts list is included for both units.
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Installation and service manual for the U.S. Geological Survey manometers; 1983; TWRI; 08-A2; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Craig, James D.
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Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
08-A3TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Use of submersible pressure transducers in water-resources investigations
Fri, 1 Oct 2004 00:00 -0500
2004
Freeman, Lawrence A.; Carpenter, Michael C.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Rousseau, Joseph P.; Unger, Randy; McLean, John S.
Submersible pressure transducers, developed in the early 1960s, have made the collection of water-level and pressure data much more convenient than former methods. Submersible pressure transducers, when combined with electronic data recorders have made it possible to collect continuous or nearly continuous water-level or pressure data from wells, piezometers, soil-moisture tensiometers, and surface water gages. These more frequent measurements have led to an improved understanding of the hydraulic processes in streams, soils, and aquifers. This manual describes the operational theory behind submersible pressure transducers and provides information about their use in hydrologic investigations conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey.
xi, 52 p.null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Use of submersible pressure transducers in water-resources investigations; 2004; TWRI; 08-A3; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Freeman, Lawrence A.; Carpenter, Michael C.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Rousseau, Joseph P.; Unger, Randy; McLean, John S.
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Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
08-B2TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Calibration and maintenance of vertical-axis type current meters
Sat, 1 Jan 1994 00:00 -0600
1968
U. S. Govt. Print. Off., (for sale by Branch of Distribution, U. S. Geological Survey, Arlington, Va.),
Smoot, George F.; Novak, Charles E.
The purpose of this chapter is to describe the procedures used in the manufacture and calibration of current meters and to present in detail information pertinent to their proper maintenance and repair. Recent intensive studies on the calibration of current meters and the effects of wear of the component parts on the performance of the meters have led to the adoption of new procedures for the manufacture, calibration, maintenance, and repair of meters. This chapter, therefore, updates the provisional manual 'Care and Rating of Current Meters' (1957) by including these new procedures.
U. S. Govt. Print. Off., (for sale by Branch of Distribution, U. S. Geological Survey, Arlington, Va.),
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Calibration and maintenance of vertical-axis type current meters; 1968; TWRI; 08-B2; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; Smoot, George F.; Novak, Charles E.
-
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri8b2/
87
twri0977024
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
09TWRI
Table of contents with links to chapters PDFs available at USGS
National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, Book 9
Tue, 13 Jul 2004 00:00 -0500
0000
Geological Survey (U.S.)
U.S. Geological Survey
The mission of the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is to provide the information and understanding needed for wise management of the Nation's water resources. Inherent in this mission is the responsibility to collect data that accurately describe the physical, chemical, and biological attributes of water systems. These data are used for environmental and resource assessments by the USGS, other government agenices and scientific organizations, and the general public. Reliable and quality-assured data are essential to the credibility and impartiality of the water-resources appraisals carried out by the USGS. The development and use of a National Field Manual is necessary to achieve consistency in the scientific methods and procedures used, to document those methods and procedures, and to maintain technical expertise. USGS field personnel use this manual to ensure that the data collected are of the quality required to fulfill our mission.
Geological Survey (U.S.)
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, Book 9; 0000; TWRI; 09; Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation; U.S. Geological Survey
-
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpghttp://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/
88
twri09A14907
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
09-A1TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Chapter A1. Preparations for Water Sampling
Tue, 1 Jun 1999 00:00 -0500
1998
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Wilde, Franceska D.; Radtke, Dean B.; Gibs, Jacob; Iwatsubo, Rick T.
The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) provides guidelines and standard procedures for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. This chapter addresses field-trip preparations, including selection of sample-collection sites for studies of surface-water quality, site reconnaissance and well selection for studies of groundwater quality, and the establishment of electronic files and field files and folders for a sampling site. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters are posted on the World Wide Web on the USGS page 'National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/ (accessed Jan. 31, 2005).
Geological Survey (U.S.)
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Chapter A1. Preparations for Water Sampling; 1998; TWRI; 09-A1; National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, Book 9; Wilde, Franceska D.; Radtke, Dean B.; Gibs, Jacob; Iwatsubo, Rick T.
Version 2.0, Revised Jan 2005
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpg
http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/chapter1/Ch1_contents.html
USGS Numbered Series
89
twri09A24908
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
09-A2TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Chapter A2. Selection of Equipment for Water Sampling
Tue, 1 Jun 1999 00:00 -0500
1998
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Wilde, Franceska D., (Edited By); Radtke, Dean B.; Gibs, Jacob; Iwatsubo, Rick T.
The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. This chapter of the manual addresses the selection of equipment commonly used by USGS personnel to collect and process water-quality samples. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters will be posted on the World Wide Web on the USGS page 'National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/ (accessed March 20, 2003).
Geological Survey (U.S.)
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Chapter A2. Selection of Equipment for Water Sampling; 1998; TWRI; 09-A2; National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, Book 9; Wilde, Franceska D., (Edited By); Radtke, Dean B.; Gibs, Jacob; Iwatsubo, Rick T.
Version 2.0, Revised Mar 2003
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpg
http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/Chapter2/Ch2_contents.html
USGS Numbered Series
90
twri09A34909
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
09-A3TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Chapter A3. Cleaning of Equipment for Water Sampling
Tue, 1 Jun 1999 00:00 -0500
1998
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Wilde, Franceska D., (Edited By); Radtke, Dean B.; Gibs, Jacob; Iwatsubo, Rick T.
The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. Chapter A3 describes procedures for cleaning the equipment used to collect and process samples of surface water and ground water and procedures for assessing the efficacy of the equipment-cleaning process. This chapter is designed for use with the other chapters of this field manual. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters will be posted on the USGS page 'National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/ (accessed September 20, 2004).
Geological Survey (U.S.)
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Chapter A3. Cleaning of Equipment for Water Sampling; 1998; TWRI; 09-A3; National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, Book 9; Wilde, Franceska D., (Edited By); Radtke, Dean B.; Gibs, Jacob; Iwatsubo, Rick T.
Version 2.0
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpg
http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/chapter3/Ch3_contents.html
USGS Numbered Series
91
twri09A44910
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
09-A4TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Chapter A4. Collection of Water Samples
Wed, 1 Dec 1999 00:00 -0600
1999
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Wilde, Franceska D., (Edited By)
The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data that are used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. This chapter addresses preparations and appropriate methods for the collection of surface-water, groundwater, and associated quality-control samples. Among the topics covered are considerations and procedures to prevent sample contamination; establishing site files; instructions for collecting depth-integrated isokinetic and nonisokinetic samples at flowing- and still-water sites; and guidelines for collecting formation water from wells having various types of construction and hydraulic and aquifer characteristics.
Geological Survey (U.S.)
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Chapter A4. Collection of Water Samples; 1999; TWRI; 09-A4; National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, Book 9; Wilde, Franceska D., (Edited By)
Version 2.0, Revised Sep 2006
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpg
http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/chapter4/html/Ch4_contents.html
USGS Numbered Series
92
twri09A54911
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
09-A5TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Chapter A5. Processing of Water Samples
Thu, 1 Jul 1999 00:00 -0500
1999
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Wilde, Franceska D., (Edited By); Radtke, Dean B.; Gibs, Jacob; Iwatsubo, Rick T.
The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. This chapter addresses methods to be used in processing water samples to be analyzed for inorganic and organic chemical substances, including the bottling of composite, pumped, and bailed samples and subsamples; sample filtration; solid-phase extraction for pesticide analyses; sample preservation; and sample handling and shipping. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters will be announced on the USGS Home Page on the World Wide Web under 'New Publications of the U.S. Geological Survey.' The URL for this page is http:/ /water.usgs.gov/lookup/get?newpubs.
Geological Survey (U.S.)
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Chapter A5. Processing of Water Samples; 1999; TWRI; 09-A5; National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, Book 9; Wilde, Franceska D., (Edited By); Radtke, Dean B.; Gibs, Jacob; Iwatsubo, Rick T.
Version 2.2, Revised Jan 2005
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpg
http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/chapter5/html/Ch5_contents.html
USGS Numbered Series
93
twri09A5.6.1.F
80039
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
09-A5.6.1.F
TWRIUSGS Numbered Series
Chapter A5. Section 6.1.F. Wastewater, Pharmaceutical, and Antibiotic Compounds
Wed, 20 Jun 2007 00:00 -0500
2003
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Lewis, Michael Edward; Zaugg, Steven D.
The USGS differentiates between samples collected for analysis of wastewater compounds and those collected for analysis of pharmaceutical and antibiotic compounds, based on the analytical schedule for the laboratory method. Currently, only the wastewater laboratory method for field-filtered samples (SH1433) is an approved, routine (production) method. (The unfiltered wastewater method LC 8033 also is available but requires a proposal for custom analysis.) At this time, analysis of samples for pharmaceutical and antibiotic compounds is confined to research studies and is available only on a custom basis.
Geological Survey (U.S.)
null,html,pdf
THUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE,DOCUMENT
Chapter A5. Section 6.1.F. Wastewater, Pharmaceutical, and Antibiotic Compounds; 2003; TWRI; 09-A5.6.1.F; National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, Book 9; Lewis, Michael Edward; Zaugg, Steven D.
Version 1.1
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpg
http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/chapter5/html/Ch5_contents.html
http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/chapter5/5.6.1.F_v-1.1_4-03.pdf
USGS Numbered Series
94
twri09A5.6.4.A
80040
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
09-A5.6.4.A
TWRIUSGS Numbered Series
Chapter A5. Section 6.4.A. Arsenic Speciation
Wed, 20 Jun 2007 00:00 -0500
2005
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Garbarino, John R.
Two sample-processing methods (field speciation and laboratory speciation) used at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) are specific to sample analysis by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for determining the concentration of inorganic and organic arsenic species in a water sample. The field-speciation method requires NWQL Schedule 1729. The laboratory-speciation method requires use either of NWQL Schedule 1730, 1731, or 1732, as appropriate for study objectives. For either the field- or laboratory-speciation method, prior knowledge is needed of sample matrix-composition characteristics (that is, major-ion concentrations in filtered samples). Major-ion data are necessary to determine (1) the volume of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) that will be required for sample preservation, and (2) if sample dilution is required.
Geological Survey (U.S.)
null,html,pdf
THUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE,DOCUMENT
Chapter A5. Section 6.4.A. Arsenic Speciation; 2005; TWRI; 09-A5.6.4.A; National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, Book 9; Garbarino, John R.
Version 1.1
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpg
http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/chapter5/html/Ch5_contents.html
http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/chapter5/pdf/5.6.4.A_v.1.1.pdf
USGS Numbered Series
95
twri09A5.6.4.B
80041
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
09-A5.6.4.B
TWRIUSGS Numbered Series
Chapter A5. Section 6.4.B. Low-Level Mercury
Wed, 20 Jun 2007 00:00 -0500
2004
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Lewis, Michael Edward; Brigham, Mark E.
Collecting and processing water samples for analysis of mercury at a low (subnanogram per liter) level requires use of ultratrace-level techniques for equipment cleaning, sample collection, and sample processing. Established techniques and associated quality-assurance (QA) procedures for the collection and processing of water samples for trace-element analysis at the part-per-billion level (NFM 3-5) are not adequate for low-level mercury samples. Modifications to the part-per-billion procedures are necessary to minimize contamination of samples at a typical ambient mercury concentration, which commonly is at the subnanogram-per-liter level.
Geological Survey (U.S.)
null,html,pdf
THUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE,DOCUMENT
Chapter A5. Section 6.4.B. Low-Level Mercury; 2004; TWRI; 09-A5.6.4.B; National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, Book 9; Lewis, Michael Edward; Brigham, Mark E.
Version 1.0
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpg
http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/chapter5/html/Ch5_contents.html
http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/chapter5/pdf/5.6.4.B_v1.0.pdf
USGS Numbered Series
96
twri09A64912
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
09-A6TWRI
Table of contents with links to chapters PDFs available at USGS
Chapter A6. Field Measurements
Sun, 10 Jan 1999 00:00 -0600
1998
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Wilde, Franceska D., (Edited By); Radtke, Dean B.
The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) provides guidelines and standard procedures for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. Chapter A6 presents procedures and guidelines for the collection of data on air and water temperature, and on dissolved-oxygen concentrations, specific electrical conductance, pH, reduction-oxidation potential, alkalinity, and turbidity in water. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters are posted on the World Wide Web on the USGS page 'National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A (accessed August 6, 2005).
Geological Survey (U.S.)
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Chapter A6. Field Measurements; 1998; TWRI; 09-A6; National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, Book 9; Wilde, Franceska D., (Edited By); Radtke, Dean B.
Revised 2006
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpg
http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/Chapter6/Ch6_contents.html
USGS Numbered Series
97
twri09A6.080043
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
09-A6.0TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Chapter A6. Section 6.0. General Information and Guidelines
Wed, 20 Jun 2007 00:00 -0500
2005
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Wilde, Franceska D.; Radtke, Dean B.
This report summarizes information, guidelines, and minimum requirements that apply generally to the seven field-measurement sections that comprise the rest of Chapter A6 of this U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (NFM). Protocols are specified for establishing and maintaining data records, use of field-measurement instruments and methods, and quality assurance of data-collection and reporting methods that are relevant to surface-water and ground-water field-measurement activities.
Geological Survey (U.S.)
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Chapter A6. Section 6.0. General Information and Guidelines; 2005; TWRI; 09-A6.0; National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, Book 9; Wilde, Franceska D.; Radtke, Dean B.
Version 1.2
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpg
http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/Chapter6/6.0_contents.html
USGS Numbered Series
98
twri09A6.180044
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
09-A6.1TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGSChapter A6. Section 6.1. Temperature
Wed, 20 Jun 2007 00:00 -0500
2006
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Revised by Wilde, Franceska D.
Accurate temperature measurements are required for accurate determinations of important environmental parameters such as pH, specific electrical conductance, and dissolved oxygen, and to the determination of chemical reaction rates and equilibria, biological activity, and physical fluid properties. This section of the National Field Manual (NFM) describes U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) guidance and protocols for measurement of temperature in air, ground water, and surface water and calibration of the equipment used.
Geological Survey (U.S.)
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Chapter A6. Section 6.1. Temperature; 2006; TWRI; 09-A6.1; National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, Book 9; Revised by Wilde, Franceska D.
Version 2
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpg
http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/Chapter6/6.1_contents.html
USGS Numbered Series
99
twri09A6.280045
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
09-A6.2TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Chapter A6. Section 6.2. Dissolved Oxygen
Wed, 20 Jun 2007 00:00 -0500
2006
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Revised by Lewis, Michael Edward
Accurate data for the concentration of dissolved oxygen in surface and ground waters are essential for documenting changes in environmental water resources that result from natural phenomena and human activities. Dissolved oxygen is necessary in aquatic systems for the survival and growth of many aquatic organisms and is used as an indicator of the health of surface-water bodies. This section of the National Field Manual (NFM) includes U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) guidance and protocols for four methods to determine dissolved-oxygen concentrations: the amperometric, luminescent-sensor, spectrophotometric, and iodometric (Winkler) methods.
Geological Survey (U.S.)
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Chapter A6. Section 6.2. Dissolved Oxygen; 2006; TWRI; 09-A6.2; National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, Book 9; Revised by Lewis, Michael Edward
Version 2.1
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpg
http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/Chapter6/6.2_contents.html
USGS Numbered Series
100
twri09A6.380046
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
09-A6.3TWRIAvailable in PDF with USGS
Chapter A6. Section 6.3. Specific Electrical Conductance
Wed, 20 Jun 2007 00:00 -0500
2005
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Radtke, Dean B.; Davis, Jerri V.; Wilde, Franceska D.
Electrical conductance is a measure of the capacity of a substance to conduct an electrical current. The specific electrical conductance (conductivity) of water is a function of the types and quantities of dissolved substances it contains, normalized to a unit length and unit cross section at a specified temperature. This section of the National Field Manual (NFM) describes U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) guidance and protocols for measurement of conductivity in ground and surface waters.
Geological Survey (U.S.)
null,htmlTHUMBNAIL,INDEX PAGE
Chapter A6. Section 6.3. Specific Electrical Conductance; 2005; TWRI; 09-A6.3; National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, Book 9; Radtke, Dean B.; Davis, Jerri V.; Wilde, Franceska D.
Version 1.2
ENGLISH
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/usgs_thumb.jpg
http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/Chapter6/6.3_contents.html
USGS Numbered Series