Extended Gamergate Timeline for FMS 321
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YearMonthDayTimeEnd YearEnd MonthEnd DayEnd TimeDisplay DateHeadlineTextMediaMedia CreditMedia CaptionMedia ThumbnailTypeGroupBackground
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An Alternate History of GamergateStudents in "Interactive Digital Narratives" at Davidson College created this alternate timeline of Gamergate, showing how Gamergate was only the public manifestation of much larger cultural anxieties about gender, race, and videogames. The assignment for this project is on the <a href="http://courses.digitaldavidson.net/fms321/lab-5-timeline/">FMS 321 site<a>.http://tr4.cbsistatic.com/hub/i/2014/03/17/b3dfca27-6ca7-4bf9-b3ab-179f3dfed3ac/a59123d2d5d30a0092569c7bca26145a/firstprogrammers.jpgU.S. Army (1946)<a href="http://www.columbia.edu/cu/computinghistory/eniac.html">Gloria Ruth Gordon [Bolotsky] and Ester Gerston on the ENIAC</a>title
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1989Third Wave FeminismThis was the first instance of using the term "Third Wave Feminism". It refers to multiple new strains of feminism that came about during the late 1980's and 1990's. It was referred to as an "individual movement", as it redefined what it is to be a feminist. http://coeducation.dickinson.edu/sites/all/files/images/Lily%2025.preview.jpgRebecca Walker Guiding the Third Wave Feminism movement
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2011228Beyond Good And Evil Went Under the RadarBeyond Good and Evil was a game that came out in the early 2000s which also happened to have a female protagonist. Despite being an incredible game, it did poorly at sales. Yet, it's achieved cult value and Gamer Reaction pay tribute to it.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lmhQLUA-_pQGamer ReactionA video discussing the sales failure of Beyond Good & Evil
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1964527ThunderballThe second film in the first James Bond series, starring Daniela Bianchi and Sean Connery. The film grossed 78 million, making it a huge commerical successhttps://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/236x/22/74/21/2274211be6e53621a40c4cef44399bb4.jpgPinterestSean Connery and Daniela Bianchi
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1963219The Feminine MystiqueIn 1962, Betty Friedan's book The Feminine Mystique captured the frustration and even the despair of a generation of college-educated housewives who felt trapped and unfulfilled...Friedan stunned the nation by contradicting the accepted wisdom that housewives were content to serve their families and by calling on women to seek fulfillment in work outside the home. While Friedan's writing largely spoke to an audience of educated, upper-middle-class white women, her work had such an impact that it is credited with sparking the "second wave" of the American feminist movement. (Source: https://tavaana.org/en/content/1960s-70s-american-feminist-movement-breaking-down-barriers-women)https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/8/8f/The_Feminine_Mystique.jpgWikipediaThe cover of The Feminine Mystique
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2016102011:00AM ESTNintendo announces the Nintendo SwitchNintendo's debut trailer for their latest console, the Nintendo Switch, includes a scene depicting a female Switch owner, displaying the company's re-doubled dedication to marketing to female gamers.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f5uik5fgIaIYouTube
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199186The Launching of the World Wide WebThis is the day that the internet became publicly available. It was not very popular at the time, as not many people knew what the Internet was. Marked the beginning of widespread communication.https://communitysense.files.wordpress.com/2014/03/world-wide-web.jpg
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201143SlutWalkThe first march by women in Toronto, who wore sexy outfits in order to protest rape culture and the notion that women who are dressed scantily are "asking for it."https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SlutWalkWikipedia
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19323251932Tarzan the Ape ManThis 1932 film was the first of many more Tarzan films later produced. The "saving Africa" plot line features competent, civilized white explorers and researchers contrasted aganist wild, undeveloped African tribesmen. The early films especially have been critiqued as being heavily imperalist, "steeped in the paternalistic idea that it takes a white man to save Africa." (LA Times). Even in a film about Africa, Tarzan still manages to make it all about the white guys, with black and female characters left in the background. http://ilarge.lisimg.com/image/4172555/1118full-tarzan-the-ape-man-poster.jpgListalTarzan and Jane Parker
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20031029First Call of Duty ReleasedInfinity Ward/Activision released the first Call of Duty game in 2003. Call of Duty would go on to become a massive industry juggernaut that still commands a devoted following. Later games in the series became famous for their online multiplayer, and infamous for the abuse heaped upon female players in-game. The series only began to feature female avatars and in-game characters in 2013.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Call_of_DutyWikipedia
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196343Birmingham CampaignDuring the Civil Rights movement, community leaders such as Martin Luther King, Jr. organized protests for integration in America's most segregated city. The racial tension between the peaceful black protestors and the white Alabama government/police department led to black protestors being injured by fire hoses, maimed by police dogs, and other violence that was captured by photojournalists and television networks. These violent images showed the white American public clearly how deeply racism affected the black community. In this way, the Civil Rights movement morphed the perceived stereotypical image of the black community into an image worthy of support in a fight against oppression.https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/9f/Birmingham_campaign_water_hoses.jpgWikipedia, "Birmingham Campaign"High school students are hit by a high-pressure water jet from a firehose during a peaceful walk in Birmingham, Alabama in 1963.
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20131011Women Are Difficut to Draw Because They Have to Be Pretty A Disney animator argues that women are difficult to animate for cartoons/animated films because they must be drawn to be beautiful.https://thedissolve.com/news/655-disney-animator-says-women-are-hard-to-draw-becaus/The Dissolve
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20161020Feminist Frequency Twitter responds to Red Dead Redemption 2 announcementFeminist Frequency tweets criticism at Rockstar's debut poster for Red Dead Redemption 2, noting that the silhoutted cast lacks female representation. Tweet text: "Really disappointing that Rockstar continues to exclude & marginalize women, who are all but nonexistent in the initial marketing for RDR2."https://twitter.com/femfreq/status/789202036315201537Twitter
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19881990AIDS EpidemicStarting in 1988, experts become more critical of AIDS drugs trials, saying they bypass key segments of the population, including women and nonwhites.https://partners.nytimes.com/library/national/science/aids/timeline88-90.htmlNew York Times
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19421945Rosie the RiveterRosie the Riveter is a cultural icon of the United States, representing the American women who worked in factories and shipyards during World War II, many of whom produced munitions and war supplies. These women sometimes took entirely new jobs replacing the male workers who were in the military. Rosie the Riveter is used as a symbol of feminism and women's economic power...Images of women workers were widespread in the media as government posters, and commercial advertising was heavily used by the government to encourage women to volunteer for wartime service in factories. Source: Wikipedia In relation to video games, we see Rosie the Riveter as a facade of feminism. This image lasted just for wartime, as the US returned to a very sterotypical image of womanhood in the 1950s. This facade relates to video games, because though female characters are represented as strong in video games, they tend to be sexualized, creating a facade of empowerment rather than the real thing https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/12/We_Can_Do_It!.jpgWikipediaThe most common Rosie the Riveter image
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2009724Princess and the Frog Trailer DebutThe release of a trailer by Disney featuring their first black princess, who rather than search for a man, has the goal of opening a restaurant despite facing prejudice.https://youtu.be/uQBy6jqbmlUYoutube
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19821Release of Ms. Pac ManMs. Pac was the first female videogame protagonist, and her edition of Pac Man went on to greatly outsell the original.http://static.giantbomb.com/uploads/original/9/93770/2371237-genesis_mspacman.jpgGiant Bomb
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2016725Disney reveals Moana castDisney unveils the character design for the heroine of their latest animated feature, Moana. The film's directors claim that they designed the titular character as "an action hero, capable of action," thus distinguishing her from the zero-waist-size princesses in Disney's past films.http://assets1.ignimgs.com/thumbs/userUploaded/2015/10/7/36190303moana-1280-1444244059382_1280w.jpgIGN
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1984Geraldine Ferraro Becomes First Female Vice Presidential NomineeFerraro was the first woman to make it on to a first political party's presidential ticket. She was also from an family of Italian immigrants. This was a signifigant moment in United States political history. Ferraro faced opposition following her placement on the ticket. 22% of American women were "excited" about her selection and 18% of women thought it was a "bad idea." The Democratic Party lost in a landslide defeat against Reagan. http://img.timeinc.net/time/magazine/archive/covers/1984/1101840723_400.jpgTimes
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1972Arcade Games When videogames were first surfacing, no one actually knew what they were doing. Graphics had minimal capabilites and most of the games, especially arcade games, were targeted towards beer drinking adults. The arcade game, Tapper, players would play the part of a bartender giving out drinks. According to Carol Shaw, a female developer at Atari, "We never really discussed who our target demographic was. We didn't discuss gender or age. We just did games we thought would be fun." http://cdn2us.denofgeek.com/sites/denofgeekus/files/crash-main_26.jpg
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1983Videogame CrashWhen the videogame industry crashed, the marketing team decided to target a specific audience. The audience they decided on was young males (originally 5-10, then 10-15). This led to the first divide between gamers in the industry. (Sorry this got deleted twice, so I'm keeping it short!) (polygon.com)http://cdn-static.denofgeek.com/sites/denofgeek/files/styles/insert_main_wide_image/public/crash.jpg
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2016720Milo Yiannopoulos banned from Twitter.Milo Yiannopoulos, prime instigator of GamerGate, is banned from Twitter for his racist and sexist remarks toward actress Leslie Jones.https://static01.nyt.com/images/2016/07/20/business/20twitter01/20twitter01-master768.jpgNew York Times
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2008Jonathan Blow's Braid pushes game design to be about thought-provoking, puzzle gamesJonathan Blow is a videogame designer whose various alternative indie games, like Braid (2008) and The Witness (2016), redeem the medium of vidogames as a space or puzzles, adventure, and exploration with complex issues.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i7h7AleSCF4http://www.vanityfair.com/culture/2015/03/jonathan-blow-the-witnessThe first official trailer of The Witness, which was released in 2013.
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19723"Pink-Collar"In March of 1972 the idea of pink-collar jobs was coined during the ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment. This term was originally used to denote women who held secretarial and office positions that were neither blue-collar nor white-collar, but has since been expanded to include "feminine" jobs such as nurses and teachers. https://timebusinessblog.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/pinkcollar.jpg?w=600Time Magazine
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1994913Violence Against Women ActFederal Law passed in 1994 that enhanced penalties for sex offenders and allocated funds for services helping victims of rape and domestic violence. This landmark legislation increased the penalties for those who participate in the gender-based violence and increased the resources available for the victims.http://feminist.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/stopviolenceagainstwomen.jpgFeminist.org
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