ca. 15,000 B.C.3500 BC3300 BCc. 700 BC45 BCc. 800 AD
11th Century AD
late 19th century
Design in Context: Collective Design History—a timeline, f2018
A collective timeline of Graphic Design Histories.
*Make sure you include, world/cultural history, culture, art, music, food, historical figure, movements, ideas, significant events… any and all relevant moments as you see it in relations to Graphic Design development.
**Each student is responsible for no less than 25 posts in the finished timeline. You must sign each post with your initial as well as color coding your entries (see key at bottom left of document).
DATE(s)ca. 15,000 B.C.3500 BCc. 700 BC45 BCc. 800 AD
11th Century AD
late 19th century
the Venus Of Willendorf is estimated to have been created as early as 30,000BCE. Researchers theorize that her exaggerated body was desirable for reproduction. I personally prefer the theory that it was a self portrait, and the exaggerated body parts are because of foreshortening that takes place when you look down at your own body, and her lack of a face is because there weren't mirrors readily available. -JMAboriginal Art: the oldest example is estimated to be around 40,000 years old and symbols in aboriginal art were used as a meaning of communication of their lives, rituals, and food. -ACRoman architecture changes focus to internal space, in shift from Greek tradition centered on buildings in relation to their external, natural environment. Roman bathhouses are community gathering spaces and built to facilitate the experience of the bather as they move through space. ~SSChinese bronze-casters laud the speed and grace of horses imported from Central Asia and are inspired by them to cast one in full gallop with only a single hoof alighting on a flying swallow. /XC7th century: GO is an abstract strategy board game for two players, in which the aim is to surround more territory than the opponent. The game was invented in China more than 2,500 years ago and is believed to be the oldest board game continuously played to the present day. -AC7th or 8th century: Sushi was developed in Japan from earlier forms that came from China. -AC
17th (?) century Japan: the Three Wise Monkeys: Mizaru, who sees no evil; Kikazaru, who hears no evil; and Iwazaru, who speaks no evil. -AC
THE RENAISSANCE:1400's—1500's in Europe /RT 1500: Ballet originated during the Italian Renaissance and developed further in France and Russia. -AC16th century Japan: ORIGAMI 'ori' meaning to fold and 'kami' meaning paper. -AC16th century: ASTROLOGY: The term (in full natural astrology ) originally denoted the practical uses of astronomy, applied in the measurement of time and the prediction of natural phenomena. -AC1751 electricity is discovered -KSWolfgang Amadeus Mozart lives. He was was arguably the most gifted musician in the history of classical music. His inspiration is often described as 'divine', but he worked assiduously, not only to become the great composer he was, but also a conductor, virtuoso pianist, organist and violinist. USA is born, July 4, 1776 in Philadelphia. /RT1796: The accidental invention of lithography by Alois Senefelder. This method of duplication used limestone and greasy crayons to print on cotton with rolled-on ink. Printmaking placed art into the public's hands in an affordable and accessible form. -ACWilliam Morris: English textile designer, poet, novelist, translator, and socialist activist. Associated with the British Arts and Crafts Movement, he was a major contributor to the revival of traditional British textile arts and methods of production. His literary contributions helped to establish the modern fantasy genre, while he played a significant role in propagating the early socialist movement in Britain.Queen Victoria makes the bold and odd choice(for the time) of wearing a white wedding dress. -SWModernism emerges in France. Key figures include: Claude Monet, Henri Matisse, Kazimir Malevich, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Salvador Dali, Pablo Picasso, and Piet Mondrian. Work below is Guernica by Pablo Picasso. /RTThe Minneapolis School of Fine Art is opened in an apartment in downtown Minneapolis. It will be renamed the Minneapolis College of Art and Design in 1970. -JBWalt Disney is born and would later create Walt Disney Studios. -SWEdvard Munch, The Scream, 1893. Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas. /XCFuturism appears in Italy lead by poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. It emphasized speed, technology, youth, and violence. founded: artistic and architectural philosophy that originated in Russia beginning in 1913 by Vladimir Tatlin. Poster below by Alexander Rodochenko. /RT DADA founded in Zuric by Hans Arp. Key figures in the movement included Hugo Ball, Marcel Duchamp, Emmy Hennings, Hans Arp, Raoul Hausmann, Hannah Höch, Johannes Baader, Tristan Tzara, Francis Picabia, Huelsenbeck, George Grosz, John Heartfield, Man Ray, Beatrice Wood, Kurt Schwitters, Hans Richter, Max Ernst, and Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven among others. /RTDe Stijl (the new style in Dutch) founded in the Netherlands. Art below by Piet Mondrian. /RT1928, Mickey Mouse is created! -JFRise of Fascism and Communism in post-WWI Europe, which focused on the collective of society, law and order, national unity, rejection of individualism. -JBA stock-market crash in the United States leads to the Great Depression, a severe world-wide economic depression. -JB1928: Bird in Space by Romanian sculptor Constantin Brâncuși. -AC1930: Piet Mondrian: Composition II in Red, Blue, and Yellow. -ACEdward Tufte was born in 1942 and is an American statistician and professor emeritus of political science, statistics, and computer science. He was a pioneer in the field of data visualization and he was noted for his writings on information design. He coined the word chartjunk to which refers his ideas on useless, non-informative, or information-obsuring elements. -BMOA icon of mid-century modern architecture is Ludwig Mies van der Rohe's Farnsworth House, completed in 1951./XC 1867-1959 Frank Lloyd Wright: an American architect, interior designer, writer, and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures, 532 of which were completed. Wright believed in designing structures that were in harmony with humanity and its environment, a philosophy he called organic architecture. -ACConsumerism in America reaches its peak. An influx of new inventions for the househouse and a booming post-war economy combine to make the advertising industry more important than ever. -JBlate 60's / 1970's: Performance Art is interdisciplinary; it challenges traditional forms of visual art and intends to give the audience an authentic experience that cannot be repeated. Movements involving body art, futurism, and dada resulted from seizing the moment in- action. -ACThe Vietnam War involving the United States, China, the Soviety Union, and most of Southeast Asia. -JBPop-Artist & Activist Keith Haring is born in Pennsylvania. Haring died of HIV/AIDS in 1990. -SWKeith Haring was Gay, and so was his art. -JM1964 The avant-garde architectural group Archigram forms. None of their designs were ever built, but they created many imaginitive designs.
1969: Apollo 11 “one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind.” -ACMassimo Vignelli & Unimark release The New York City Transit Authority Graphics Standards Manual ( -SW1970 Lee Friedlander self-publishes his self-portraits in a book called "Lee Friedlander: Self Portrait"
The Comic Con held in San Diego was first founded in 1970 at the Golden State Comic Book Convention. The founding group included included Shel Dorf, Richard Alf, Ken Krueger, and Mike Towry. -KSSteven Spielberg directs Jaws (1975) with designer Roger Kastel creating the terrifying poster for the film. -Sw PAC-MAN was introduced to the United States in 1980 after origianally being designed by Toru Iwatani in Japan. -BMONike coins JUST DO IT during a 1988 ad campaign. -SW-1980 Alfred Hitchcock was an English film director and producer, widely regarded as one of the most influential filmmakers in the history of cinema. (Psycho, The Birds, Vertigo...) -AC
Starbuck's goes public in 1992 (Their first store opened in 1971.) --KKIn 1997 AOL launched AIM, popularizing instant messaging and attracting a younger crowd to engage with other people on the internet. -KK Target Corporation is formed out of the Dayton-Hudson Corporation which was originally founded by George Dayton -BMOGoogle Lanches Maps and its API allowing for free and pretty easy mapping of data. -swWork from Cuban born artist Edel Rodríguez begins making it's way into the mainstrema media. -SWPaula Scher and design agency Pentagram roll out branding for fast casual eatery Shake Shack. Blending iconography, custom type, enviromental design, and more. Each Shake Shack features consistancy amongst brand, but integrates into its neighborhood. -SW
2200 BC: Egyptians invented the color blue known as cuprorivaite. This color was used to paint ceramics, statues and for decorations in tombs. This is the first synthetically produced color pigment. (color used throughout until the end of the Greco-Roman period (332 BC–395 AD)-KKEarly Appropriation?
10 BC ~ 357 AD
During their conquests in Egypt, Roman emperors (beginning with Augustus) stole obelisks and brought them back to be erected in Rome as political symbols of their victories. The form itself was also appropriated by Roman architects and new obelisks with heiroglyphs refering to Roman emperors were erected in building projects in the city. ~SS
1434, Jan van Eyck paints the Arnolfini Portrait, and includes himself in the view of the convex mirror, among other mysterious iconographic symbols.
Sandro Botticelli, The Birth of Venus (c. 1484-86) -JMThe advent of bicycle travel allowed women to move throughout the city freely and embrace a new level of independence.
Susan B Anthony is quoted in 1896 in saying, "Let me tell you what I think of bicycling. I think it has done more to emancipate women than anything else in the world. I stand and rejoice every time I see a woman ride by on a wheel.” ~SS
1884: Georges Seurat creates A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte. His Pointilism style was unique and caused viewers to look at images differently. - BMOCubism - Joint effort by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque in the early 20th century - BMO1927 the silent film Metropolis, directed by Fritz Lang is released. Visually stunning, it was a pioneering film for science fiction and is one of the most visually referenced films in the genre. ~SSLaszlo Maholy-Nagy, teacher at the Bauhaus school developed a design concept called Typophoto -KSPassed by Congress June 4, 1919, and ratified on August 18, 1920, the 19th amendment granted women the right to vote. -JM1932: Alvar Aalto designs the Paimio chair. /XC Ikea was founded in Sweden in 1943 by then-17-year-old Ingvar Kamprad, is a multinational group that designs and sells ready-to-assemble furniture, kitchen appliances and home accessories. /XC 1947, David Bowie was born. He is an English singer, songwriter and actor who is often considered to be one of the most influential musicians of the 20th century. /XC1948,
Philip Johnson builds The Glass House in New Canaan, CT.
Egg chair was designed by Arne Jacobsen in 1958 for the Radisson SAS hotel in Copenhagen, the Egg chair is an iconic example of mid-century modernism. /XCThe word pop is a shortened version of pop culture, referring to the output of mass media, like film and posters. Pop art is one of the most influential movement post war art movement. Following the popularity of the Abstract Expressionists, Pop's reintroduction of identifiable imagery (drawn from mass media and popular culture) was a major shift for the direction of modernism. /XC
Anatomy of a Murder is a 1959 American courtroom drama crime film. Saul Bass is an undisputed icon of mid-century modernism in graphic design, he uses simple, graphic visuals to evoke the essence of the subject. /XC1956, M & J Levine Advertising hires Lawrence Herbert as a parttime employee. Herbert systematizes the company's stock of pigments. By 1962 Herbert would make a profit for the ink and printing devision. He goes on to buy out The Levine Brothers. Remaning the company Pantone. -JM Ezra Jack Keats publishes Snowy Day in 1962, depicting a child playing in the snow near his home in Brooklyn. One of first non-caricatured depictions of a black protagonist in a widely read children's book. Wins Caldecott Medal in 1963. ~SS

Minimalism emerged in the 50s of the twentieth century, but it was rapidly growing in the 60s and 70s. This trend was a reaction to the consumerism of society. As the name itself suggests that designers of this movement were minimising the use of decoration. /XC1968 Andy Warhol's Campbell's Soup I -JMWithin the larger context of activism and the counter-culture movement of the 60s and 70s, psychedelic design presents primarily in the form of posters that challenged all conventions of the clean and orderly found in more traditonal forms of Graphic Design. Often termed psychedelic for its associations with halluncinogenics, these designs were characterized by jarring, vibratory colors, typographic manipulation, and bizarre visuals.
February 1977 Fleetwood Mac release Rumours -JMSuspiria was made in 1977. A nightmare fairytale etched in neon colour, Dario Argento’s witchy shocker Suspiria remains the most famous of all Italian horror movies. /XC1981, Nathalie du Pasquier becomes a founding member of The Memphis Group.
Jessa is born in Chelsea, NYC, which is a bombed-out neighborhood yet to experience artworld gentrification. Subways are covered with graffiti. People handle beautiful golden tokens to get on public transportation. Coffee cups are everyday works of art.
1992 Jake is born -JMThe smartphone made its first debut in 1992. It was created by IBM and called the Simon Personal Communicator. -KS 9/10Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge (DDLJ) is highest grossing film of 1995 and was the longest running film in Indian theaters ('95 - '05) ~SS1999, Napster is introduced, and turns the music industry, and everything else upside-down. It is the first mainstream example of peer-to-peer file sharing.
Metallica sues Napster for copyright infringement, racketeering. This puts music sharing and the internet in a whole new lens. -SW Katie started career as a Designer of children's toys. Leaving illustration of children's booksNew York Toy Fair at the Javits.-KS 9/14 Tegan and Sara Release their 5th studio album: The Con. They will go on to start the Tegan and Sara Foundation in 2016, which fights for health, economic justice and representation for LGBTQ girls and women. With an intersectionally queer board, including Blair Imani, Emy Storey, Ellen Page, Vivek Sharaya. -JM2007, Sol Lewitt dies, leaving his instructions for Wall Drawings to be carried out by those who follow them. -JF
Geometry arises independently across a number of cultures and is eventually put into axiomatic form by Euclid in the 3rd century BCE.1656 Europe - the Galileo invented the pendulum clock. -KS 1633, Rembrandt van Rijn sketches Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, which is subsequently included in the biggest unsolved art theft in world history: 13 works stolen from the Isabella Stuart Gardner Musem in Boston, Mass. in 1991. -JF1789, J.M.W. Turner enters the Royal Academy of Art at age 14. -JFThe first permanent color photograph was taking in 1861 by physicist James Clerk Maxwell. --KKImage to the right is Georges Braque's piece titled Violin and Palette - BMOInternational travel, first by boat, then later by intercontinental air becomes possible for the upper and middle class. Increased travel combined with lithographic printing techniques lead to the travel poster as a common graphic form. Poster styles change with design and illustration trends. ~SSWilliam Addison Dwiggins first uses the term "graphic design" to describe the combination of type, illustration, and design used in his book design process. -JB1968
The Beatles
Yellow Submarine movie is released! A popular and critically appreciated film that brings animated pictures to a new audience. ~SS

1988 Don Norman first publishes The Psychology of Everyday Things (now titled The Design of Everyday Things), combining design with behavioral psychology to analyze "unintuitive design" and suggest methods for improvement. In the book, difficulty in using everyday items is not the user's fault, but failed design. The book popularizes term user-centered design. ~SS
1991 Paris is Burning, a documentary directed by Jennie Livingston, about the New York Ball Culture, focusting on African American and Latino Gay and Trans community. -JMBetsy is born - BMO1993, Magic Eye released. -JFAdobe InDesign is released. -JB
Lascaux Cave Paintings, depiction of aurochs, horses and deer, France.
The origins of Graphic Design usually start here, BUT… (RT)
The Mesopotamians invent the cylinder seal, a cylinder carved with images and, later, Sumerian cuneiform writing, that were rolled into clay to reproduce the carving. These were the first documented form of reproducing an image or text over and over again. -JBThe Sumerians develop the first written language, cuneiform, originally in order to keep track of commerce. -JBThe Latin alphabet is created, based on the Greek and Etruscan alphabets. This is largely the same as the alphabet used for English and most European languages today, with only a few additions. -JBRoman philosopher Cicero writes De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum. In the 15th century, portions of his work will be scrambled for use as placeholder text in a type specimen book. This jumbled Latin survives today as Lorem Ipsum, a common placeholder for blocks of text in page layout and website design. -JB*Pi-Sheng, 11th Century AD, Inventor of 1st movable type in China. (RT)Leonardo of Pisa, later known by his nickname, Fibonacci, introduces the Fibonacci sequence to European mathematics. This later becomes the basis for the Golden Ratio in design, which is said to create visually pleasing deisgns given its similarities to natural and organic shapes/movement. -NM*Johannes Gutenberg, inventor of the first movable press, around the 1450's.
Usually considered the inventor and a key figure in the development what we call graphic design. /RT
Judith Slaying Holofernes (Artemisia Gentileschi, Naples) painted between 1614-1620 -JM1866: The zoetrope was invented for animation, a precursor to film-making. -AC1884 the launch of photography -KS1896 Absinthe Robette by Nouveau artist Henri Privat-LivemontThe Eagle Printing Ink Company started producing four-color wet process inks for the first time in cyan, magenta, yellow, and black. These four colors could be combined to create an almost unlimited number of other colors. -JBImage below is Pablo Picasso's famous piece Les Demoiselles d'Avignon where he got his influence from the Iberian and African masks - BMOWorld War 1 /RTWassily Kandinsky created Several Circles in 1926. he discovered a more sympathetic environment in which to pursue his art. Originally premised on a Germanic, expressionistic approach to artmaking, the Bauhaus aesthetic came to reflect Constructivist concerns and styles. /XCJan Tschichold, The New Typography /RtThe Bauhaus school is founded in Germany by Walter Gropius. Key figures there inluded: Paul Klee, Vasily Kandisky, Joself Albers, Herbert Bayer, Marianne Brandt, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe. Anni ALbers joins in 1922. /RTWorld War 2 /RTThe Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. Influences various sub-conflicts around the globe. -JB"After the war, homosexual concentration camp prisoners were not acknowledged as victims of Nazi persecution, and reparations were refused. Under the Allied Military Government of Germany, some homosexuals were forced to serve out their terms of imprisonment, regardless of the time spent in concentration camps. The 1935 version of Paragraph 175 remained in effect in the Federal Republic (West Germany) until 1969, so that well after liberation, homosexuals continued to fear arrest and incarceration." -JMMaija Isola worked for a design company called Marimekko and became very influential in interior graphics with her signature style of large geometric patterns printed in bold flat color. - BMO Max Miedinger created Helvetica. It is named after the Latin name for Switzerland. -KS 9/14Dr. Martin Luther King is asssssinated on April 4, 1968 in Memphis. /RT

Dale Chihuly becomes successful glass sculpture artist and educator in glass arts. Is first American to study under Venetian Murano glass blowers. Co-founds Pilchuck Glass School in 1971. //SS
1973, Barbara Kasten, influenced by the Bauhaus and Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, begins working with photography, developing a body of work for 40 years before her first exhibition at the ICA in Philadelpha in 2015. -JFThe New Wave arrives. Wolfgang Weingart, April Greiman, Dan Friedman /RTRAMON IS BORN /RTThe Macintosh Arrives. /RTSuper Mario Bros, a platform video game developed and published by Nintendo. The successor to the 1983 arcade game, Mario Bros., it was released in Japan in 1985 for the Famicom, and in North America and Europe for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) in 1985 and 1987. /XC1991: Damien Hirst: The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living. -AC The Internet becomes widely available to the public. -JBPaula Scher and appropriation? /RTWEB 1.0 /RTAdobe introduces its first version of the Creative Suite software. -JBMark Zuckerberg launches his social media network, Facebook. -JBSteve Jobs anounced Iphone at Macworld convention -KS
13 Book of Kells is created in several monasteries around the British Isles. It is one of the best preserved and finest decorated manuscripts to survive the medieval period. It contains the four gospels of the New Testament and is a masterwork of early Western calligraphy and illustration. -JB Mona Lisa, by Leonardo DaVinci, 1503–1506Calligraphy was based on Chinese characters. The art of calligraphy is also practiced with the limited letter alphabet of Arabic. /XCThe first magazine, Erbauliche Monaths Unterredungen, a philosophy periodical, is published in Germany. It soon inspired the creation of many more such publications. -JBKitagawa Utamaro, "Flowers of Edo: Young Woman's Narrative Chanting to the Shamisen" 1800 /XC Katsushika Hokusai produces the series of woodblock-print landscape images known as the Fugaku sanjurokkei ('Thirty-six views of Mt Fuji'). Taking the sacred mountain as a focal point, Hokusai creates a series of imaginary scenes filled with color, dynamism and emphasis on graphic patterns. /XCRealism Movment - In its specific sense realism refers to a mid nineteenth century artistic movement characterised by subjects painted from everyday life in a naturalistic manner. /XCImpressionist art is a style in which the artist captures the image of an object as someone would see it if they just caught a glimpse of it. Impressionists rebelled against classical subject matter and embraced modernity, desiring to create works that reflected the world in which they lived. /XC1893: World's Fair Columbian Exposition. Brought together delegates from countries around the world, showcased within temporary buildings designed in a neoclassical style. -ACSymbolism began as a reaction to the literal representation of subjects preferring to create more suggestive and evocative works. Symbolist paintings are dim, nightmarish scenes where artistic imagination is overtaken by the morbid and the macabre. The visions are otherworldly and mystical. /XC 1915, Erté (or Romain de Tirtoff), who some call "the father of Art Deco" starts working for Harper's Bazaar.
1927, Buckminster Fuller begins modeling his Dymaxion Car with Isamu Noguchi
-JF Henry Beck's design of the London Underground map goes into widespread use. Inititally rejected for being too radical, Beck's map based on a circuit board diagram rather than geography or distance, simplified a complicated London transportation network and became the basis for transportation maps around the world. Today's Underground map is very similar to Beck's original, with only some necessary updates. -JB1981, MTV, the first 24-hour video music channel, launched onto our television sets and literally changed our lives with the birth of the music video. /XC1948, Lowell Bobletter acquires Mills College of Art and Advertising. Using a new Curriculum based on the Bauhaus Model he changed the name to School of Associated Arts, which would later become the College of Visual Arts . -JMIn 1961, Josef Müller-Brockmann first presented his ideas on the grid system in terms of layout design which would eventually become an industry standard. He would also eventually publish a book on it called Grid Systems in Graphic Design in 1981 -BMOThe Helvetica typeface is developed by Swiss designer Max Miedinger. -JBDouglas Englebart introduces the oN-Line System: the forerunner to the Internet and first use of the mouse, word processinging, hypertext, and windows. -JB1966, Corita Kent is named one of 9 women of the year by LA Times. A nun, graphic artist, and silkscreener, she was know for unique teaching methods such as asking her students to take three hours to draw their arm without looking at what they were creating. -JFThe Tet Offensive and My Lai Massacre begin to dramatically shift public opinion on the Vietnam War in the United States, sparking large protests and social unrest. -JBRise of the "counterculture" and increased focus on issues of war, civil rights, feminism, the environment. -JBThe industrial boom after WWII pushed the use of grids for design efficiency - KS 9/101970s Gordan Matta-Clark carries out

1973: Sheila Levrant de Bretteville helps found the Feminist Studio Workshop, the first art school for solely women. -JB1978, Gilbert Baker designs the Rainbow Flag -JM1982, Madonna breaks onto the scene with song, "Everybody." -JFStuart is born. -SWThe HP LaserJet is introduced: the world's first desktop printer. -JBNick is Born.
Katie is born. -KSJill is born. Since everyone else is doing it. -JBApple and Windows jointly release the TrueType font system on their new systems, allowing for fully scalable fonts on screen and in print for the first time. -JBSigrid is born. ~SSStreet artist Banksy's work begins to rise in popularity. He creates work on non-traditional surfaces like publically visible surfaces vs. making work to be installed on the walls of a museum. -KKTokdoki, a japanese-inspired lifestyle brand was founded in 2005 by italian artist Simone Legno and his business partners Pooneh Mohajer and Ivan Arnold. -KS
The Heian period (平安時代 Heian jidai) is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. /XCThe Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci in Milan, Italy - BMOUkiyo-e emerges as an artform to depict the hedonistic period of indulgement following centuries of civil war in feudal Japan. The paintings become widely celebrated and eventually come to be the primary influence for western perceptions of Japanese art.
Ukiyo-e continues to flourish, so much so that most major artists begin to utilize woodblock printing techniques for purposes of mass production. Labor is divided between the artist, the carver of the woodblock, and the publisher responsible for financing and distribution.
1822, Frederick Law Olmsted, the father of landscape artchitecture, is born. He goes on to design Central Park, among many other public park experiences. -JFRomanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century. Romanticism celebrated the individual imagination and intuition in the enduring search for individual rights and liberty. /XC1886 - The Minneaplis College of Art and Design was founded by the trustees of the Minneapolis Society of Fine Arts and originally named the Minneapolis School of Fine Arts. - KS1882: The Basílica i Temple Expiatori de la Sagrada Família is a large unfinished Roman Catholic church in Barcelona, designed by Catalan architect Antoni Gaudí. -AC1896 Henri Privat-Livemont - Art Nouveau artist created Absinthe Robette - KS1908: Lewis Hine, photographer, takes pictures of child laborers to persuade culture surrounding child laborers. -KKAbove: Marinetti & Buccioni /RT c. 1920 - Monet paints two 360 degree immersive elliptical rooms depicting the water lily pond at his garden in Giverny. /SS
1935 Frank Lloyd Wright designed the house "Fallingwater" in Pennsylvania. A design which incorporates its surroundings into the house -KS
Frida Kahlo (1907-1954) -JM
JFK is assassinated on November 22, 1963. -NMThe MIT Chapel (dedicated 1955) is a non-denominational chapel designed by noted architect Eero Saarinen. It is located on the campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts. XC1958,
Jim Hensen founded Muppets, Inc.
1970: Art Basel: a for-profit, privately owned and managed international art fair staged annually in Basel, Switzerland, Miami Beach, Florida, and Hong Kong, selling established and emerging artists. -AC
Woman’s Building is communal, utopian, feminist, creative space in LA for women to make work in response to and within their experiences of injustice and suffering due to sexism. Sheila Levant de Bretteville & Judy Chicago foster this space. ~SSWolfgang Puck opens Spago in Los Angeles & becomes the "first celebrity chef" -SW1985-1988 Spoonbridge and Cherry MPLS: A large spoon with a cherry suspended on the rim; water exits the cherry from both ends of the black cherry stem. -AC1987, 1st version of Adobe Illustrator is Released -JMGIFs are invented by CompuServe -JMZubaz take the United States by storm. -SWSept 1995 - Playstation was released in the united states. Though first released in Japan Dec 1994. -KSHope by Shepard Fairey
John James Audubon dies January 27, 1851. His book The Birds of America is published in 1839 -sw
1879 The Walker begins as a personal gallery of Thomas Barlow Walker. -JM
Virtual Water Lily exhibit
Walker Art Gallery is formally established in 1927 -JM
The Walker Art Gallery changes its name to the Walker Art Center in 1940 -JMHillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947): an American politician and diplomat who served as the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, U.S. Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, 67th United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, and the Democratic Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election. -AC Fender, founded in 1946, releases the Telecaster in 1950. -NM
The Muppets
The Muppets
The Muppets
"Biomimicry" is entered into Webster's Dictionary in 1974. Though biomimicry as a means for influencing mechanical design goes back centuries, the term recognizes it an official methodology that continues to see prolific application today. -NMMichael Jackson's Thriller album released -SW1984 Wacom launches its first graphics tablet, following predecessors like the Koalapad and Apple Graphics Tablet. Wacom quickly takes over the digital tablet market by continually advancing tablet technology. Invent stylus powered by electro-magnetic resonance that didn’t require batteries. ~SSFebruary 1990 - The first edition of photoshop was released. Photoshop 1.0. KS - 9/14Kelsey is born--KKAnnette is born -ACOpenType released by Adobe in 2000Katie returned to MCAD for continuing education to learn digital design programs -KS 9/11The Whitney Museum of American Art holds a retrospective exhibition on the work of conceptual artist Lawrence Weiner called: "Lawrence Weiner: As Far As The Eye Can See"
In direct line withanother and
1634, Spanish Golden Age painter Diego Velázquez creates Las Meninas, and depicts the behind-the-scenes of the portraiture, including himself, the artist at work.
Frank Lloyd Wright pioneers a new american architectural aesthetic, the Prairie Style, integrating architecture, domestic life, and nature into intimate, composed environments. ~SS
The image above is Suprematist Painting (Eight Red Rectangles) by Kazimir Malevich. Kazimir was the first artist to produce the first truly nonrepresentational work of art. - BMO
Constructivism -KS 9/10
On May 21, 1927, the Walker Art Galleries opened on the present site of the Walker Art Center./XC1924-1935, Soviet Montage,a technique in film editing in which a series of short shots are edited into a sequence to condense space, time, and information. It was introduced to cinema primarily by Sergei Eisenstein. . /XC1937: Disney introduces first fully animated feature film: Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. --KK1942: War Advertsing Council formed. (after WW11 ended, the council dropped 'war' from its name.) Council developed war-related campaigns. Some famous campaigns: 1. Security of war info -- "Loose lips sink ships" 2.) Women in war jobs --KKJackson Pollock's "Drip period" between 1947 and 1950 -BMO
Charles Schulz's Peanuts runs from October 1950-February 2000 -JM
1968 - Stanley Kubrck's 2001: A Space Odyssey is released. The film was a showcase of pure, unadulterated 60's space-age design, as was evident by its sets, props, wardrobe, haircuts, as well as promotional media. -NMOnline dating begins with in 1995, shaping the way people connect, communicate and curate who they are looking to meet. --KKIn direct line withanother and
1420: Filippo Brunelleschi first demonstrated a system known as linear or mathmatical perspective which enabled artists to represent the visible world in a convincingly illusionistic way. - BMO"Horse In Motion", ground breaking photography by Eadweard Muybridge in 1878 --KK Alfred Stieglitz, a pioneer in Photography and the exhibition of art in New York City which led to the Armory Show in 1913 which saw a period of younger artists responding to this new art such as Max Weber - BMOAlfred Stieglitz's work Spring Showers which was a response photograph to his disagreement with the Ashcan School whose interest was depicting the gritty urban life of New York City. Stieglitz employed photography as a means to create purely aesthetic pleasure.- BMOKODACHROME: Kodak's 1922 Kodachrome Color Film Test -- KK
Fluxus was made up of an interdisciplinary community of artists. The movement, spurred by John Cage's teachings in experimental composition, favored the process over the final result of the work produced. -JFWilliam Gibson's Neuromancer is released in 1984. Often seen as the godfather of the Cyberpunk sun-genre of sciience fiction, it sets off a new means of storytelling typically centered around hyper technological dystopias. The thematic elements of such works can largely be attributed to the increasing role of technology in the day to day lives of people. -NM1992: Maus becomes the first graphic novel to win the Pulitzer prize. The graphic novel by Art Spiegelman, depicts a series of interviews with his dad about his experience in the Holocaust. The panels show Jews as mice, Germans as cats and poles as pigs. --KKNetscape and Lynx only browsers available - KSHayao Miyazaki co-founds Studio Ghibli (1985) under which he directs many films that are critically acclaimed in Japan and the Western world. Spirited Away became the highest-grossing film in Japanese history and won and Oscar for Best Animated Feature in 2003. ~SSProcessing is released as a programming language intended to display visualizations for the web. It becomes the foundation for many subsequent frameworks like p5.js -NM
Heliocentric theory is introduced by Nicolaus Copernicus, leading to the eventual abandonment of Earth as the center of the universe. -NMWatch VideoSalvidore Dali creates iconic work of art Persistence of Memory under the Surrealist Movement - BMOKonica-Minolta produces its first print equipment. Jill will spend roughly every day from 2010-Present fighting with some version of a Konica printer. -JBMaurice Sendak writes and illustrates Where the Wild Things Are -SW1985, the AIDS quilt is conceived of. As of 2016, and weighing as estimates 54 tons, it is still the largest piece of community folk art! -JFDesign Anthropology is a growing field that uses ethnographic research techniques in design to close the gap between the user and producer and restructure the design process away from strategic problem solving. ~SS
Discovered in 1799 as a result of Napolean's campaigns in Egypt, the Rosetta Stone becomes the key to deciphering long mysterious Egyptian hieroglyphics. -NMNorman Keith Collins, better known as "Sailor Jerry", establishes a legacy as a prominent tattoo artist who comes to influence modern tattooing. -NM
On the Origin of the Species by Charles Darwin is first published in 1859. -NMThe American Occupation of Japan (1945 - 1952), following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki that percipitated in the Japanese surrender and thus ending World War II, sees Japan adopt many values and themes of western culture. -NMThe LA Riots take place in 1992. - SWDigital design begins to trend away from skeumorphism and into flat design, which had long been established in decades previous, but only now was beginning to see widespread use in digital spheres. -NM
Created as an assignment for students in the Design in Context class in the MA in Graphic and Web Design at the Minneapolis College of Art and Design (MCAD), 2018.
KEY: each color represents a different person, student.Akira is released in 1988 and quicky becomes one of the most celebrated works of animation of all time, subsequently inlfuencing not only animation, but other forms of creative expression. It also helped to popularize Japanese fiction in western culture in the 80s, reinforcing interest in Japanese themes in works of film, literature, and design. -NMThe first web page was launched by Tim Berners Lee -KS 9/14Video Link about Paula Scher.
2007, Josiah McElheney creates the piece "Endlessly Repeating Twentieth Century Modernism" -JF
Levis is founded in San Francisco, CA. -SWApril Greiman Interview'Got Milk?' campaign releases first commercial. The advertising campaign lasted two decades. Click here for more info on the campaign:1995: Toy Story is released by Pixar. This is the first computer animated feature film. -KK
Patrick Nagel (1945 -1984), influenced by art deco styles, produces stylistically quintessential late 80s artwork featured heavily in Playboy magazine as well as cover art for Duran Duran's best selling album, Rio, amongst others. Nagel had previously worked as a graphic designer for ABC Television in the 70s. -NM*photo by photographer Annie Leibovitz. She photographed for 180 ads.CSS, first released in 1996, eventually comes to revolutionze how digital layouts are stylized, opening a whole new world of possibilities for web/application design. -NM
Georgia O'Keefe, pioneer artist in American Modernism and all around badass woman. Painted 'Oriental Poppies' in 1928 --KK
The Guttenberg bible. - 1941: WPA's Federal Art Project creates national park serigraphed posters. --KK
CHARLES-´EDOUARD JEANNERET was born in 1887 who would become the leading figure of the Purist Movement in France who would later change his name to the famous Le Corbusier - BMOHeath Ledger dies January 22, 2008 -sw
1988-current: Anna Wintours, editor-in-chief of Vogue. --KK
1936: photographer Dorthea Lange takes photograph entitled, "Migrant Mother". This becomes iconic photograph of the great depression. -KK
1920: Women's suffrage. Go vote! --KK