|SAMR||UNDERSTANDING BY DESIGN (Backwards Design - UbD)||LIBERATORY EDUCATION - Paulo Freire|
|20 EXAMPLES OF TECHNOLOGY||Substitution (example using word instead of paper and pen)||Augmentation (using the tech one step further - ex. formatting)||Modification (redesign using interactive examples)||Redefinition (creating a novel task)||Desired Results “What you want them to know and be able to do”||Assessment Evidence "How will you measure their application of skills or transfer of knowledge?"||Learning Plan "What instruction/activities are you going to use to get the desired result?"||Provide Educational Access to Students||Encourages dialogue (Teacher and Student Share in Learning)|
|Google Docs||"Used at a low level, technology|
merely serves as a substitution—for example, using a word
processor instead of paper and pencil to write a conclusion". (Smith & Mader, 2016).
|"The next level is augmentation, in which technology improves|
on a learning task similar to what students could do
without the technology, such as using the formatting tools in
a word processor to highlight areas of interest. (Smith & Mader, 2016)
Modification level, technology integration requires a significant
redesign of a task. For example, in a secondary science class an
instructor shifts how students learn about light a modification
that shifts from showing a diagram of light traveling to providing
an interactive computer simulation of light with variables
students can change" (Hamilton, E. R., Rosenberg, J. M., & Akcaoglu, M., 2016). Students can insert direct links using explore to bring in videos that bring their topic to life.
|"Finally, the Redefinition level is achieved|
when technology is used to create novel tasks. For example,
instead of assigning a social studies-based persuasive essay, a
fifth grade teacher requires students to create and present their
arguments through individually created and edited videos." (Hamilton, E. R., Rosenberg, J. M., & Akcaoglu, M., 2016). Google docs allows for real time collaboration on a paper creating a non-static paper.
|GoogleDocs can be used for peer-editing to facilitate transfer of learning. The learning objectives, big ideas and target skills are clearly identified (for example, "Determine what makes a well-developed essay and construct a multi-paragraph piece of writing with an introduction, body, and conclusion" ( McTighe & March, 2015).||Google Docs can be used for formal writing assessments (essays) and self-editing. Google Forms can be used for formative (exit slip) and summative assessments (test, quizzes). These performance tasks and other types of evidence show application and transfer of skills ( McTighe & March, 2015).||Google Docs can be used for collaborative writing as part of a classroom lesson sequence. The writing can be sequesnced or differentiated for different team members. The comments function allows students to give feedback and evaluate their work and against the objectives taught ( McTighe & March, 2015).|
|Animoto||Using animoto to write a haiku is possible because of the limited space for writing. Instead of pen and paper students use animoto. "Although it is easy to add text, space is extremely limited, much shorter even than the length of one tweet per slide. Animoto allows, at max, 40 characters on a top line and 50 characters on a bottom line-90 characters in all per slide" (Ayotte, L., & Collins, C., 2017).||Animoto allows "putting images to lines in the poem, students would understand imagery" Ayotte, L., & Collins, C., 2017). Students enhance their writing with images.||In Animoto a student can change the added images or music to bring the poem alive to match the words and change in feelings. "Among Lori's favorite videos was Adam's-he was the student who discovered how to switch up the music halfway through the poem, which captured the change of action and tone. The poem is only eight lines and features two characters: an angelic child who asks for the pancake on top of the stack, followed by a troublesome child who wants the pancake in the middle. The inferential reader can imagine the result: taking the pancake in the middle would lead to the entire stack falling down, and that is precisely what Adam depicts at the end of his video" Ayotte, L., & Collins, C., 2017).||Redefinition is achieved because when "using Animoto, students can develop short digital videos that include music, photos, video clips, and text as well as share their creations electronically" Ayotte, L., & Collins, C., 2017). This step of sharing their digital work of their original poems is a novel task and therefore meets the redefinition of SAMR model.||Create original videos that express what each student learned in a sophicated creative way to portray their understanding to their peers and others.||The videos created by students will be assessed to ensure all content is correct and included.||Show great videos and bad videos to set a standard and provide a rubric to be sure all content is included.|
|Instead of writing with paper and pen students "during class time, will read the text and periodically pause after some interesting development or following the completion of a chapter, and then tweet their interpretations as statements" (Hunter, J. D., & Caraway, H. J, 2014).||"The next level is augmentation, in which technology improves|
on a learning task similar to what students could do
without the technology, such as using the formatting tools in
a word processor to highlight areas of interest. (Smith & Mader, 2016)
|Twitter has allowed the reader of required texts to now lead the discussions of the book among their peers beyond the classroom period with the teacher. "Part of the appeal of rereading the text had to do with confirming, reconfirming, and/or disconfirming questions, statements, perspectives, and presages. This emergent practice signaled a different level of engagement with The Giver, as students used tweets as conversational starters. It became a common classroom practice for students to display a type of multimodal dexterity, moving with ease between Twitter, The Giver, in-class discussions, and journal writing" (Hunter, J. D., & Caraway, H. J., 2014).||Redefinition is achieved when novel tasks are created. The use of Twitter for some students provided this novel task. For the student that never participates in group conversations Twitter provides an anominous voice for full participation of the nonverbal or shy student. "Being given an alternative way to participate in classrooms was critical to students like #Solar who used these creative literacy tools and practices to demonstrate mastery of literature: (Hunter, J. D., & Caraway, H. J., 2014).||Twitter can be used for demonstration of mastery in final objectives. As part of a History lesson or English lesson, students create tweets related to historical events while acting as specific characters or figures. CITATION: Dodds, L. (2017). Students as Social Media Content Creators. CSLA Journal, 40(2), 13-16.||Twitter opens boundaries and creates access. It goes beyond time, physical space.||Twitter for Social Learning both for formal and informal education. Additionally, as content creators, students are not just passive recipients of knowledge.Twitter can also be used as a tool for social change.|
|Today's Meet||Instead of students discussing verbally topics in the classroom. Today's Meet allows students to type their class discussions. "Today’s Meet looks a lot like a|
“texting” program. Each message is limited to 140 characters, so students immediately know what to do" (Jarrett, K., & Devine, M. A., 2010).
|Today's Meet takes classroom conversations to the next level because it gives every student a voice. "First, backchanneling gives every student a voice. In a traditional classroom discussion, students have to wait their turn to speak; some never get a chance to share, and dominant students sometimes inadvertently discourage participation. These are largely non-issues with backchanneling" (Jarrett, K., & Devine, M. A., 2010).||Today's Meet allows for multitasking. The students are now able to engage in the work of the classroom and still have a discussion online. In a science classroom student can participate in the science experiment while discussing online the why behind it. "Third, backchanneling leverages the multitasking skills that many|
students have already mastered. It’s perfectly natural for students to watch a television program while carrying on a conversation with their friends about it via computer. It comes naturally, thanks to the pervasive role of technology in students’ lives today" (Jarrett, K., & Devine, M. A., 2010).
|The novel component created using Today's meet is that your classroom can now be part of a classroom across the globe. "The collaborative nature of backchanneling means it would be possible for a much wider audience, including more than one class participating in the discussion" (Jarrett, K., & Devine, M. A., 2010).||Real-time access to content. (Miller, 2014)||With Today's Meet, use a backchannel for video and discussions, access transcripts and create private rooms for group dialogue. Conversations extend beyond the classroom. (Miller, 2014)|
|Edmodo||"Edmodo enabled the students to realize the topics to be discussed in the next class.
So, they could search the content to support their discussion in advance. Traditionally,
questions for next class discussion were written on board" (Wichadeeq, S. S., 2017).
|" Students completed the assignments via Edmodo through online quizzes" (Wendt, J. L., & Rockinson‐Szapkiw, A., 2014).||"Students completed the assignments via Edmodo through discussion threads" (Wendt, J. L., & Rockinson‐Szapkiw, A., 2014).||"Using the group feature, the teacher created small groups of students and posted files with the collaborative assignments" (Wendt, J. L., & Rockinson‐Szapkiw, A., 2014).||Instead of using worksheets at home teachers can create groups and have students post responses (for example, they can post their thoughts while viewing artifacts on a field trip).||Students can post evidence based responses or create higher-order thinking questions for peers to answer.||Students can upload audio files of themselves reading specific text and write commentary or critiques of their reading fluency. In Edmodo, teachers can also create study groups or reading circles.||Can be accessible from home or school.Teacher can post e-text for easy access.||Edmodo can be used to engage students in group communication.|
|Screencast-O-Matic||Instead of using paper and pen "while preparing to record their screencasts, many students would state a sentence aloud and then revise and restate it, adding something they forgot to mention" (Hazzard, E., 2014, March).||"The "pause" feature allowed students to plan and discuss on a sentence-by-sentence basis, and the playback feature permitted them to review their work in its entirety" (Hazzard, E., 2014, March).||"For the most part, all students in each group participated, actively discussing how to respond to the questions and deciding who would speak" (Hazzard, E., 2014, March).||"Students spontaneously employed a range of collaborative techniques, such as ... retaking the screencast if team members thought they messed up" (Hazzard, E., 2014, March).||Find and create instructional videos to demonstrate key concepts. Ability to differentiate content to meet students’ needs. Reteach and reinforce. Students who need more time replay the videos as often as they need to understand/review etc.||With ScreenCast-O-Matic students can present evidence of learning.||Screencast-O-Matic can be used with online inquiry-based research. CITATION - Dwyer, B. (2016). Engaging All Students in Internet Research and Inquiry. Reading Teacher, 69(4), 383-389. doi:10.1002/trtr.1435||Pre-recorded videos for access anytime, anywhere.||Students can lead the lesson, pose questions and facilitate problem-solving, dialogue etc. using videos.|
|Blackboard||Post a study guide to Blackboard||Students can sign up for their own groups based on interest.||Student Discussion forums are viewable by the instructor. Blackboard Collaborate works in this area as well.||Students work in small groups on a project, then link their work to an e-portfolio.||Online educational tools for access to content outside of traditional brick-and-mortar setting.||Knowledge is created through dialogue. CITATION: Boyd, D. (2016). What Would Paulo Freire Think of Blackboard: Critical Pedagogy in an Age of Online Learning. The International Journal of Critical Pedagogy, 7(1).|
|EDpuzzle (Krista)||Rather than using paper to answer questions, students digitally answer questions that are embedded within a video ("EdPuzzle," 2016).||Teachers can accentuate the videos they create by adding their own narration & audio comments to highlight important concepts ("EdPuzzle," 2016).||Students can create their own interactive videos with multiple choice & open-ended questions and share with their classmates ("EdPuzzle," 2016).||Teachers can use the student data to assess whether students are viewing the video, duration of session(s), and quiz scores ("EdPuzzle," 2016).||Students view interactive videos where they control the pace of their learning. Ideal for class preparation where they can apply the newly acquired information in student-centered discussions (Tucker, 2015).||Data collected from the interactive videos helps teachers prognose student participation and effort (MacDonald, 2014).||Students can upload their own videos and create an interactive video to demonstrate their own learning with their teacher and classroom (Stern, 2015).|
|Classkick (Krista)||Rather than use paper to complete assignments, students digitally complete their assignments ("Classkick," 2016).||Real-time feedback can be given to students from their teacher, allowing them to proceed and continue learning rather than waiting.||Students can include images, videos, and audio recordings in addition to text to an assigned question(s) - giving them multiple ways of responding. Allows visual and auditory learning.||The anonymity of requesting help from classmates in real-time enables support and comfort in the classroom. Students can also switch roles to teacher mode in order to help their classmates, thus helping to achieve a level of understanding and camaraderie in classrooms.||Students should work at their own pace, provide, and receive frequent feedback from both their teacher and classmates.||Notes, suggestions, and feedback from the teacher appear immediately on the student’s screen through use of the application.||Teachers can create and present lessons that can be modified to each individual student's needs.|
|Edulastic (Krista)||Students print out the assignment(s), complete them on paper and hand them in ("Assessment - SAMR," 2016).||Teacher creates an assignment/assessment and assigns it to students digitally ("Assessment - SAMR," 2016).||Teachers can modify assessments for individual students. Students can view their results and choose to review the content and/or retake it to improve score(s) ("Assessment - SAMR," 2016).||Students can help teachers create assessments (student-developed questions) to quiz their classmates ("Assessment - SAMR," 2016).||Students will answer interactive questions that mirror SBAC and PARCC tests, along with a variety of state standards (CCSS and NGSS) (Sitkin, 2016).||Standards-aligned resources help teachers create new assignments. Standards-aligned reporting features offer feedback to help further student skills (Sitkin, 2016).||Ready-made or teacher-created assignments/assessments can be chosen from standards-aligned material. Content is available to reteach for students who may need remediation (Sitkin, 2016).||A Student Dashboard enables students complete access to their homework assignments/assessments from their teachers (Sitkin, 2016).||Student Dashboard enables students to create their own practice tests. The Learning Stream offers answers to questions students ask, as well as supplemental resources (Sitkin, 2016).|
|CommonLit (Krista)||Teachers login and print out articles to give to students (Fleisher, 2017).||Teachers digitally assign (reading) texts and question sets to students to be graded (Fleisher, 2017).||Reading passages are labeled according to genres and grade levels. Teachers can choose to assign the text(s) to the whole class or individual students based on differential instruction (Fleisher, 2017).||Text passages can be used to extended research units, practice argumentive writing, learning vocabulary, and differentiated instruction while all students learn about the same topic (Fleisher, 2017).||Students receive leveled-reading assignments and answer the quiz questions (Kolodny, 2016).||Commonlit provides visualized data that includes class average, literary vs informational text class average, achievement by question type, individual student scores, and high and low scorers (Karlin, 2017).||Students should master specific literacy skills, develop higher-order reading and writing skills, and support claims with textual evidence ("CommonLit: Giving," 2016).||The Texthelp toolbar enables students to listen to text read aloud, translate text into several languages, view definitions to words, and highlight text (Fleisher, 2017).||Teachers can provide personalized writing feedback to students ("CommonLit Launches," 2016).|
|CK12 (Krista)||Students read digital lessons and textbooks online ("Tools for Schools", 2015).||Students engage in videos, physics simulation modules (SIMS) and PLIX (Play, Learning, Interact, and Explore) interactive exercises that increase learning ("Tools for Schools", 2015).||Teachers can offer students individual exercises and lessons, catering to their specific learning differences|
and styles in mind ("Tools for Schools", 2015).
|Students can engage in the interactive exercises as the teacher assigns them online (i.e. through Google Classroom) ("Tools for Schools", 2015).||Students will read online textbooks and engage in interactive lessons and exercises ("Tools for Schools", 2015).||Teachers can make edits to lessons, add notes, and personalize interactive exercises to meet the learning goals of students (Owens, 2016).||The Flexbook Textbooks are online textbooks that integrate reading passages, with the addition of videos, simulations, and/or interactive exercises (PLIX). Students can interact with their own personalized learning assignments (Owens, 2016).||Students can sign up for free access to CK12 and pick the subjects they want to practice (at anytime, anywhere), CK12 monitors and tracks their progress ("BrainFlex: Summer," 2017).|
|Kahoot! (Pat)||"What I like about the discussion feature on Kahoot! is that it allows teachers to pique students’ interest through a technological element and then springboard into a more traditional discussion" (Wallace, K. B., & Botzakis, S., 2016).||"Rather than offering a scrolling discussion platform where students have to type in their answers entirely, teachers can enter a question or a series of questions, and students can choose answer options such as “agree” or “disagree,” or any series of options the teacher provides" (Wallace, K. B., & Botzakis, S., 2016).||" The responses to these questions are immediately|
calculated and displayed on the classroom’s projector
screen, which initiates the next step of discussing
whole class, face to face" (Wallace, K. B., & Botzakis, S., 2016).
|"It offers manyuseful features, including the capacity to discuss with classrooms across the country or around the globe" Wallace, K. B., & Botzakis, S., 2016).||During planning, teachers think about the assessments and assessment types.||Teachers create a series of assessments both formative and summative. Kahoot is a game-based assessment tool that can be used for formative assessment (Rashtchian, 2016).||Kahoot can easily be integrated and become part of the instructional activities.|
|Google Cardboard||Students can simply view information with this tool. (Weinberg, R. 2016)||Use the Google Cardboard camera app to take 360 degree pictures of settings, then create narrated descriptions.||Virtual fieldtrips using Google Cardboard guided tour app or Google Expeditions.||Students create their own VR scenarios with a Google Cardboard app.||Google cardboard with its virtual reality technology fit seamlessly into UbD. Google cardboard supports inquiry-based learning (Vasileva & Petrova, 2016).||Teachers can create activities that assess students skills based on virtual field trips or experiences that students create or want to investigate.||There are unique opportunities to develop activities that blend traditional textbooks with virtual reality.|
|Class Dojo (Pat)||At the substitution level Class Dojo simply replaces pen and paper behavioral chart.||Augmentation students instantly know and can monitor their behavior when they hear a ding and view their performance on the interactive board.||During Modification the program allows the teacher to track class and individual points and generate reports (Edsurge, n.d.).||Redefinition: Parents get instant data on their child, teachers can share real-time photos of things taking place in the class, and parent and teacher can communicate instantly.|
|Khan Academy (Pat)||Provides tutorial videos instead of in person tutoring (Lenihan, E., 2012).||Students can complete practice exercises to interact with the videos (Lenihan, E., 2012).||Teachers and students can receive performance data (Lenihan, E., 2012).||Teachers can combine this with interactive whiteboards to change the way class is conducted to make it a more hands on experience, (Lenihan, E. (2012).||Khan Academy is aligned with the goals that are set by the teacher. There is a multitude of lessons that can support struggling and advanced learners (Thompson, 2011).||Built within the Khan Academy platform are a series of formative assessments that teachers and students receive immediate feedback on (Thompson, 2011).||There are a plethora of tutorials that the teacher can assign to the whole class or individual students.|
|TEDx (Pat)||"On TEDxYouthDay itself there will be a large number of events live-streamed online, essentially providing a ready-made TEDxYouthDay event for teachers and students anywhere" (Are you using..., 2011).||"The viewing party could be combined with a few presentations by your own students, a discussion forum, and talks by local role models" (Are you using..., 2011).||"Following the showing of a number of TED videos and practical activities based on the shared ideas, three local speakers were invited to present" (Are you using..., 2011).||"planning your TEDx event is to decide what will work best for you and your student community, and then tailor the event around the core concepts of empowering and inspiring young people through the sharing of ideas" (Are you using..., 2011).||The 4C’s of skills needed for the 21st century is communication, collaboration, critical thinking, and creativity. TEDx creates a platform to accomplish the 4C’s when the videos are used as part of a lesson (Cucinotta, 2014).||Assessment can be measured formally and informally, through discussion, and dialogue created between students||TEDx supports group discussions, collaboration, and amplify student's voice.|
|YouTube||" YouTube can be used to augment stand-alone
lessons" (Everhart, J., 2009).
|"YouTube-enhanced lessons work|
better as units of study" (Everhart, J., 2009).
|"YouTube encourages viewers to comment and rate the|
value of each video. Many students want to post questions
for the creators of the content, or others want to offer
suggestions for future productions. This is an opportunity
to encourage students’ constructive contributions and
criticisms of sites visited" (Everhart, J., 2009).
|"YouTube and other file-sharing sites may be used as vehicles|
for information exchange among students. Students can
collaborate with others to conduct experiments, share
results, and participate in competitions" (Everhart, J., 2009).
|Youtube videos can give students a visual overview of concepts before group or individual practice.||Student-created videos on Youtube improve retention, show evidence of learning and application of concepts.||Through YouTube videos, educators can bring scientists, professors and experts into the classroom to help students learn.Tutorials and illustrated concepts are also a great way to illuminate instructional concepts.|
|Nearpod||" The first, the Nearpod Content Tool, enables creation of customized presentations" (Doe, C. (2012).||" Teachers “push” information, questions, and activities to students’ mobile devices" (Doe, C. (2012).||"The student app enables students to use content and interactive features. They can follow the teacher’s interactive lesson, log in to submit personalized answers, touch the screen, and answer and get results and quiz scores (Doe, C. (2012).||"Teachers can use the fourth, or report, tool to get detailed real-time and post-session reports showing individual and class results" (Doe, C. (2012).|
|Aurasma (Pat)||During substitution student presentations are static.||Augmentation student presentations include a link to another source.||Modification students are creating their own Auras and making a static image come to life.||When applied to the SAMR model Aurasma has the potential to reach the highest level of the model Redefinition (Blair & Finch, n.d.). At the redefinition stage students have the ability to share their project with classmates as well as others.||Aurasma creates learning opportunities for the student and students in the class by being able to reference Auras at anytime.||Using Aurasma creates the opportunity for students to create authentic learning experiences in order for students to demonstrate deeper understanding.||In a study conducted at the Monteney Primary School credited Aurasma for supporting creativity (Kucirkova & Falloon, 2017). Creativity supports 21st century learning skills.|