E-Consultation on SDG 10: "Reduce inequality within and among countries", to be reviewed at the HLPF 2019 under the auspices of ECOSOC (Responses)
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Inputs Received for E-Consultation on SDG 10: "Reduce inequality within and among countries", to be reviewed at the HLPF 2019 under the auspices of ECOSOC
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This file compiles inputs from MGoS on SDG 10, which will be under in-depth review at the HLPF 2019. Outcomes may contain advice, opinions and statements of various information providers. The United Nations does not represent or endorse the accuracy or reliability of any advice, opinion, statement or other information provided through this e-consultation. Our office reserves the right to delete any content/input that is not aligned with the United Nations Charter and/or the principles and purposes of the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
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2. Name of Organization5. If you represent a major group or other stakeholder constituency, please indicate which one?6. Based on the evidence, and keeping the regional/local context in mind, what are the most effective ways to accelerate progress towards SDG 10? 7. Based on the evidence, and keeping the regional/local context in mind, where are the biggest shortfalls/gaps towards making progress towards SDG 10?8. How can one best leverage the interlinkages between SDG 10 and the rest of the 2030 Agenda?9. Can you share examples of effective models of multi-stakeholder engagement for the implementation of SDG 10?10. Please, add here any additional comment related to SDG 10.
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Maison des Organisations de la Société Civile (MOSC)Ngazidja
Non-Governmental Organizations
les moyens les plus efficaces sont: maintient de la paix, réduire le chaumage en développant des infrastructures pour la création des emploies.
les principaux manques et lacunes: esprit de création, esprit entrepreneuriat, présence de la corruption, éducation de qualité et adapter par rapport au contexte du pays. justice équitable, protéger les investissement juridiquement.
développement des infrastructures sanitaires, arriver dans un auto-suffisance alimentaire,
libre échange des produits commerciaux, échange des connaissances entre les pays développés, émergents et envoie de développement
l’égalité peut se trouver une fois, il y aura une equilibre d'emploi entre les pays.
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Amis des Étrangers au Togo: ADET
Non-Governmental Organizations
Le capitalisme a finalement créé un grand fossé entré les pays et entre les hommes. Pour renverser la tendance il faut que les pays riches développement plus de coopération avec les pays extrêmement pauvres, à revenue intermédiaire que les autres en respectant la dignité humaine et éviter la recolonisation. Les aider à se développer tout en développant des mécanisme de lutte contre la corruption pour l'État et un conseil de lutte contre la corruption pour la société civile et qui sera un guide et un contrôleur des actions de la société civile.
La volonté politique des pays riches et la volonté des pays pauvres à respecter la nouvelle donne
Quand les moyens financiers, les moyens technologies, les connaissances sont déployés dans les pays moins nantis avec une politique claire de redistribution, on assiste à une réduction de la pauvreté, de la faim et une promotion de la paix, de l'éducation, de la santé de tous. Amélioration du bien- être de tous: énergie pour tous, de l'eau pour tous, promotion du genre, promotion de la production et de la consommation, de l'écosystème, de l'océan.
Transparency international doit saisir les barons pour exemple.
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PARLIAMENTARY FORUM ON CLIMATE CHANGE-UGANDA (PFCC-U)
Women, Children & Youth, Non-Governmental Organizations, Local Authorities, Farmer, Other stakeholders active in areas related to sustainable development
Most families and youths still have strong respect for religious leadership. we need to build the capacity in equality management using the religious structures.
Most rural parents have lost morale in educating children due to unemployment already evident within the graduate fraternity. This has created early marriages which negatively affects girls most. They are impregnated early with associated health problems, they cant competitively look for employment, their exposure levels are put on halt and their respective economic empowerment becomes difficult.
This question is not clear though.
Mobilisation mechanisms for stakeholder engagement needs to cater for local perspectives otherwise the use of political mechanisms demotivates the most affected from taking part.
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Caritas Ghana
Faith Based Organizations
1. Governments must balance their focus on Economic growth with distribution of national income.
2. Using the national budget process (appropriation) to target poorer social segments and geographical areas
3. Monitoring national implementation of the SDG principle of "Ensure no one is left behind"
4. Ensure that national social protection policies are available and working
1. Failure of national budget to prioritize poorer social and geographic segments
2. Weak implementation of national social protection policies
3. Weak data on poverty trends
1. Inclusive follow up and review processes
2. National monitoring of the implementation of the SDG principle of "Ensure no one is left behind"
1. Ghana has diverse social protection policies
2. Ghana has a provision in the national Constitution called "Directive Principles of State Policy" which seeks to guarantee equitable development and accountability for same.
Nil
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Chairman of Elmoustkbal organization for Media Studies
Non-Governmental Organizations, Media
Media censorship and press monitoring on the uneven standards of social justice as well as pressure on governments to achieve economic development and the protection of poor groups and social protection in addition to promoting investment and provide the requirements of social security for the lowest income.
Some governments do not care about less-income citizens and increase poverty in the world. Some laws do not guarantee the rights of lower-income groups.
Reducing poverty rates is the first way to achieve good education and provide quality health care, which will increase awareness and achieve the other goals of sustainable development.
Increasing the poverty rates in Egypt caused by social and political problems affecting citizens.
My CV:
https://www.dropbox.com/s/cg1294bvrireph5/Amro%20Selim%20CV.doc?dl=0
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FIACAT
Non-Governmental Organizations
States must commit to make the defense of vulnerable groups a priority. In this regard, civil society organisations play a key role in ensuring, through their reporting and advocacy, awareness on those issues. Creating a database with all cases of discrimination is a good first step to assess what are the issues at stake and measures should be taken.
Through their work, FIACAT and its grass root members have noticed that discrimination issues are very present in detention and in the application of the death penalty. In fact, it has been noted that many of the people detaineed come from underprivileged backgrounds. In addition, it has been recognized that the death penalty is discriminatory and mainly affects poor and/or discriminated against classes because of their ethnicity or "race", religious beliefs or sexual orientation and its use is inextricably linked to poverty. Social and economic inequalities affect access to justice for those sentenced to death for several reasons: the accused in such a situation of inequality often lacks the resources (social, economic, cultural but also power) to defend himself or herself and will most often be marginalized because of his or her social status.
Vulnerable groups are often the biggest victims of the lack of implementation of the other SDGs (for example: in education, in the justice system etc.)
Since 2014, FIACAT has been implementing a project on abusive pre trial detention. (APD).The APD project contributes to the implementation of ODD 10 by ensuring that the rules surrounding abusive pre-trial detention are strictly applied and respected for all without distinction of their financial means. In order to do so, FIACAT and its grass root members work in close collaboration with State representatives, prison staff and judicial staff as well as with other civil society representatives.
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UNSAS
Workers & Trade Unions
to reduce inequalities within the country it is necessary to develop the rural world, ensure the care of disadvantaged groups through social protection measures for example
les lacunes les plus importantes se trouvent au niveau des mesures de protection sociales qui ne sont pas étendues à tous surtout aux travailleurs de l'informel
Achieving SDG 10 contributes a lot to eradicating poverty and sustainable development
reducing inequalities between countries requires cooperation between countries and development aid
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ONG WIÑOY LEPAY KIMÜN
Women, Children & Youth, Indigenous Peoples, desarrollo de los pueblos indígenas en: educación, salud y cultura
mas y mejor educación.
agua, educación, salud, alimentación, vivienda, otros.
nacionalizar las aguas en chile, creando cursos de capacitación para adultos, mejorando la alimentación la salud se mejoraría sola. otros
cambiando la política de indap en vez de trabajar los quimicos rescatar las semillas nativas que aun quedan, fomentando su cultivo. la salud poder hacerla llegar a toda la población, creando cursos de capacitación para rescatar la soberanía alimentaria y fomentarla.
rescatar semillas nativas no trangenicas, no privatizar aguas, mas educación.
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Sukaar welfare organization
Women, Children & Youth, Farmer, Education & Academic Entities, Private Philanthropic Organizations
Yes YesYesYesYes
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AEST
Science & Technological Community
Implement ways of creating opportunities through smart intelligent trade such that they is distribution of essential resources at all levels in a way that have no harm or intellectual scientific enforcements.
Lack of knowledge in science and technology thus hindering development in humans.
Infrastructural development
The Dangote project in Nigeria which thus has reduced inequalities of many people who were employed and given decent salaries such that they can earn a standard of living through the implementation of the project.
Capital injection is required for full implementation of SDG 10 in all societies
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Gatef organization
Non-Governmental Organizations, Volunteer Groups
i will tell you at the attend
i have good ideas not nowat attendnot now
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Gamio
Persons with Disabilities
Ensure people with disabilities access to social protection, training, counseling, financial assistance, public housing and retirement programs
That the majority of people with disabilities continue to live in extreme poverty
Training for the most vulnerable
States should focus on education, training, fiscal, wage and social protection for vulnerable groups
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New Humanity
Non-Governmental Organizations
To Reduce inequality within and among countries, promote networks of collaboration by stakeholders at local, regional, and national levels within countries. Build bi-lateral relationships between countries at these levels.
Rapid and multiple changes during the last decade, has let to social depression and narrow mindedness, escalating conflicts and inequalities and has seriously undermined social cohesion at the local and regional levels.
Members of multi-stakeholder networks of people with a commitment of conscience, thought, and action on a personal and collective level will rank and address all the issues covered by the SDGs.
See final document of 2019 conference on co-governance. https://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/8527c2_0d888da8011c4c97b240515e8b23e114.pdf
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Union of Education Norway
Union for teachers

To use the position we and other unions enjoy as social partners whereby we have a defined role in negotiations, discussions and decision-making fora. (We also believe that it is essential to involve and consult organisations representing differente professions)
In Norway it is a big shortfall that a national plan on how to reach the SDG is not elaborated. The work done to acheive the SDGs are in many instances ʺoutsideʺ the ordinary cooperation and organized work life.
As a union for teachers we see the other goals in light of education, and how we can contribute as a union. We believe it is important for an organisation to identify or see the goal of particular interest in light of the other goals.
Cooperation through social dialogue is discussed, but not implemented
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Make Mothers Matter
Women, Children & Youth, Mothers


2. Provide accessible, affordable and high-quality public services and infrastructures, in particular in the most disadvantaged and remote areas, with the explicit objective of addressing women’s “time poverty”. Water, electricity, energy, ICTs5, transportation, proximity childcare and healthcare are needed to significantly reduce the time spent on unpaid domestic and care work, and thus free up time for remunerated activities.
MMM fully agrees that the “time-money-agency conundrum” must be addressed as the main structural obstacle to further progress on gender equality.

1/Central to this conundrum is the issue of unpaid family care work that is the unequal distribution between men and women of the unpaid domestic and care work, which is essential to reproducing and sustaining families, and which in fact supports the whole economy and society as a whole.

2/Globally women still do 2½ times more unpaid care and domestic work than men. It isalso well established that when paid and unpaid work is combined, on average women work longer hours than men.
Yet, instead of being recognized and valued for combining thèse care and professional responsibilities, women continue to be penalized. Mothers especially encountersystematic discriminations and obstacles in hiring and promotion, and suffer wage discrimination linked to motherhood (the “motherhood pay gap”) and harassment.
3. Promote the equal sharing of care responsibilities between men and women, starting with paid paternity leave and shared paid parental leaves. However paternity leave alone will not do the job: it is the whole system that needs to be adapted to the new realities of fatherhood, including how boys are educated.
4. Promote diverse work and family life reconciliation policies accessible to all, including the right to request flexible working arrangements, to allow parents and other caregivers to access and stay in paid work. In particular, ensure regulations supporting quality part-time work and job sharing schemes that allow both men and women to adjust their workload to their family responsibilities; and reduce discrimination against part-time workers regarding career advancement, pay level, social security, pension rights, etc…
5. Caring and educating a child requires time! Take a life-course perspective and facilitate discontinuous career paths rather than linear ones, allowing men and women to withdraw from work partially or completely to care for their children or dependent relatives, and then re-enter the labor market without being heavily penalized.
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Asamblea 01/10
Non-Governmental Organizations
Progressive taxation, international cooperation and expand opportunities for disadvantaged groups
Tax cuts, corruption and lack of grassroots participation
Using the approach of inequalities for every sdg
Our asamblea in Mexico :)
No efforts from UN agencies addressing this goal
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cso
Non-Governmental Organizations, Science & Technological Community, Farmer, Volunteer Groups, Other stakeholders active in areas related to sustainable development
introduction of visible cheap solutions and formulas. a second-look on 3rd world technologies
for third world countries, Food.
ending hunger by introducing inexpensive technologies suitable for third world countries
for 3rd world countries nothing yet in the horizon
ending hunger is a must and a 2 dollar refrigeration & one dollar for carbon capture
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World Indigenous Teaching and Learning Centre Circle (WITLCC)
Indigenous Peoples, Non-Governmental Organizations, Education & Academic Entities, Families; Metis, Mestizaje; Environmental Health Practitioners,
Going back to WITLCC's presentation in 2007: Mandate (a) a range of contribution compensatory from the countries who benefit financially from the manufacture, cultivation and sale of products and goods that are were freely taken from people groups and their lands who are Autochthonous elsewhere be paid to the countries where the products or good originated; (b) a knowledge exchange in terms of travel, trade and paid employment; and/or (c) a form of knowledge "exchange" benefits.
The gap originates where persons and other organic and inorganic 'products' were taken without recompense from one place to another or from one people group by another such that the forms of poverty mentioned originated in the scientific, structural and cultural deficit/imbalance that was created.
* Mandated or voluntary tariffs from the 'developed' should pay for the non-development incapacities created by unfair and imbalanceed "exchanges". See our 2007 report.
*Advocate for a return complementary and alternatiave medicine that is natural to the people group and affordable in their local social economy as well as having spiritual benefits for the young and old alike.
*Which disabilities are preventable by any methods? By complementary and alternative "traditional methods"? What is the best way of acknowledgement and compensation that confers equal earning power. Which interventions are real and which are primarily money-making industries. The criminal justice and prison industries may be the greatest source of social disabilities - How can that expenditure be redirected to prevent the creation of incapacity and disability?
Despite overall declines in maternal mortality in most developing countries, women in rural areas are still up to three times more likely to die while giving birth than women living in urban centers.
*Design and implement an equivalating system for women's unpaid family work/homemaking work which is foundational for our society - for example, if a man earns $100K to support his family, shouldn't $50K of that automatically belong to his wife/helpmate whose support makes his earnings feasible?
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International Dalit Solidarity Network (IDSN)
Women, Children & Youth, Non-Governmental Organizations, Workers & Trade Unions, Business & Industry, Dalits
States must draw on the skills of Dalit civil society to raise awareness of the SDGs and set local indicators with civil society using accurate and disaggregated data. Monitoring and evaluation of these indicators should include participation of the Dalit community to ensure accurate results. Furthermore, States must disaggregate data by age, sex, disability, race caste, ethnicity, origin, occupation, religion or other economic status.

Specifically, States should ensure policy measures introduced towards socio-economic and political inclusion and promotion of gender, sexuality, caste, ethnicity and disability; increase the number of Dalits serving in the government; ensure constitutional guarantees for Dalits; enact/enforce anti-discrimination law; ensure that there are laws prohibiting manual scavenging and bonded labour; increase the action taken on complaints filed by Dalits; and increase the conviction rates for cases brought by Dalits. States should facilitate Dalit access to higher education institutions; regular, comprehensive household census; targeted budgetary provisions specifically for Dalits; increase the Dalit beneficiaries of major government schemes; increase the proportion of reservation policies in government jobs, especially for women; ensure fair and equal wages; and ensure Dalit’s cultural rights. Reducing inequalities will move towards socio-economic and political equity and erasing discriminatory mechanisms which propels inequality among the people.
Despite legislation to protect Dalit populations they are often subject to systematic discrimination both in the public and private sector. The unemployment rate for Dalits is consistently higher than that of the upper castes and it is continuing to rise. This is in addition to the loss of opportunities in the various state government areas. Although there is a quota system in many caste affected countries in the public, government and educational institutions, the positions are kept vacant. National development programmes have failed to reach the most vulnerable populations. A small fraction of Dalits have been able to escape from their ‘traditional role’ of manual scavenging, but often those with Dalit-sounding names are not even called for interviews.

With an agenda of ‘Leave No-one Behind’, the exclusion of Dalits and caste discrimination as a key factor of decent work means that this goal will never be achieved. Dalits are at the bottom of most supply chains in caste-affected countries and are forced to do the most menial, dirty and hazardous work. Addressing their labour rights in a business and human rights agenda is paramount. Furthermore, Dalits make up the majority of forced and bonded labourers in South Asia and still undertake the heinous task of collecting and removing human faeces from dry latrines, which still exist throughout India. This must end.
A state nexus with civil society, business, academia and citizens is paramount for any successful implementation of these goals. Therefore, civil society and government agencies should review domestic policy frameworks and processes to identify how they can facilitate effective implementation with the SDG.
Disaggregated data is crucial for each of the SDGs - data must be reflective of all major stakeholders within the State and collected at regular intervals. Monitoring of the implementation of the SDGs should be done by expert government officials with Dalit representation.

It is crucial that caste-based indicators are developed for each SDG as Dalits are affected by their caste in every aspect of their lives. The planning and implementation of the SDGs should focus on the intersectionalities of communities who face multiple discriminatory practices in order to reach those furthest behind. It is vital to address the importance of the intersectionalitites within the SDG model.
IDSN raises awareness of the SDGs and how they can be used to push for the improvement of Dalit’s situation throughout South Asia. IDSN helps local, grassroots members to engage with the SDGs by facilitating training on the SDGs, travel, joint submissions to the HLPF and joint sub-meetings in New York.
Excluding Dalits and caste discrimination from the SDGs means that these goals cannot be achieved.
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IndustriALL Global Union
Workers & Trade Unions
• a strong trade union movement is the most effective way to reduce inequality within and among countries
• the ILO's Decent Work Agenda could be an effective model to reduce inequalities, considering that employment remains the preferred means of distributing wealth
• sustainable industrial policies require (government) decision-makers to determine economic development strategies that fully account for the social and environmental dimensions
• equality (women, minorities)
• infrastructure - energy, water, transportation, communication
access to health care including
• unbiased reproductive information and health care for young people
• sustainable industrial policies must include strong social protection programmes, and Just Transition measures
• failure to recognize trade union rights
• corruption
• lack of opportunities for education, training
• market failure of the casino capitalist model
• tax avoidance
• grossly unequal distribution of wealth
• prioritizing ideology over science
• lack of information, suppression of information, disinformation
• repressive intellectual property laws, and a failure to transfer technology in any meaningful fashion to developing countries
• convince developed countries to accept the principle of shared but differentiated responsibilities
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Salesian Missions, Inc.
Children & Youth, Indigenous Peoples, Non-Governmental Organizations, Persons with Disabilities
Identifying those being left behind. Mobilizing and empowering them. Strengthening Social Protection Policies, schemes and legislations.
Inadequate allocation of resources and non- implementation of policies, schemes laid out for social protection and non-compliances with legislations made to protect those at the receiving end of inequality.
The linkages help us identify LNOB constituency and can be used to bring into focus the human rights perspectives that should inform all efforts to achieve the goals.
Given the fact that Neo-liberal, market driven economy has been wholeheartedly embraced by the global community addressing inequality through state and corporate benevolence can never adequately address issue. It calls for those affected by the unequal distribution of power, resources and wealth to join hands with civil society that is committed to a just and humane world.
Goals 10 and 16 are the lynch pins of Agenda 2030. Loose them, we loose everything.
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FEDWASUN
Non-Governmental Organizations
Access to water
It is very for reaching to unreached, increasing gap, capacity development
Employment with good salary
Homestay tourism promotion in Nepal
Rights and practices of good governance
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MPIDO
Women, Indigenous Peoples
1. Increasing the voice of developing countries in global and regional negotiations to reduce the "bullying" by most developed countries
2. increase support of the independence of regional unions ( e.g. African Union) will enable them make decisions. currently the AU is influenced by external countries
1. The financial support by developed nations to Regional Unions / blocks and to developing nations makes the supporting nation influence and meddle in the affairs of the developing nation.
2. Globally, some developed countries (eg China) have a low recognition and respect to democracy, human rights and special groups rights.
A equal negotiation table at global levels enables developing nations to influence decisions and agreements that are favorable to their status. this will help hold the developed nations accountable for their effort towards the 2030 agenda.
At the UNFCCC, negotiating parties have an almost equal voice. this had realized notable global actions and agreements on climate change interventions.
China and Russia remain the biggest underminers of SDG 10.
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Lawyers' Association for human Rights of Nepalese Indigenous Peoples (LAHURNIP)
Women, Children & Youth, Indigenous Peoples, Non-Governmental Organizations, Local Authorities, Workers & Trade Unions, Business & Industry, Volunteer Groups, Older Persons, Persons with Disabilities, Education & Academic Entities, Private Philanthropic Organizations
In Nepal, most of inequality term use for only gender inequality. It does not include caste base inequality. By one research more than 28%, indigenous peoples are in below poverty line. Being indigenous youth, indigenous women, and indigenous senior citizen facing multiples discrimination. Therefore, to reduce inequality, we have to dis aggregated each differentiation of the people such as youth, women, disability, and senior citizen as well as disadvantage indigenous groups.
There is not dis-aggregated data regarding indigenous peoples, which shows actual status of indigenous peoples. And helps to reduce inequality
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East Africa Trade Union Confederation
Workers & Trade Unions
Regional integration has played a central role in promoting equality within and among partner states
Developing countries have been signing trade agreements that have worsened the situation making them primary producers making growth of manufacturing sector difficult due to cheap imports. Also Most African countries are almost at the same level hence it is difficult to focus on competitive advantage for neighboring countries.
when the inequalities among and with countries are reduced then countries are on the playing level when it comes fully implementation of the SDGs. If not then countries will only focus on the SDGs they feel are of benefit to them.
None i know of
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Minority Rights Group International
Indigenous Peoples, Non-Governmental Organizations, Other stakeholders active in areas related to sustainable development
Empowering those most socio-economically excluded and marginalised – i.e. minorities and indigenous peoples – becomes a precondition for fulfilment of SDG 10, as recognised and agreed upon by all member states in target 10.2: ‘to empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status’. Not only is it impossible to achieve SDG 10 without specifically targeting minorities and indigenous peoples, prioritising those furthest behind is the single fastest and most effective way to significantly reduce socio-economic inequalities worldwide. Doing so, however, requires much stronger international efforts towards data disaggregation by ethnicity, caste, religion and language. Without a ‘significant increase’ in availability of ‘high-quality, timely and reliable data’ disaggregated by ‘income, gender, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts’ by 2020 (target 17.18), the most vulnerable and marginalised groups will continue to be rendered invisible, becoming virtually impossible to reach. In this context, further data disaggregation efforts to facilitate prioritisation of those furthest behind is the most powerful mechanism to accelerate progress towards SDG 10 (and, as a matter of fact, all SDGs).
Given the socio-economic exclusion, marginalisation and discrimination suffered by minorities and indigenous peoples worldwide, one of the biggest obstacles hindering progress towards SDG 10 is undoubtedly the absence of disaggregated data by religion, ethnicity, caste, language and ‘other characteristics relevant in national contexts. Currently, there is a worrying mismatch between target 10.2: ‘empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status’ and indicator 10.2.1: ‘proportion of people living below 50% of median income, by age, sex and persons with disability’. Failing to disaggregate by ‘race, ethnicity, origin, religion and economic or other status’ (more than half the categories in target 10.2), indicator 10.2.1 hinders the tracking of progress by population category and intersection of categories. It is clear that the IAEG (Inter-Agency Expert Group) disappointingly retreated from the stronger language agreed by all member states in the targets, in terms of the data disaggregation requirements for the indicators. This is a collective failure that must be corrected by the IAEG if there is to be meaningful participation and involvement of socio-economically excluded ethnic, linguistic and religious minorities and indigenous peoples. In the absence of action, wide socio-economic inequalities will persist and SDG 10 will not be achieved by 2030.
If sustainable development is to reach all peoples everywhere, as advocated by the Leave No One Behind principle, the most marginalised communities must be prioritised. This is only possible by reducing worldwide inequalities through securing the meaningful participation for minorities and indigenous peoples in the development process, ensuring particularly that the free, prior and informed consent of indigenous communities is sought throughout. In essence, meaningful participation is key in addressing inequality, as it helps to identify and tackle the sources of exclusion and marginalisation, which in turn helps ensuring more effective implementation of the rest of the 2030 Agenda. Meaningful and effective participation should take place at all stages of development initiatives, including by providing the necessary information in ways that are accessible and relevant to all affected communities, including minorities and indigenous peoples, as well as involving them in measuring impact. If necessary, grievance mechanisms and any forms of redress should also be developed in meaningful consultation with all affected communities.
Minority Rights Group International (MRG) has been involved in the following multi-stakeholder processes relating to implementation of SDG 10:

UNFPA Fact sheet on Indigenous Women’s Health and Maternal Mortality, launched in 2018 and produced along with UN Women and UNICEF, drafted by MRG and Health Poverty Action. The Fact sheet presents disaggregated data on unequal maternal health outcomes for indigenous women across a range of countries. Available here: https://www.unfpa.org/resources/indigenous-womens-maternal-health-and-maternal-mortality

African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights, 'Ogiek v. Kenya' (2017). A landmark judgement affirming indigenous peoples’ customary land rights and right to development. The case involved the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, the Ogiek People’s Development Programme (OPDP), MRG, as well as the Court and the Government of Kenya.

African Committee of Experts on the Right and Welfare of the Child (ACERWC) decision in 'Said & Yarg v. Mauritania' (2018). The ACERWC found that Mauritania’s authorities have failed to take adequate steps to prevent, investigate, prosecute, punish and remedy the widespread practice of slavery. The case involved the ACERWC, SOS Esclaves, Anti-Slavery International, MRG with the support of USAID and the EU. The case also involves the Government of Mauritania in terms of follow-up and implementation.
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Union to Union
Workers & Trade Unions
The core tools of trade unions, collective bargaining and social dialogue, are effective tools for reducing the income gap between individuals and groups. This since it addresses wage inequality as well as inequalities in the distribution of working time and access to jobs, training and career opportunities. Important is also the access to a comprehensive level of social protection, which specifically is linked to SDG 10.4. Social protection is crucial in order to ensure that people do not fall further into poverty and that no one is left behind in the development.
Ignoring the importance of decent wages and social protection policies, that undeniably may lift people out of poverty and thus reduce inequalities, can create major gaps in the progress towards this SDG.
When discussing inequality, it is also highly important to acknowledge that the shift from ‘informal’ to formal work can help lift huge numbers of people out of poverty and thereby reduce inequality. This since the incomes of informal workers tend to be below the average.
In order to make progress towards this goal, decent working conditions are needed, since this can create inclusive growth and social progress, thus creating a link between SDG 8 and SDG 10. Also, high and increasing levels of inequality in and between countries bear a substantial social and economic cost, such as poverty and gender inequality, why the fulfillment of this goal is important for the other SDGs.
An effective model of multi-stakeholder engagement for the implementation of SDG 10 is social dialogue and collective bargaining. This model bring stakeholders, such as employers and unions, into a dialogue which many times are about wages inequalities. This model are effective, since it is trying to achieve a democratic involvement among the main stakeholders, which could both reduce inequalities as well as create stable industrial relations.
Social dialogue can also be an effective tool for addressing gender inequality. For example, there are research who shows that countries with higher collective bargaining coverage and higher trade union density also have narrower gender pay gaps. Further, collective bargaining can also be used to prevent and address sexual and other forms of harassment and gender based discrimination at work, as well as a way to negotiate stronger maternity and parental leave policies, together with developed efforts to encourage men’s take up of leave. Social dialogue has also been used to improve the situation of women on the labor market through positive action and the creation of anti-discrimination measures, for example by creating incentives for employers to recruit women in sectors and industries where they are underrepresented. Several trade union actors, for example within the industry, have therefore used social dialogue through global framework agreements as a way to improve gender equality at the work place.
Women often have lower wages than men, and this needs to be prioritized in order to achieve SDG 10.
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Girls Not BridesWomen
Ensuring that a multi-sectoral approach is applied to development, with approaches to reducing inequalities aligned closely with other development priorities such as health, social protection and gender equality.

In addition, achieving progress towards SDG 10 requires a multi-stakeholder approach, including civil society, government, UN and intergovernmental agencies, and academia.
Child marriage tends to affect the most vulnerable populations, thus reinforcing inequalities across and within countries. A high prevalence of child marriage negatively affects economic, health and development outcomes of a country and perpetuates a cycle of violence and injustice, which in turn decreases a nation’s capacity to sustain democracy and stability. Girls who are married as children are less empowered, have little decision-making power within their households and communities and are less likely to participate fully in society.

In all countries, child marriage rates vary across regions. In some areas, the prevalence of child marriage may be much higher than the national average. These “hot spots” are often found among some of the most disadvantaged and vulnerable populations in the country and include high numbers of girls who are most at risk of child marriage, married girls, and girls who are simply the hardest to reach. These girls are often the most vulnerable - out of school, working as child labourers, at higher risk of being trafficked or exploited, or do not legally exist, because their births and marriages were never registered so they cannot access government services. Therefore reducing inequalities is critical in terms of ensuring these girls are not left behind in wide scale efforts to address child marriage in a country.
A lack of attention to child marriage undermined the achievement of six of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). We have since learned that child marriage is a core development and human rights issue, which hinders the achievement of many other development goals: half of the SDGs will not be achieved without significant progress on child marriage, including those related to poverty, health, education, nutrition, food security, economic growth and reduction of inequality, and other manifestations of gender inequality.
32
International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD)
Local Authorities
The Mediterranean City-to-City Migration project (MC2CM) contributes to improved rights-based migration governance. MC2CM anchors migration governance to a process of urban planning addressing its policy recommendations: Urban Challenges and Opportunities for the Mediterranean Region.
Cities are called to innovate and develop solutions to empower migrants and host communities to realise inclusion and social cohesion, as enshrined in objective 16 of the Global Compact for Migration (GCM), and minimise the adverse and structural factors that compel people to leave their country of origin (Obj. 2). Through decentralised cooperation and networks they support social, political and economic changes fostering opportunities for all.
MC2CM contributes to more open and inclusive cities by drawing on migrants' potential to benefit cities and their economies. Evidence shows that local governments can contribute to SDG 10 by fostering social cohesion and more balanced territorial development. Local policies are the adequate level to implement the ‘leave no one behind’ principle, through people-centred, right-based approaches which are the founding principles of non-discrimination.
As key players, cities should be involved in developing and implementing migration-related policies and mechanisms established to ensure policy coherence and provide cities, within the remit of their competences, with the necessary role and resources to address opportunities and challenges of migration.
The conditions under which migration management takes place locally, often result in refugee and migrant communities being excluded from many of the opportunities cities can offer. Furthermore, migrants are disproportionately represented among vulnerable groups. Situations of migrants in cities are characterised by social exclusion, poorer housing conditions, discrimination and higher levels of unemployment than non-migrant populations. Furthermore, the degree of inclusion of migrants into cities and societies can be interpreted as a measure of how a society is able to generate and leverage opportunities for all.
Local authorities seek to ensure the well-being of their communities, through inclusive public policies directed at all inhabitants. As a result, although many of the services related to the inclusion of migrants and refugees are not within their competence, local authorities have an important coordinating role to play in their territory in the context of migrant and refugee inclusion.
Access to basic services is one key area where inequalities should be reduced in the first instance. MC2CM has identified gaps in access of migrants and refugees in access to the following services:
- labour market, entrepreneurship, and vocational training
- adequate and affordable housing
- health (including basic health services)
- education (language training, leisure activities, cultural interaction)
-social and political participation
-protection against discrimination
SDG 10 calls for, inter alia, facilitation of orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies. While managed primarily by national governments, migration manifests itself in cities as the places where people come together to live, work and find the opportunities sought.
Well-managed migration policies should be considered also from the local perspective, since local and regional governments are often requested, as first responders, to intervene within national frameworks, policies and resources that are not always adequately designed for the local level.
Reducing inequalities is linked to increasing opportunities and giving access to basic services for all as enshrined in 2030 and the New Urban Agenda. From the perspective of local authorities and in line with their role in migrants’ inclusion, implementing SDG 10 is directly connected to achieving SDGs that promote access to basic services: SDG 3, 4, 5, 8, 11.
The role of cities here is crucial, as 65% of the targets can only be achieved at local level. Local authorities represent thus the right level to leverage the interlinkages between SDG 10 and the rest of the 2030 Agenda locally and link it also with the effective implementation of other global Agendas such as the Global Compact for migration ( obj. 2, 7, 15, 16 and 17).
The Mediterranean City-to-City Migration (MC2CM) project contributes to improved migration governance at city level. It is implemented by a consortium led by the International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD) in partnership with the United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) and the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat).
The project has thus far involved the cities of Amman, Beirut, Casablanca, Lisbon, Lyon, Madrid, Oujda, Rabat, Tangiers, Sfax, Sousse, Turin, Tunis and Vienna in a process of mutual learning and cooperation.
MC2CM has delved into the local context of each city by producing City Migration Profiles and Priority Papers validated by the city authority and stakeholders. This work has involved the international partners, local authorities and the local fabric in each city (comprised of public and private institutions as well as civil society). Dialogue with national level has been sought and encouraged in the spirit of achieving multi-level governance.
The project has also applied a regional approach to issues of interest through thematic events on the topics of relevance to local authorities, including: social cohesion, intercultural and interreligious dialogue; employment and entrepreneurship; human rights and access to basic services; refugees hosting; urban planning and housing; education; and inter-institutional coordination.
More examples and information available at www.icmpd.org/mc2cm
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Comision Hauirou
Women, Non-Governmental Organizations, Farmer, Other stakeholders active in areas related to sustainable development
Government commitments, budget allocation, disclosure of SDG goals, inter-institutional coordination, alliances with the private sector, NGOs
Lack of commitment from governments, corruption, lack of planning, poor quality of public management (unadapted and ignorant officials of the SDGs)
Informing the population to demand compliance with the 2030 Agenda and the SDGs
The example of the women's movement. When it educates and informs, it also transforms.
Social inequality has its origins in the construction of State models,
34
Unio
Workers & Trade Unions
The goals should be institutionalised nationally by way of a wide-reaching white paper as a first step towards a national plan for realising the sustainable development goals.
Further: The social partners must be involved in the planning, execution and evaluation of the government’s work on the UN’s sustainable development goals.
And: special parliamentary hearings on the realisation of the sustainable development goals should be held in connection with the presentation of the proposed annual budget.
• Weakness in coordination. Need of national plan.
• The sustainable development goals still not incorporated in education at all levels – from kindergarten to higher education – and enable the institutions to exercise this mandate.
• Cooperation through social dialogue is discussed, but not implemented
Highlight and emphasis on social dialogue.
Implement knowledge about SDG s in education om all levels. Intersectionality and interdiciplin in education embedded in practice
Focus on Just changes/transition and decrease wealth gap in society in general

• Ensure that the sustainable development goals are introduced to the social partnership.
• Use joint fora that bring together labour unions, employer organisations, civil society and business to highlight and strengthen the efforts to realise the sustainable development goals.
• co-operation with key social institutions such as research/educational institutions, museums, archives and libraries to reach the sustainable development goals.

• involve the local and regional level
• Social dialogue
• extensive financing.
35
SR Love & Care
Non-Governmental Organizations, Private Philanthropic Organizations, Healthcare
Replicable & development driven sustainable models (that can be scaled) are essential in effectively addressing disparity gaps. A focus on holistic (local) approaches & including those marginalized in development dialogue is necessary because it acts as a powerful catalyst for change. SR Love & Care advocates creating platforms to provide holistic solutions focusing on education and healthcare to those who have not been able to breakthrough the cycle of generational poverty. SR Love & Care recognizes one of the largest barriers for the underserved is access to resources which spirals into a vicious generational life cycle void of education, self-awareness and actualization and dismal physical and emotion health.
A deficit of the institutionalization of best practices exists that can potentially serve as a guide for local initiatives and a lack of opportunity for youth and young professionals to engage in decision making dialogue about their own societal status. SR Love & Care works to promote sustainable models that focus on inclusive access for the marginalized in over 50 cities worldwide with over 500 volunteers through the guiding principles of compassion. SR Love & Care believes in the inclusion of children, youth and young professionals as active participants in decision making as agents of change within their communities. Through it's holistic approach, SR Love & Care serves as a platform for civic engagement, capacity building and learning for youth and young professionals.

In addition, currently majority of development initiatives are not holistic in their approach. They solve one part of the problem. SR Love & Care provides medical care, but recognizes that it cannot work in a silo as a mere service provider by only addressing the physical needs and provides educational programs and addresses psychological needs of the marginalized along with education awareness.

SR Love & Care advocates a holistic approach to development to address emotional and spiritual dimensions along with the meeting the physical necessities.
SR Love & Care encourages member states to include civil society participants in national level boards and commissions so they can facilitate agenda setting and decision making and assist in creating or providing knowledge capital to the already established development initiatives. Further collaboration between the SDGs and the UN Agencies with civil society is advocated to leverage the inclusion of the people who are being advocated for is at the heart of sustainable development.
SR Love & Care advocates a model of active multi-stakeholder engagement by recognizing value inputs of the indigenous (tribal people) of the regions it services. SR Love & Care is guided by the principle that by gaining the trust of those who have lived in generational poverty and by including them in the dialogue and decision making, effective sustainable outcomes are achieved.

SR Love & Care recognizes the importance of private-public partnerships and through its initiatives is able to secure delivery mechanisms of social impact. SR Hospital provides medical care to those most vulnerable and excluded from the larger healthcare system and provides neonatal ICU platform to reduce infant mortality in the area (successfully by 30%). Similarly, SR Love & Care Education Trust guides children (most vulnerable segments of our population) in education from primary to university level to ensure social mobility; provides disability inclusion support to the disabled persons; and provides financial stability training through its FLOW (Financial Literacy and Opportunities for Women) program; and offers ancillary services (in education, nutritional & medical care) through mobile vans to teenage mothers. As partnerships through these initiatives provides support, they also assist in breaking the mental trust barriers (both personally and within families and communities.
Inclusion of the people who are being advocated for is at the heart of sustainable development.
36
Equipo de Relaciones Internacionales de CGT RA
Workers & Trade Unions
Empleo, educación y protección social deben ser los ejes para el logro de sociedades con justicia social.

Desarrollar políticas de ingresos que tiendan a reducir las desigualdades. En particular políticas que incrementen el salario mínimo y las trasferencias públicas a los sectores más vulnerados.

Promover políticas de empleo con eje en el Trabajo Decente contribuiría a la reducción de las desigualdades sociales y de género en las sociedades. Las políticas integrales para lograr la transición de la economía informal a la formalidad en los distintos países deben ser prioritarias.

Fortalecer las instituciones que sustentan el mundo del trabajo. El trabajo otorga al sujeto una identidad, un rol social y, sobre todo, un espacio de “ciudadanía”, en el sentido de “portador de derechos”.

Reformas progresivas de las estructuras impositivas de los países desde un enfoque de justicia fiscal.

Fortalecer y asegurar la provisión de bienes públicos, la seguridad, la educación, la salud y el medio ambiente y la igualdad de oportunidades constituyen los ejes para la reducción de la desigualdad en América latina y Caribe, tal como lo ha expresado la CEPAL (2018).

Establecer garantías para el acceso al conocimiento y facilitar los procesos de transferencia y acceso a la tecnología.

Consolidar pisos de protección social sustentables con garantías de acceso básicas en términos de derechos durante todo el ciclo de vida de las personas.
En la región, el aumento de la inequidad por la pérdida de la participación del ingreso del trabajo y de los trabajadores en las rentas nacionales plantea un serio desafío.

La desigualdad de ingresos entre los hogares y las personas se ha reducido apreciablemente desde principios de la década de 2000. Sin embargo, el ritmo de reducción se enlenteció en los años recientes: entre 2008 y 2014, del 0,8%, y entre 2014 y 2017, del 0,3% (promedio simple de los índices de Gini de 18 países de América Latina)

Desde 2014 el incremento de la participación de la masa salarial en el PIB se ha vuelto menos vigoroso como promedio de la región.

La informalidad es una dimensión que impacta considerablemente sobre la desigualdad, al dejar a importantes segmentos de la población fuera de la protección social.

Respecto del conjunto de países con información sobre la evolución de los salarios reales del empleo formal se observa una leve desaceleración de los incrementos interanuales. Esta desaceleración se concentró entre los países sudamericanos, entre ellos Argentina. ya que, en el promedio de la Argentina.

A nivel local, no se registran políticas recientes en términos fiscales ni de empleo por parte del Estado para la promoción del trabajo decente ni reducir las desigualdades generadas por la brecha de género.
Los avances que se alcancen sobre el ODS 8 relativo al crecimiento económico y el trabajo decente pueden contribuir también a lograr el ODS 10, reconociendo el rol central que tiene el Trabajo Decente a partir del ejercicio efectivo de la negociación colectiva en la participación de los trabajadores en los ingresos nacionales.

La reducción de la desigualdad también impacta sobre los progresos sobre el ODS 3 relativo a la salud en tanto la exclusión social tiene graves consecuencias en la salud de la población. Los contextos económicos y sociales ejercen una considerable influencia en el desarrollo de las enfermedades, su detección y tratamiento.

Los avances que se alcancen en relación al Objetivo 5 sobre igualdad de género y empoderamiento de la mujer contribuirán también a la reducción de la desigualdad de acuerdo al Objetivo 10.
La complementariedad productiva en los bloques regionales constituye un modelo efectivo para reducir las asimetrías en las regiones, tales como los fondos de cohesión del Mercosur.
Empleo, educación y protección social son ejes para el logro de sociedades con justicia social.
37
Comite de Juventud de CSI - Secretaria Relaciones Internacionales CGT RA
Workers & Trade Unions
Empleo, educación y protección social deben ser los ejes para el logro de sociedades con justicia social.

Desarrollar políticas de ingresos que tiendan a reducir las desigualdades. En particular políticas que incrementen el salario mínimo y las trasferencias públicas a los sectores más vulnerados.

Promover políticas de empleo con eje en el Trabajo Decente contribuiría a la reducción de las desigualdades sociales y de género en las sociedades. Las políticas integrales para lograr la transición de la economía informal a la formalidad en los distintos países deben ser prioritarias.

Fortalecer las instituciones que sustentan el mundo del trabajo. El trabajo otorga al sujeto una identidad, un rol social y, sobre todo, un espacio de “ciudadanía”, en el sentido de “portador de derechos”.

Reformas progresivas de las estructuras impositivas de los países desde un enfoque de justicia fiscal.

Fortalecer y asegurar la provisión de bienes públicos, la seguridad, la educación, la salud y el medio ambiente y la igualdad de oportunidades constituyen los ejes para la reducción de la desigualdad en América latina y Caribe, tal como lo ha expresado la CEPAL (2018).

Establecer garantías para el acceso al conocimiento y facilitar los procesos de transferencia y acceso a la tecnología.

Consolidar pisos de protección social sustentables con garantías de acceso básicas en términos de derechos durante todo el ciclo de vida de las personas.
En la región, el aumento de la inequidad por la pérdida de la participación del ingreso del trabajo y de los trabajadores en las rentas nacionales plantea un serio desafío.

La desigualdad de ingresos entre los hogares y las personas se ha reducido apreciablemente desde principios de la década de 2000. Sin embargo, el ritmo de reducción se enlenteció en los años recientes: entre 2008 y 2014, del 0,8%, y entre 2014 y 2017, del 0,3% (promedio simple de los índices de Gini de 18 países de América Latina)

Desde 2014 el incremento de la participación de la masa salarial en el PIB se ha vuelto menos vigoroso como promedio de la región.

La informalidad es una dimensión que impacta considerablemente sobre la desigualdad, al dejar a importantes segmentos de la población fuera de la protección social.

Respecto del conjunto de países con información sobre la evolución de los salarios reales del empleo formal se observa una leve desaceleración de los incrementos interanuales. Esta desaceleración se concentró entre los países sudamericanos, entre ellos Argentina. ya que, en el promedio de la Argentina.

A nivel local, no se registran políticas recientes en términos fiscales ni de empleo por parte del Estado para la promoción del trabajo decente ni reducir las desigualdades generadas por la brecha de género.
Los avances que se alcancen sobre el ODS 8 relativo al crecimiento económico y el trabajo decente pueden contribuir también a lograr el ODS 10, reconociendo el rol central que tiene el Trabajo Decente a partir del ejercicio efectivo de la negociación colectiva en la participación de los trabajadores en los ingresos nacionales.

La reducción de la desigualdad también impacta sobre los progresos sobre el ODS 3 relativo a la salud en tanto la exclusión social tiene graves consecuencias en la salud de la población. Los contextos económicos y sociales ejercen una considerable influencia en el desarrollo de las enfermedades, su detección y tratamiento.

Los avances que se alcancen en relación al Objetivo 5 sobre igualdad de género y empoderamiento de la mujer contribuirán también a la reducción de la desigualdad de acuerdo al Objetivo 10.
La complementariedad productiva en los bloques regionales constituye un modelo efectivo para reducir las asimetrías en las regiones, tales como los fondos de cohesión del Mercosur.
Empleo, educación y protección social son ejes para el logro de sociedades con justicia social.
38
ITUC
Workers & Trade Unions
- Implementing and enforcing a statutory minimum wage guaranteeing an income that allows people to live with dignity . Minimum wages should take into account the cost of living, should be evidence-based and regularly reviewed and adjusted. Real wage increases and social protection expansions can increase consumption and strengthen aggregate demand, boost productivity, contribute to the formalisation of work, and boost the economy whilst reducing inequality and creating a level playing field – without driving out investment.
- Multinationals at the top of the supply chain must respect fundamental rights and ensure fair pay and decent work at all levels across the supply chain. Cross border social dialogue and collective bargaining are essential to addressing wage inequalities across the supply chain. In this sense, international and regional wage coordination is needed to promote upward convergence on wages and take low wages out of competition.
- Robust equal pay legislation and effective enforcement is needed. Minimum wages and collective bargaining are equally important to close the gap.
- Social protection floors are essential tools in eliminating poverty, and driving factors in boosting employment, fostering skills development, formalising work (including the informal economy), reducing inequalities and achieving inclusive economic growth.
- Greater global coherence: IFIs are promoting wage cuts, reducing social protection systems, and cutbacks to vital public services.
- Working poverty remains a major challenge across the globe. Considering that the working poor account for more than 700 million people, meeting SDGs by 2030 will be impossible if this issue is left unaddressed. Implementing and enforcing a statutory minimum wage guaranteeing an income that allows people to live with dignity and is essential to reducing poverty. Furthermore, the decline in the wage share in many countries has contributed to deficiencies in aggregate demand, which has been detrimental for growth and employment at the national level as well for the global economy.
- The ILO estimates that only 29% of the world’s population enjoy a comprehensive level of social protection.
- The existence of an adequate fiscal space to support social policies and the elimination of tax havens, especially in times of crisis.
- The integration of national economies into global markets and the expansion of global supply chains have intensified competition and caused leading firms to cut labour costs through restructuring, outsourcing and off-shoring. This, in turn, has increased downward pressure on wages and working conditions. In a number of countries, these changes were accompanied by the deregulation of labour markets and a rollback in policy support for protective labour market institutions and collective bargaining.
Participation is a pillar of sustainability, and so it is recognised in the 2030 Agenda. In this light, social dialogue is a mechanism for participation that contributes to sustainability in many different ways. This process is one of the great challenges on the path to achieving decent work for all and more inclusive and sustainable societies, in line with the objectives of the 2030 Agenda.

Further information on the contribution of Social Dialogue to the SDGs: The contribution of social dialogue to the 2030 Agenda: https://www.ituc-csi.org/social-dialogue-for-sdgs-formalising-informal-economy
39
INternational Presentation Association
Religious Faith Based Communities.
Reduced inequalities between and with countries. Ireland has committed 0.56% of GNI to Official Development Aid (ODA) in the last budget and this has significantly increased our overseas commitment to reducing inequalities as they might persist abroad.
Equally for this refugees that have been offered sanctuary in Ireland from Syria (and indeed other countries) we have a favourable policy of bring the immediate relative of our re-homed refugee to Ireland should they so wish and in this way improving the lot of all who seek refuge in Ireland.
Our Direct Provision Centres (reception centres) are extremely divisive and those who seek asylum in ireland must reside in these centres for periods of up to 8 / 9 years awaiting a decision for leave to remain or work. Some children are born in Direct Provision and are therefore Irish by birth but with no entitlement to remain.
A greater emphasis by all in the SDG Agenda, from government, financing, education, civil society. We need to be led by the government properly in the SDGs or we are wasting our time.
We ,with Irish Foreign Aid have been extremely knowledgeable in obtaining the best possible value for money offered for overseas development.
Our PeaceKeeping Forces are busy at work around the world.
We need to address the homeless and those in Direct Provision now
40
European Youth ForumChildren & Youth
Equal access to social welfare to ensure a decent life for all. To achieve this, end discrimination in access to unemployment and other benefits or minimum income schemes on the basis of age.

Ensuring equal access to inclusive and quality education for all young people.

Investment in non-formal education providers, such as youth organisations, is also a crucial step towards achieving an inclusive education.

Governments should support attempts at independent living through housing allowances or rent deposit schemes that can help young people access rental accommodation by guaranteeing their rental deposit.

Financing for services specialised in providing housing solutions and preventing homelessness, as well as focusing on approaches that seek to re-integrate homeless youth as quickly as possible into the community.

Young people's political participation is crucial to having their interests and needs represented by policy-markers. Countries should lower the voting age to 16.

Ensure universal health care coverage through the elimination of out of pocket payments and by creating more tailored services, especially for trans and intersex youth, as well as young refugees and migrants (particularly undocumented migrants).

Enact legislation prohibiting discrimination on the grounds of age in all areas of life.
Austerity measures as a reaction to the economic and financial crisis often resulted in cuts to social spending and investing in people in many European countries. Austerity has had an impact on the quality and accessibility of education, particularly for vulnerable groups of young people.

Transitions from education to employment often lack quality.

Precarious employment, low wages, no job security, has an impact on a person’s ability to build their future.

In the European context, young people can face age-based discrimination in accessing social protection.

Access to affordable housing is often denied to young people. Young people are being priced out of the city housing market and are increasingly distanced from home ownership.

Healthcare services are still too far from young people's needs and everyday reality.

The lack of legal frameworks prohibiting discrimination on the grounds of age in all areas of life (employment, education, social protection) pose a significant barrier to fighting discrimination on the grounds of age

Furthermore, age limits constitute a form of structural discrimination against young people as they are usually employed as a mechanism to discriminate against people, for example in employment, legal capacity or voting.

Moreover, EU anti-discrimination legislation does not explicitly provide for the consideration of multiple grounds of discrimination to reflect the lived experiences of discrimination that some young people face.
In Europe, young people face multiple barriers in accessing their social and labour rights, making them the age group most at risk of social and economic exclusion. In many instances, young people are discriminated against not only on the basis of their age, but also due to other characteristics, including but not limited to gender, race, sexual orientation, gender identity, ethnic origin, disability, religious belief, or social and educational background. It is clear then that, for all young people to have the opportunity to fully participate in economic, social and cultural life, and to enjoy an adequate standard of living, a siloed approach is not sufficient. The implementation of SDG 10 is closely linked to other SDGs, such as SDG 4 and 8 (but also 1, 3, 4, 5). Education, for example, is a key indicator of life outcomes: quality and inclusive education lays the groundwork for social cohesion, social mobility and an equitable society. Ensuring quality employment, tackling poverty and establishing youth-friendly welfare systems, are equally fundamental steps towards a more sustainable and equal society.
41
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42
Huairou Commission
Other stakeholders active in areas related to sustainable development
1) Partnerships with different stakeholders, including private – public partnerships, and partnerships with local communities 2) Networks can also accelerate implementation, organized networks have global and regional political clout, including the national level; 3) Engage grassroots women in all of the political and monitoring spaces to provide feedback and input on the effectiveness of policies, all the related policies must be inclusive and benefit the grassroots communities
The government to community level awareness of the SDGs is lacking, we should invest more in local to government level actors SDG education and capacity building; development resourcing and financing need decentralization to more effectively reach the local level; political will is missing especially at the government level as it is vulnerable to government transitions, meanwhile, grassroots actors have the strongest political will and governments should be open to receive training from grassroots through local to local dialogues to familiarize to what is being done, good practices, etc.
South to North exchange in upscaling economic policies and even community practices can benefit reduction of economic inequalities within and among countries. Inter-country, inter-region and inter-community cooperation can sustain the economic growth and development necessary for reduction of economic inequalities. Inequalities among countries can be addressed through cooperation, which in turn can help to address economic inequality within countries. Reduced inequalities can help to remove obstacles to people’s participation in sustainability agenda and can help to promote inclusivity of all.
At the local level, we organize networks engaging different sectors and government agencies. We engage municipal development council that engages grassroots representatives from different sectors and municipal government officials. We work on the municipal development plan, proposing programs necessary for grassroots and budgets. The DAMPA is involved in planning, design and implementation of the program. Lately, we worked on economic development programs for fisheries and farmers. Grassroots women can share buffalos and access their milk to produce dairy products and sell them.
43
LaRRI (Labour Resource and Resource Institute)
Workers & Trade Unions
Attract foreign direct investments, through the Public Private Partnership agreements. The wide inequality gap can be improved by harmonizing the increments of salaries. An increase on a salary should make sense. 6% increment across all wages or salaries does not solve the inequality. Policies could be developed for youth empowerment programs such as innovative funding schemes and small-medium communal project funding.
Inequality in the Namibian context is increasingly high, and the main contributors are the government’s weak industrial policies and bargaining positions with the private sector. Since the turn of the 2008 global financial market government have struggled to attract investors from which they can return maximum public benefits from. The Uranium mine in the Erongo region case is one of the key highlights for the above made argument, where the government only possess a 10% share in the mine, and these are shares acquired through the attainment of loans from the same investing company.
To reduce poverty through education, woman and disability empowerment mechanism which will in return reduce inequality, and create a more conscious society built on quality and credible institutions. This will then impact an overall improvement in infrastructure for greater welfare.
Creation of community base projects funding scheme/trustee from both private and governmental agencies. Aimed at supporting new innovative ideas from the designated disadvantaged groups.
Inequality reduction mechanism established as solidarity measure as opposed to being a charity.
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Design for Change España
Children & Youth, Education & Academic Entities
In our opinion, the most important is to take into account that children and young adults are not the future, they are the present. Empowering them to feel they can drive change towards a better world and that they are able to change what they do not like in their own local context, would accelerate progress towards SDG 10.
People are willing to make a change towards reducing inequalities, but they lack tools and processes to develop innovative ways for problem solving and developing 21st century skills and values (empathy, shared leadership, teamwork and critical thinking).
In our opinion, there should be a holistic and coordinated approach to meet the SDGs, as they are interlinked, and acting on one can help reach other goals. Empowered citizens with 21st century skills and values will be more conscious of the global challenges and would be willing to do something about them.
Most projects developed by children and young adults using the Design for Change methodology are proven examples of how multi-stakeholder engagement can lead to improve the SDGs. Check Stories of Change in https://stories.dfcworld.com/
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The Brooke
Non-Governmental Organizations
Ensuring voices from women are heard in financial discussions at community level - we can then build on this nationally and regionally
Discriminatory laws and policies preventing the participation of women in financial and employment groups
This SDG is closely linked with SDG8 as countries that have more women at leadership level have done better across the board e.g. Rwanda, Sweden and Senegal so by showing the link between these two SDG we provide a stronger case for equality amongst women especially for decision making. SDG4 on education would also help improve perception of women as decision makers in society as part of Citizenship classes at school.
Brooke works in India and we have created women's groups who come together to pool finances in order to get animal health care for their working livestock (mainly donkeys, horses and mules), Brooke's creation of these groups has led to the women negotiating better rates with animal health professionals for veterinary treatment of their animals and better rates to buy food for the animals they depend on. The success of these groups has meant that they have diversified into not only pooling finances for their animals treatment but also for their children's education and we have facilitated their access to political representatives, to the point that their national government representative met with them
46
Sightsavers
Other stakeholders active in areas related to sustainable development
Understanding intersectionality and how different factors intersect to shape the lived experience is crucial for understanding inequality and ensuring more effective decision making.

Increasing the capacity, including effective financial resourcing, of representative organisatons of contextually marginalised groups – for example, disabled people’s organisations, women’s rights groups and minority groups – to advocate for their rights, and increasing the capacity of donors and government to work effectively with these groups will be vital.

Increasing the capacity of National Human Rights Institutions to protect and promote the right of people with disabilities, and other contextually marginalized groups, and to monitor and act on human rights violations will be critical.
Increased coordination between different government departments to effectively mainstream the rights of people with disabilities and other contextually marginalized groups across their policies and programmes will also ensure progress on SDG10, along with increased coordination of donors at a national level to ensure that they are working effectively together and effectively supporting governments and representative groups.

Finally, increasing capacity of national statistics offices to collect and analyse data disaggregated by disability, and of government departments to effectively integrated disability data into the management information systems, is required.
In many places there is an increasing gap between people with disabilities and people without disabilities – as the socio-economic status of people without disabilities remains stationary at the same time that that of people without disabilities advances. This is also the case in other domains such as education, where the gap in attendance and attainment between children with disabilities and their peers without disabilities is often growing.

There are multiple barriers and factors that lead to inequality between people with disabilities and people without disabilities. Poverty and disability are closely linked, people with disabilities are more likely to live in poverty than people without disabilities and this gap increases as countries develop. People with disabilities are less likely to access education, training and employment – all factors which compound to increase inequality. People with disabilities are also hugely diverse, and people with disabilities who also experience other forms of discrimination are at further risk of being excluded from a country’s overall progress. For example, women with disabilities living in rural areas may experience discrimination based on gender, disability and geography which intersect and create new forms of discrimination. Understanding these nuanced forms of discrimination when designing and planning policies and programmes is crucial to ensure that inequalities are removed and not further entrenched.

Taking an intersectional approach, to ensure development programmes target the people who are furthest behind first, will help to reduce inequalities. For example, women with disabilities from a religious minority living in rural areas may face various, intersecting barriers to accessing their rights on a daily basis, and particularly during conflicts and crises. Understanding intersectionality and how different factors intersect to shape the lived experience is therefore crucial for more effective decision making, and ensuring different groups of people are prioritised.

Achieving SDG10 will also require addressing multiple, deep-rooted forms of discrimination. For example, changing negative perceptions of disability, working to ensure gender equality, and ensuring the rights of indigenous people, amongst others.

In order to ensure SDG10 is realized in practice it will be important to continue to raise awareness of the human rights of all people so those furthest behind are empowered to fight for their rights, and of the existence of global frameworks that protect these rights, including: the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC); Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD); Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW); and United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP).
In 2018 the governments of the United Kingdom and Kenya, with the International Disability Alliance, hosted the first ever Global Disability Summit. National governments and other organisations made 170 sets of commitments, for how they will work to deliver ambitious new global and national level commitments on disability inclusion. The SDGs have helped to embed the importance of leaving no one behind in global development, and the outcomes of the Summit should directly help to address inequality experienced by people with disabilities across the world.

To ensure the active engagement of people with disabilities in SDG implementation and monitoring, a collective platform the Disability Alliance on SDGs was formed in Bangladesh in 2017. The Alliance is formed of prominent national and international Disabled People’s Organisations (DPOs) and NGOs working in the field of disability and development in Bangladesh, whose work aligns with at least one of the SDGs. The Alliance worked to promote the rights of people with disabilities in Bangladesh’s VNR and were eventually invited to draft a chapter on disability, built on consultations with people with disabilities at all levels. The Alliance continues to work collaboratively to develop disability related indicators, and embed disability inclusion into National Development Plans.
47
CBM International
Persons with Disabilities
Recommendations:
• Build partnerships, develop collaborations between academic centers, government, policymakers, and stakeholders.
• Gather data on persons with disabilities at the national, regional and global levels to identify the gaps and challenges of persons with disabilities to create evidence-based policies, planning, and decision making.
• Introduce the OCED-DAC disability policy marker to record aid activities targeting the inclusion of persons with disabilities.
• Provide equal access to education to children and youth with and without disabilities.
• Invest in and ensure universal access to quality health care for persons with disabilities in order to increase productivity and the wealth of a household.
• Align national legislation and policies with CRPD provisions on non-discrimination.
• Share best practices across sectors and across countries.
• Urgently repeal all discriminatory laws and take measures to eliminate discriminatory practices in all Member States. This includes, but is not limited to: removal of legal capacity authorised by law against persons with intellectual or psychosocial disabilities, segregated forms of education of pupils with disabilities, forced treatment and placement of persons with psychosocial disabilities, forms of institutionalization, etc.
• Collect, analyze and disseminate disaggregated data and research information in order to identify inequalities and discriminatory practices.
Persons with disabilities encounter widespread exclusion from all areas of economic, political, social, civil, and cultural life, including employment, education, health care, and access to WASH services. Persons with disabilities experience higher rates of poverty and deprivation and lower levels of income than the general population and, there is a strong link between having a disability and being in poverty. This all stems from pervasive discrimination and stigma, unequal opportunities, and institutional, physical, communication, legal, and attitudinal barriers that persons with disabilities encounter worldwide and are among those most left behind.

Children with disabilities continue to face systemic inequalities such as unequal access to healthcare, social services, and education. Barriers at the community, organizational, and public policy levels limit their participation in society.

Marginalization and inequality are exacerbated by a lack of measurable disaggregated data on persons with disabilities, which in turn does not provide an accurate picture of what persons with disabilities encounter. Consequently, these gaps cannot be adequately addressed or addressed at all.
Equality and non-discrimination are essential for the eradication of poverty and should also be seen as the core for human development without which sustainable and inclusive economic growth would not be possible. Particular attention must be given to persons with disabilities, including children, women and older people with disabilities, who are among those at highest risk of social, economic, and political exclusion.

In order to achieve a world in which no one is left behind, SDG 10, and all the interlinked SDGs, must be carried out in line with the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) that promotes, protects and ensures the full and equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by all persons with disabilities. Equality and non-discrimination are at the core of all human rights treaties. The CRPD has taken into account the experiences offered by the other UN conventions, and as such its equality and non-discrimination principles represent the evolution of the United Nations and its tradition and approach.
Three good practices include:
• Collecting data on child disability – companion technical booklet: UNICEF has developed a booklet for collecting data on child disability that is an example of a good practice. The purpose of this booklet is to understand why data on children with disabilities are currently inadequate, the difficulties that surround the gathering of high-quality data on children with disabilities, and why there is a real need to improve the collection, analysis, dissemination and use of disability data.

• The Washington Group/UNICEF Module on Child Functioning: This is a questionnaire that covers children between 2 and 17 years of age. It assesses functional difficulties in different domains including hearing, vision, communication/comprehension, learning, mobility and emotions.

• The Washington Group short set of questions: Its purpose is to assess the level of functioning in the population by collecting quality and accurate data on persons with disabilities in censuses. Rather than asking people if they have a disability, there are six questions to assess whether people have difficulty performing everyday tasks such as walking, seeing, hearing, communicating or getting dressed. This can facilitate the identification of persons with disabilities even though they may not classify themselves as having a disability. The results can help to provide policies and programmes that are inclusive to all, and in turn reduce inequalities.
48
Fundación del Empresariado Yucateco - FEYAC
Non-Governmental Organizations, Private Philanthropic Organizations, Other stakeholders active in areas related to sustainable development
Working with government and different world summits
Lack of continuity when there are changes in governments in our country as well as others.
The noruegan government is investing in Yucatan for clean energy technologies.
Countries should work together to make this a reality and not just a dream.
49
Coalition2030
Non-Governmental Organizations
• Monitoring impact of policy change
• Rights based approach to social, economic, and cultural policy to address the growing inequality
• Reliable local data to monitor sub-national variations in progress to enable the development of effective policy responses and targeted resources to ensure no one is left behind. Adequate resources should be provided to the CSO and civil society to ensure frequent, quality and disaggregated data
• Indicators must move beyond national income as a measure of societal advancement
• Ireland has a high incidence of low pay and weak labour protections which is driving inequality. Greater support for workers and social protection spending needed to bring workers closer to European norms
• Benchmarking wages and social welfare rates at a sufficient to lift people above the poverty line and provide them with a Minimum Essential Standard of Living. Increasing the National Minimum Wage to the Living Wage to ensure wages are sufficient for a minimum standard of living
• National antipoverty/social inclusion plans with ambitious targets provide an important policy commitment. This kind of centralised policy commitment helps mobilise a multi-departmental approach to poverty and addressing inequality
• Collection of adequate revenue to resource services, requires broadening the tax base. An increase in tax-take must be implemented equitably, in a way that reduces income inequality and requires a fair share of corporate profits be paid in tax
• Abusive international tax practices are a major determinant of inequality, and undermine economic and social rights. Ireland impedes progress of developing countries through its facilitation of aggressive tax planning by multinationals. Tax avoidance costs many countries significant lost tax revenue
• Lack of harmonised EU tax laws and a Financial Transaction Tax
• Stronger enforcement of equality legislation, including recognising socio-economic status as a ground for discrimination. One in eight people in Ireland reported having experienced some form of discrimination in the last two years. In the middle of a housing crisis, the Legal Aid Board has recently removed the automatic provision of funding for a barrister in personal insolvency cases
• Sources of data across the targets and indicators particularly at a disaggregated level. Disaggregated data is crucial to ensuring no one is left behind and effective policy responses.
• The SDGs are commitments anchored in human rights. Need an enhanced integrated approach and move towards a human rights implementation of the SDGs, with closer alignment of SDG monitoring with that of other Human Rights and Environmental frameworks and commitments
• Need for a new model for development, reconceptualising the interaction of employment, taxation, welfare and work. Working poverty remains a major challenge across the globe
• Barriers to participation persist, causing excessive inequality. Pathways to participation must be found
• The impact of decent work on tackling inequalities is clear & the need to change our Labour markets in areas such as: Social protection Collective Bargaining, Labour Standards, Gender Equality and renewed institutions. The ILO’s decent work agenda (Goal 8) is key to tackling inequality in Ireland and around the world.
• Government need to support women’s empowerment and leadership, as well as pay particular attention to gendered dimensions of poverty, exclusion and vulnerability. Labour and wage policies should address the disproportionate representation of women in low-paid sectors, and recognise the care work often carried out by women.
• Support the ratification of the Istanbul Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence, encouraging those countries that have not ratified the Convention to do so.
• Countries should fully implement the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, with a strong focus on gender, disability and inclusiveness, with mechanisms put in place for consistent national monitoring.
50
Self
Other stakeholders active in areas related to sustainable development
Include concept of equity as this is what is needed to achieve equality, make Goal name more descriptive, standardized measures
Funding. To bring poorest countries to level of richest in terms of SDGs would take a lot of money. Also understanding of this goal - there is confusion, and lack of standardization
Use SDGs as variables to measure the equality of nations - except SDG 17
Not at this time
Install a Director over each SDG, including Equality to standardize and assess, clarify Goal
51
Self
Other stakeholders active in areas related to sustainable development
Include concept of equity as this is what is needed to achieve equality, make Goal name more descriptive, standardized measures
Funding. To bring poorest countries to level of richest in terms of SDGs would take a lot of money. Also understanding of this goal - there is confusion, and lack of standardization
Use SDGs as variables to measure the equality of nations - except SDG 17
Not at this time
Install a Director over each SDG, including Equality to standardize and assess, clarify Goal
52
ASEDUCA
Children & Youth, Non-Governmental Organizations, Education & Academic Entities
participacion 50/50 de mujeres y hombres en las politicas publicas
hay desigualdad, en los salarios de las mujeres ganen menos que los hombres
mayor participacion politica y ciudadana de las mujeres a nivel nacional
53
Soka Gakkai International
Non-Governmental Organizations
-Education, in formal and non-formal settings, for all age groups helps us learn about inequality as well as its underlying causes, reflect on it and empower individuals to take action and exercise leadership.
-Disseminate broadly stories of individual empowerment who led to local action to change their environment and address inequalities
-Failure to prioritize human security to protect the lives, livelihoods and dignity of individuals, especially when there are sudden shocks (disasters, society-wide shocks, extreme poverty…)
-Gender inequality
-Focusing on education/lifelong learning through formal and non-formal education
54
Nafas LGBT Azerbaijan Alliance
Other stakeholders active in areas related to sustainable development
Reducing inequality that LGBTI people face is highly important for day-to-day living, since they are about ensuring that people can live lives of dignity through, for example, having a job or access to social security if they can’t work, having an adequate standard of living (including adequate food, clothing and housing), being able to access education and healthcare.The most effective ways to accelerate the progress toward SDG 10:
•Taking necessary legislative and administrative measures toward gender recognition in line with international best practice to increase access to official identity documents that correspond to personal gender identity;
•Adopt appropriate legislation, policy to lawfully regulate the equal marriage or registration of civil unions for all to ensure that everyone has equal access to any family-related social and economic rights;
•Support campaigns led by LGBTI groups that are calling for an end to discriminatory policies, promoting the social, economic and political inclusion of all;
•Redouble its efforts to eliminate persistent discrimination against LGBTI people including by carrying out awareness-raising campaigns and other actions in this regard, with a view to reduce inequality, particularly to address the access to employment, social security, health care, education;
•Multidimensional measurement data collection by including SOGIESC to understand how states’ development efforts to reduce inequality are contributing to ‘leaving no one behind’;
Ensuring universal enjoyment of human rights is fundamental to reducing inequality. The SDG 10 to “reduce inequality within and among countries” in its second target calls the states to “empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all”. Inequality, exclusion, discrimination, violence cost states in lost GDP, in increased expenses, and in lost human potential. This understanding has to be one of the underpinnings of states’ SDGs implementation policy by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies, practices and promoting appropriate policies that also meet the needs of LGBTI people.
LGBTI people face some of the most significant levels of discrimination and inequality, whether this is in the form of violence and bullying at school, lack of equal employment opportunities, non-consensual medical interventions, inability to access necessary health care or non-recognition of their families. Therefore the absence of protection policies plays a significant role in increasing LGBTI people’s likelihood of struggling with inequality. General language in all policies and in legal framework creates a possibility for interpretation. As a result, policy provisions and implementation of them are reinforced by sexist and homophobic social norms. This inequality not only matters in and of itself, but it also exacerbates poverty, contributes to poor health and education outcomes, undermines gender equality, rationalizes violence and undermines SDG progress overall.
We emphasize that intolerance that may exist in society towards LGBTI people can never be used as a justification for inequality. State must work vigorously to empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, in order to fulfil its responsibility to achieve sustainable development. We believe that reducing inequality is not just an obligation based on a single goal, indeed it is interlinked with other SDGs in general.
Enhanced policy coherence (Target 17.14) and enforced non-discriminatory laws and policies for sustainable development (Target 16.B) will ensure the equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome (Target 10.3).
Empowerment and promotion the social, economic and political inclusion of all (Target 10.2) and elimination discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promotions appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard (Target 10.3) will eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere (Target 1.1), will ensure that all [..], in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources (Target 1.4).
Adopting policies, especially [..] social protection policies to achieve greater equality progressively (Target 10.4) will ensure that by 2030 everyone has access to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services (Target 11.1).
Current climate in country makes it impossible to achieve effective models of multi-stakeholder engagement for the implementation of SDG 10.
55
All Together in Dignity Ireland - ATD Fourth World
Non-Governmental Organizations
In 2018, ATD Ireland run a small pilot project entitled "The Leave No One Behind Conversations" involving people from marginalised and vulnerable communities. The aim was to discuss the implementation by Government but also by citizens of the Goal 10 and the LNOB promise. See www.leavenoonebehind.ie

Some learnings of the project:

- multiply in all communities and in all sectors of society the facilitation of LNOB conversations to create ownership of the LNOB promise as well as Goal 10 by a majority of citizens. Transformation will happen if personal behaviour and structural inequality systems are challenged together.

- Empowerment of marginalised groups with the 17 Goals not disconnected from the LNOB promise transfroms the LNOB promise in a positive active response from communities: "Let's move from the back"

- LNOB walk the talk discussions should be now part of the school curriculum with a focus on "the LNOB challenges at your doorstep" combined with an understanding of structural inequality systems.
56
Oxfam India
Other stakeholders active in areas related to sustainable development
• Progressive taxation, including implementation of increased taxation on super-rich. Invest income generated in public services
• Put in place social protection mechanisms, enforce living wage&income for all for workers, stop labour abuses & protect rights of workers2organize
• Implement universal, free, quality, equitable public services like health&education as a right. Address health expenses, strengthening primary health care&free, universal, quality public education to all. Address privatisation.
• Put in place anti-discriminatory legislation2address discrimination,social exclusion based on caste,class, gender,religious/tribal status,disability,etc. Effectively implement affirmative policies
• Make women more visible in public life&institutions. Correct gender imbalance in key sectors-police, judiciary,legislature; address gender wage gaps, invest in care economy2enable women2enter paid labour
• Provide better oversight of economy including control over monopolies, restrictive trade practices, closing loopholes4tax evasion&avoidance &addressing corruption&crony capitalism
• End resource curse; those living in natural resource rich states, 2b given control over land/resources
• Address systemic barriers to unequal access to justice
• Improve regulation &monitoring of global financial markets/institutions
• Making governance more inclusive through strengthening formal mechanism for social accountability, meaningful involvement of CSOs&citizens
SDGs themselves are not receiving adequate attention and not being implemented in the true letter and spirit. Stronger sensitization of the administration to the agenda, enhanced implementation of the provisions identified in the previous question and stronger availability of disaggregated data to identify disparities and inequalities.
The solutions being proposed have clear connections across the different goals and targets (eg. SDG 17, 16, 1, 3, 4 and 5 among others). At the same time, an inclusive process of follow up and review at all levels (globally, regionally, nationally and sub-nationally). Effective and inclusive implementation of public services is critical for addressing inequalities in society.
The Fight Inequality Alliance is a global network that has taken on the challenge of advocacy and campaigning on issues of inequality globally, regionally and nationally.
57
World Farmers' Organisation - WFO
Farmer
As WFO mentioned in our comments for SDG 8, agriculture is a fundamental part of the lives of rural populations in LICs as well as HICs. A fundamental part of achieving SDG 10 will be in transforming agriculture and the financial stability of farmers, both large-scale and small-scale farmers. This means disseminating information to local levels, providing information to countries so that they can involve farmers and make the best possible policy decisions regarding their agricultural sector.

Farmers need to have policy measures implemented to protect their financial independence. Moreover, international trade regulations and standards need to consider the impact of their policy on agriculture. Transforming the food value chain to give more agency to farmers will be fundamental: they should have access to market price values and be protected from “middle” traders who may take advantage of them. Unfair practices between countries need to be reconsidered, especially in the context of agriculture. For example, food aid has been shown to have devastating impacts on food security and farmers economic security: such considerations need to be analysed and handled to maximise responses to food emergencies.

Strong analysis is needed in regard to the impact of multinational corporations and their trading practices. Their national policies should be analysed to ensure fair treatment of producers.
WFO identifies two major shortfalls in making progress towards SDG 10: first, unclear coordination, and second, conflicting policies. Farmers and agriculture need support from a multi-sectoral approach. In order to be more effective in reducing inequalities between and within countries, we need to encourage more coordination, both within countries and from the part of international organizations.

A prime example of a multi-sectoral approach and collective approach is evident in the methods used to tackle nutrition in regard to food security. In such an approach, expertise is needed across the health sector as well as the political and social sector, to ensure adequate nutrition, sustainable production, and awareness on specific nutritional needs. Likewise, in order to reduce inequality within countries for farmers and agricultural workers, we need to work across sectors, harmonize messages, and actively involve farmers in the decision-making process in order to understand their real needs and challenges and at the same time benefit from their expertise in the fields.
Reducing inequality will be accomplished in coordination with other sectors. Maintaining an eye on inequalities related to social and economic issues in regard to education or economic access will bring with them a reduction in inequality. Harmonizing international policy and ensuring fair treatment of actors in international trade will also ensure movement towards reduced inequalities.
An example can be the United Nations Decade on Family Farming 2019-2028 that will be launched next 27-29 May with the aim of improving the position of family farmers around the world by focusing the attention on their significant role in eradicating hunger and poverty, providing food security and nutrition, improving livelihoods, managing natural resources among others. WFO is an active member of the Steering Committee that has been created to ensure an inclusive and structured approach to the implementation of the Decade and is advocating, together with other stakeholders, to have a specific focus on youth and gender issues in the agricultural production, in the framework of the Decade.
58
Misean Cara
Missionaries in development
The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) places obligations on states to ensure that People with Disabilities are given a fair chance to live a dignified and full life. Indeed, UNCRPD is the main instrument guiding global disability inclusion in the 21st century. Governments that have ratified the CRPD commit to promoting and protecting the rights and dignity of people with disabilities in every sphere of life, including international development - and this must be fully taken into account in Voluntary National Reviews and High-Level Political Forums reviewing progress on the SDGs.
Article 32 of the CRPD provides a comprehensive normative framework for mainstreaming disability in the development agenda, whilst Article 11 relates to the safety and protection of People with Disabilities in humanitarian emergencies. Ratification of UNCRPD requires States to place a greater emphasis on ensuring that the rights of persons with disabilities are promoted through development cooperation and humanitarian assistance.
Practically speaking, Articles 11 and 32 require that disability issues be integrated into all development interventions and humanitarian action associated with development cooperation, and provide an effective way to accelerate progress towards the realisation of the rights of people with disabilities to have a fair chance to live a dignified and full life.
The 2030 Agenda references disability specifically in five goals and seven targets, and commits countries to disaggregating data by disability across a number of indicators. Better, more accurate data on people with disabilities – and on other people who experience exclusion – is required if Agenda 2030 is to deliver lasting change. Greater collaboration between governments, multilateral and donor agencies, and civil society is required to promote, collect, analyse and report better data on disability.
The lack of comparable data on disability remains a critical development issue. Without better, more accurate and comparable data on disability it will not be possible to accurately measure development progress and truly ensure no one is left behind. This lack of data often means decisions are made that reinforce existing inequalities, as governments and decision-makers allocate resources in a way that excludes people with disabilities. This is further compounded within international development programmes; as many organisations do not collect data on disability it is impossible to know how and if people with disabilities are participating.
Deepen policy commitments with respect to the intersectionality of the vulnerabilities and links between gender equality, inclusion, poverty and disability.
Mainstream disability issues into development assistance programmes, alongside the continuing need to support specific action to enable disabled people to surmount the multiple barriers they face in the developing world, and globally. This combination, known as the “twin-track approach”, provides a practical framework for advancing the named inclusion of people with disabilities in development activity and humanitarian assistance. Both mainstreaming and disability-specific work are necessary and complementary, but on their own, neither will lead to best-quality results. In this respect, the lessons gained through many years of work on gender equality and the empowerment of women are highly instructive to the disability and development agenda, as genuine inclusion and empowerment can only occur when both tracks are employed together.
Increase funding, and particularly support to Disabled Peoples’ Organisations in poorer countries.
59
Stockholm International Water Institute
Non-Governmental Organizations
It is now universally accepted that water is an essential natural resource upon which nearly all social and economic activities and ecosystem functions depend. Sustainable development and human rights perspectives both call for reductions in inequities and tackling disparities in access to WASH services because access to clean water and sanitation is a universal human right. Reducing unequal access to safe, clean water is essential to reducing poverty, increasing economic productivity and sustaining growth, promoting peace and reducing instability (10.1, 10.2, 10.7).
Poverty-oriented water interventions can have direct, immediate and long-term social, economic and environmental results, making a difference to billions of people in both developed and developing countries.

Furthermore, inequalities related to WASH are reinforced and are formed by structural social, political, economic and cultural inequalities that permeates each society, but take on different expressions over time, scale and location. As a consequence, women’s control and access to and use of a range of resources (e.g. land, income, social networks) and services (e.g. health, education, justice) affect and is affected by inequalities in WASH access, management and use.
Local organizations and entrepreneurs can have a big impact. In places like India, access to water has historically been used as a weapon to reinforce rigid social stratification. While these systems are no longer as prominent, marginalized communities continue to struggle to access clean, safe water, which inhibits their ability to move out poverty. Projects such as Arghyam are working throughout the country to improve sustainable access for all citizens, with a focus on the most vulnerable populations. Waterwalla, a similar Indian organization dedicated to empowering entrepreneurs working to improve standards of living for marginalized communities, has recently expanded its reach to other countries, including Sierra Leone.

The initiative Transforming Investments in African Rainfed Agriculture (TIARA) is one example of how rainfed agriculture and the storage and capture of green water can contribute to reduce poverty among many subsistent famers in Sub-Saharan Africa, for whom lack of water and land degradation creates food and livelihood insecurity. One third of people across the African continent are facing food insecurities and 22.7 per cent of the population in Sub-Saharan Africa are undernourished. By scaling up water solutions and rainfed agriculture inequalities both within countries and between countries can be addressed.
60
WaterAid
Non-Governmental Organizations
Achieving the 2030 Agenda requires tackling inequalities across lines of income, geography, gender, ethnicity, disability, caste etc. that shape people’s inclusion in – or exclusion from – life-changing services. Increasing access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) reduces inequality by tangibly improving people’s lives and increasing equality of opportunity and outcome - and thereby decreasing inter-generational inequality as well as economic and social gaps between the wealthy and people living in poverty, men and women, rural and urban, centre and remote, etc. Addressing SDGs 6 and 10 simultaneously will enable us to implement interventions that are better-informed and more likely to shift the overall status quo for a community or a locality, especially those living in greatest poverty or marginalization.
Accelerating progress towards SDG10 also requires equitable and inclusive financing for the SDGs, through international public assistance in grant form and enabling governments to raise and spend sufficient domestic revenue to fund essential services to leave no one behind. Community-specific feedback mechanisms and data disaggregation by income, ethnicity, geographical location, disability etc. are also required, to ensure that policies, technology and financing decisions are informed by the rights of women/girls, LGBTQ people, persons with disabilities, and others facing discrimination.
SDG10 represents perhaps the most ground-breaking element of the 2030 Agenda, and one of the most challenging goals to achieve. Progress on Goal 10 is nebulous to measure (with most of the indicators languishing in Tier III and the World Bank's shared prosperity measure (10.1.1) misleading in equating reducing inequalities with rates of economic growth. Political ownership at the highest levels, from governments or UN agencies, is lacking, and actual government policy and budgeting decisions are often at cross-purposes to their stated objectives in SDG10. Unlike other SDGs, SDG10 has no UN agency mandated to oversee its implementation, and country-specific Voluntary National Review reports or other inputs to the 2030 Agenda have made little mention of inequalities so far.
Reducing inequality is a profoundly political objective, and because it calls into question issues of relative wealth and power, it can be a much harder sell than education or poverty reduction. ActionAid (2016) estimates that most countries don’t have the laws or policies in place required to implement SDG10. Extending services to the most remote or marginalized groups requires resources, strong and accountable institutions, and also often systems of democratic governance that afford equal weight to all residents - globally few and far between.
Access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) can serve as a proxy indicator for inequalities (economic, social, political and environmental), both vertical (within groups or communities) and horizontal (within societies). Groups of people without access to adequate or equitable WASH often overlap or coincide with those discriminated against in other ways (remote, rural or indigenous groups, people with disabilities, women and girls, LGBTQI people, older people, groups facing descent or work-based discrimination) as well as of course people living in poverty. Improving WASH indicators contributes to the achievement of other sustainable development goals and targets, which themselves embed and impact inequalities. A comprehensive, interlinkage approach that prioritizes public financing of universal service provision can simultaneously address many of the determinants of inequalities, while ensuring the conditions required to enable advances in health, education, poverty reduction, livelihoods, gender equality, etc.
61
Frontline AIDS and MPact Global Action for Gay Men’s Health and Rights
Together 2030
Uphold the immediate and crosscutting obligation of non-discrimination and guarantee non-discrimination in the exercise of economic, social and cultural rights (Article 2.2 of the Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights). Discrimination on the grounds of health status (HIV), sexual orientation and gender identity and expression must be included.
Stigma, discrimination and/or criminalization relating to people most affected by HIV significantly contributes to HIV prevalence and can also create barriers to accessing HIV prevention, treatment and care and can lead to human rights violations. 67 countries criminalize same-sex sexual relations and in at least eight countries, the death penalty is implemented for same-sex relations. 17 countries criminalize transgender people. At least 98 countries criminalize some aspect of sex work, and at least five countries report that people can be prosecuted or punished for carrying condoms.There are at least 33 countries that prescribe the death penalty for drug offenses in law. At least 68 countries have laws that specifically criminalize HIV non-disclosure, exposure or transmission. In 2018, there were 59 countries that reported mandatory HIV testing for marriage, work or residence permits for certain groups of people. In middle-income countries the most marginalized groups most affected by HIV do not receive support from donors. 70% of people living with HIV are predicted to live in middle-income countries by 2020. Income inequality is linked to higher HIV prevalence; HIV disproportionally affects the poorest and most disempowered communities.
62
Grupo de Trabalho da Sociedade Civil para a Agenda 2030 (GT Agenda 2030)
Non-Governmental Organizations
- Promover reforma, tributária, progressiva, participativa e inclusiva para promover o desenvolvimento sustentável e consistente, a tributação deve ser progressiva e os gastos alinhados aos princípios da Agenda 2030, com realização progressiva dos direitos e de não discriminação.
- Garantir acolhimento humano e democrático às pessoas migrantes, assegurando-lhes direitos e tratamento digno.
- Criminalização da homo-lesbo-bi-transfobia.
- A regressividade da estrutura tributária brasileira.

- A falta de uma visão integrada sobre desigualdade que vá além das questões de renda.
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63
University College Dublin
Science & Technological Community
In dealing with the needs of a child in poverty we need a whole of society approach in partnership with, but lead by, Government. Needs of Children cut across different departments, health, education, housing and social protection. Family and civil society play a huge role as well. Needs to be vertical and horizontal coordination across the private, government and civil society. Research is very useful of good integrated and sustainable policies.
The factors that protect the wealth of the top 10 per cent can also drive the bottom 40 per cent into vulnerable situations. Need whole of society policies that ensure equal access to opportunities and protection. One all needs a tax system that ensures universal access to all to health, education and social protection. Good institutions and ones that will tax and spend to achieve Sustainable Development.
SDG 10 is a natural outcome of failure to achieve all the other goals. Le Blanc shows that SDG 10, in terms of text links between the 169 targets, is one with the most inter linkages. SDG 10 policies that address equity issues and ensure that no one is left behind is central to UN 2030 Agenda. Also a call to multi-lateralism to coordinate partnership across nations and much as within nations. So much of SDG 10 outcomes are imported, and well as exported ,by actions of business, government, civil society and the academy.
SDGs THROUGH THE LENS OF A CHILD- Youth and Child Poverty in Ireland
A Joint Report by the Department of Children and Youth Affairs and Geary Institute for Public Policy, University College Dublin
Speech by MINISTER DR. KATHERINE ZAPPONE
Speech by PROFESSOR JEFFREY SACHS

1. Policy Recommendations from a Multi-Stack holder Workshop Child and food poverty policies should be focused on longer-term outcomes rather than short-term benefits and should include plans for investment in related infrastructure;
2. Awareness of child and food poverty in Ireland is low, and efforts should be made to increase awareness to develop broader societal level support for more state finances to be allocated to the goals of eliminating child and food poverty;
3. Issues such as child and food poverty require champions within different government departments who will take an integrated whole of government approach to implementing related policies;
4. Policy coherence and cohesion is required between government and state bodies and within political parties to unshackle policies from the limits imposed by electoral cycles and short-termism;
5. Eradicating child poverty and hunger is not only the duty of the government, and a multi-stakeholder ecosystem needs to evolve where government leadership is supported by the experience and expertise of members of civil society groups, academia, and other government-funded research organisations.
Global Partnerships need to focus on MoIs for SD on the most fragile states.
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Bridge 47
Non-Governmental Organizations
A strong focus on SDG targets 10.2 and 10.3 with global citizenship education will accelerate progress towards SDG 10 as these are targets which bridge the gap between economic inclusion and social inclusion. Global citizenship education articulated in target 4.7 supports communities excluded from civil society to recognise their role in creating a more just world and empowers citizens to participate in realising the SDGs.
The ambitions of target 10.2 can be realised with global citizenship education supporting marginalised groups to overcome the barriers to social and economic participation. For example, refugee integration programmes play a vital role in equipping citizens for participation in civil society by ensuring they have the knowledge and resources to participate fully in society. SDG implementation on the national and regional levels should include indicators for civic empowerment of individuals and communities.
Target 10.3 requires structural reform of public and private institutions to become more inclusive, which relies on currently excluded groups playing a full role in shaping society. Here we see an opportunity for expansion and measurement of social inclusion and civic participation in policy processes, especially the participation of marginalised groups. Implementation of SDG 10 must include indicators for civic participation in policy-making, and the implementation of global citizenship education-based opportunities to raise levels of civic participation.
The majority of SDG 10 targets and indicators focus on participation in the labour market or create unequal economies. This is often reinforced at national and regional levels, such as the European Union’s Social Inclusion policy focusing on economic inclusion. This fails to address the role of other inequalities in creating unequal outcomes. Targets 10.2 and 10.3 go some way to articulating the importance of social inclusion for marginalised groups in addressing inequalities, but an expanded definition of ‘inclusion’ beyond ‘labour market inclusion’ must be central to addressing all form of inequality.

There are however good examples on the national level of an expanded definition of ‘inclusion’ playing this role. The Irish SDG National Implementation Plan includes refugee integration and support for marginalised communities as central to addressing economic inequalities and inequalities in ‘quality of life’. The narrowness of most SDG 10 targets makes it impossible for countries which adopt this broad and effective approach to reducing inequalities from articulating the ways social inclusion and civic empowerment contribute to reshaping institutions and opportunities for citizens in the context of SDG 10. An approach to SDG 10 which recognises the relationship between inequalities outwith the labour market and other areas of social exclusion provides greater opportunity for interlinkages with other SDGs and policy areas.
There is a strong interlinkage between SDG 10 and SDG 4 which can best be leveraged by focusing on the role for global citizenship education (as articulated in target 4.7) in empowering active citizens to take action and shape communities and institutions to achieve the SDGs. With a focus on global citizenship education as a route to overcoming social exclusion and inequality, implementation of target 4.7 can play a vital role in achieving the ambitions of SDG 10 (especially targets 10.2 and 10.3) by supporting citizens to understand existing inequalities, identify their own role in reshaping institutions to reduce inequality, and participate in civil society effectively to carry out collaborative activity to that effect.

Additionally the expansion of global citizenship education as per implementation of target 4.7 would result in the expansion of lifelong learning and informal educational opportunities connected to the SDGs, supporting the ambitions outlined in targets 10.2 and 10.3 to accelerate the full range of SDG 10 targets by ensuring no community or marginalised group is left behind in SDG implementation.

This interlinkage of SDG 4 and SDG 10, via global citizenship education and civic empowerment, is emblematic of the interlinkage between target 4.7 and other SDG targets where understanding of the SDGs and empowerment of citizens contributes to progress on all of the SDGs.
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Jam & Justice Action Research Collective (via the University of Sheffield, Urban Institute)
Non-Governmental Organizations, Education & Academic Entities
This submission is based on action research undertaken in the North of England and primarily concerns reduction of inequality at city-regional level.

As an Action Research Collective composed of academics, practitioners, public servants, and committed citizens, we have found creating shared space outside our individual domains valuable as a means of enabling social innovation toward more just urban governance. SDG 10 is core to our overall interests, and we are reporting here on three of our co-designed initiatives: the significance of solidarity economics uncovered by "Transform GM"; the pathways to greater inclusion of women being scoped out by "GM Decides"; and the work with grassroots communities communicated through "Everyday Politics".

Some learning from our collaboration is documented here: https://jamandjustice-rjc.org/sites/default/files/Co-Producing_the_City_brochure.pdf
In the UK, inequality has been increasing. This is visible at a city-regional level and at a neighbourhood level, with deprived communities living in close proximity to more prosperous neighbours. Decreases in government spending have had major adverse effects on local government, and creative decision-making has become necessary for local authorities to continue to provide support for those most in need.

In the context of a decade's austerity, some of our researchers set out to explore what happens when "The System Doesn't Work", training community-based researchers to document what was happening in their neighbourhoods using photovoice techniques. Findings informed the production of an exhibition entitled "Everyday Politics", supporting a wider conversation about how communities can and do work for change. (The exhibition is now touring community venues.) Download the exhibition booklet: https://jamandjustice-rjc.org/sites/default/files/J%26J_Everyday-Politics_web-edition.pdf
We have documented many of the linkages between our core action research and the SDGs in a response to SDG 16.

One example is GM Decides, a critical exploration of how digital innovation may aid democracy. This project focuses specifically on female engagement through digital tools, looking to identify the particular features needed to create a platform for women to engage effectively in policy initiation and design. As a project, then, it is primarily engaged with SDG 5 (e.g. targets 5.5 and 5.B). However, focusing on a group who are under-represented in many power structures, the project is also implicitly working to promote social, economic and political inclusion, in response to SDG10.

More information: https://jamandjustice-rjc.org/gm-decides
Everyday Politics (discussed above) drew especially on pre-existing networks within the Voluntary, Community, Faith and Social Enterprise sectors. Community-based researchers benefited from a research technique (photovoice) that was engaging, accessible, and low-cost. Academic support was provided throughout the process, including during training and analysis of the data gathered. The project was made possible by strong community sector support.
Learn more: https://www.urbantransformations.ox.ac.uk/blog/2019/what-does-everyday-politics-look-like/

GM Decides is still mid-process but the range of stakeholders directly involved includes representatives from community interest companies, elected councillors, media specialists, and a range of other practitioners--drawing on informal women's networks. It has benefited from international insights, including a field trip to the International Observatory for Participatory Democracy conference in Barcelona, which coincided with a Decidim event.

Transform GM had a less engaged stakeholder group, but nonetheless benefitted from the input of several dozen "Transformative Economic Actors". This project mapped the Solidarity and Social Economy in Greater Manchester as a pilot study; conversations about how local authorities can act on this information are underway. Examples of some of the initiatives can be viewed here: https://jamandjustice-rjc.org/blog/transformgm-re-thinking-prosperity-and-economics-greater-manchester
For us, SDG10 characterises the "Justice" of "Jam and Justice".
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Lumos
Non-Governmental Organizations, Children and young people living in institutions or at risk of institutionalisation
Evidence shows that children who grow up in institutions are at risk of stunting, malnutrition, attachment disorders, lower IQ and compromised early brain development. All of these are factors contributing to the disadvantaged position that children in institutions are in compared to their non-institutionalised peers. States can break the cycle of inequality by ending the institutionalisation of children.

Progress towards goal 10 will also be accelerated if States ensure full inclusion of vulnerable group and prioritisation of those most left behind, including children living in institutions, children with disabilities, unaccompanied migrant and refugee children (UMRC).

Empowering children and young people to be an active agent for change towards all the Sustainable Development Goals should be front and centre in aiming to achieve this goal. States must give a voice to children and young people, especially those from disadvantaged background, including children living in institutions.
In many countries, unaccompanied migrant and refugee children are routinely placed in institutional style care, such as residential institutions, refugee camps, or in detention. Placing these children in institutional settings is likely to add to the trauma that these children experienced on their journey, will further increase their vulnerabilities and will widen the inequalities between them and other children. To achieve SDG 10, countries should therefore take steps to:
• prevent unaccompanied migrant and refugee children from being routinely placed in institutional style care, through the strengthening of family-based care systems in reception countries, such as foster care and other high-quality individualised care, using learnings from the demonstration programs to ensure this is done to a high standard.
• strengthen family reunification systems, ensuring there are processes in place to support the reunification of families in a timely fashion.
• ensure that care for refugee and migrant children is embedded in national child protection systems, so that the standards of care for UMRC are the same as those afforded to all children.

Millions of children around the world are not counted by the monitoring systems (such as MICS and census surveys) used to measure country level progress towards the SDGs, as the methodologies used to count children does not reach children who live outside of household settings. If these children are not included in the data on SDG progress, including on progress achieved around Goal 10, they are statistically invisible and at serious risk of being left behind.
In order for children in institutions and other left behind groups to fully enjoy the progress made around Goal 10, methodologies need to be developed that count these children. As such they would be more likely to be included in government programmes which help to ensure they grow up healthy, safe, and better-prepared to contribute positively to their societies.
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Center for Economic and Social Rights
Other stakeholders active in areas related to sustainable development
In our research with partners in different countries, we have identified several policy areas that are indispensable for achieving SDG 10.
- Fiscal policy (in particular, progressive tax policies). More detail given below.
- Social protection (with an emphasis on comprehensive, universal programs)
- Labor protections and wage policy
- Financial regulation
- Health
- Education
- Care and family leave policies
Ultimately, Goal 10 will not be attainable without a real commitment to serious and sustained redistribution of economic opportunities and resources. Tax policy is one of governments' most powerful tools to reduce income and wealth inequalities, both by redistributing market incomes as well as by producing revenue for public services. In order to tackle inequalities, taxation measures must be progressive in nature, with a particular emphasis on boosting income tax rates for corporations & the highest earners, and ensuring robust taxation of wealth, assets, and property.
Reducing inequalities among countries is an essential element of SDG10. Reforming global economic governance to ensure low- and middle-income countries have more decision-making power, and ensuring a concerted crackdown on illicit financial flows which severely constrain the fiscal space of developing countries, are essential steps in this regard.
For more detail on all our proposals for SDG10, please see our report 'From Disparity to Dignity': http://www.cesr.org/disparity-dignity-inequality-and-sdgs
Overall, the biggest obstacle to making progress on SDG10 is political will to enact the types of policies necessary - in particular, serious economic redistribution. This lack of political will is related to the fact that in most countries and across regions, we see historic and wildly excessive levels of wealth concentration. Connected to this, in many countries we see elite and/or corporate capture of policy-making, so any economic reform which threatens the economic self-interest of wealthy individuals and large (often multinational) corporations is thwarted. We simply cannot achieve SDG10 (or indeed, the vast majority of the SDGs) in a world in which economic and political power is so imbalanced. See the annual civil society Spotlight Report on Sustainable Development for more analysis, in particular this on wealth concentration https://www.2030spotlight.org/en/book/1730/chapter/1-increasing-concentration-wealth-and-economic-power-obstacle-sustainable
Another major disconnect/shortfall we are observing in many contexts, is that many countries who are professing to be committed to the SDGs are at the same time applying harsh fiscal austerity measures (sometimes called 'fiscal consolidation'). These measures usually involve regressive taxation reforms, cutbacks to social spending and the public wage bill, and labor market deregulation. Such policies are manifestly incompatible with reducing inequalities, and therefore achievement of Goal 10.
Achievement of Goal 10 is intimately interlinked with achievements across the agenda. Many other goals and targets (including Goal 1 on poverty) will not be reached unless inequalities are also tackled. This means not just boosting the incomes of the poorest, but also closing the gap between the rich and the poor, and tackling the extreme concentration of wealth we see currently. (Not least because, these resources can be harnessed to much better effect and public benefit.) Moreover, achievement of the whole agenda depends on sustainable, equitable sources of financing. Goal 10's emphasis on fiscal policy (target 10.4) and the central role progressive tax policy should play in Goal 10 implementation, will therefore have positive knock-on effects across the agenda.
Mobilization around extreme inequality and around tax justice (for example, protesting tax evasion/avoidance of wealthy corporations) have brought human rights advocates, feminists, economic justice activists and social movements together. Their proposals should make a major contribution to ideas for how to implement Goal 10.
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Associazione Comunità Papa Giovanni XXIII
Non-Governmental Organizations
Efforts should be made not only in including the most vulnerable in the benefits of economic growth but also in making policies that allows distribution of wealth throughout the entire population.

Development cannot be reduced and measured with the economic growth lens only but in a multidimensional approach that includes reduction of inequities.

A human rights based approach and, especially, and the right to development that affirms a person/people centered and integral development, the importance of participation in both the processes and outcomes and a balance between national and international responsibilities in overcoming structural obstacles to development, are crucial to effectively reduce inequalities at all levels.

1. Increase of inequalities between and within countries
2. Decrease of Official Development Assistance and financial flows directed to Least Developed Countries.
3. Increased budget for military expenses instead of devolving funds towards development programs
4. Withdrawal of some States from the Global Compact on a Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration
In order to implement SDG10 is extremely important the effective implementation of the SDG17 on Global Partnership with appropriate indicators that capture the national and international dimensions with the lens of international solidarity.

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Climate Change Centre Reading (NGO)
Disaster Activism
Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all cities (hazard mapping)

Integrate disaster measures into local policies, strategies and planning

Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning systems - give citizens access to disaster prevention and response information in real time. This shifting focus needs need to be reflected in the curriculum.

Implement the commitment undertaken by developed-country parties to the 'United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to a goal of nationally mobilizing jointly $100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and fully operationalize the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible

Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in least developed countries and small island developing States, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized vulnerable communities
UN-Habitat, in preparation of the Action Framework for the Implementation of the New Urban Agenda (AFINUA) is doing a review of the content of the New Urban Agenda (NUA), to facilitate the conversion of the NUA into a pragmatic and efficient framework of implementation. Because of the growing links between global and local challenges, local and regional governments now play a greater role in the regulation of the urban fabric and territories, and the protection of the commons. However, they often lack the resources to meet these new challenges, putting pressure on their ability to fulfil pre-existing responsibilities. To contribute to what in the SDGs is termed a ‘transformed world’, local and regional governments across all world regions must be proactive and commit the following skills /actions.
Cross/cutting SDG 11/13 with SDG 10

Local and regional leaders must develop new capacities and modes of leadership to respond to and take advantage of new opportunities that are opening for the achievement of the SDGs and the New Urban Agenda.

Local and regional leaders should use participatory democracy, shared public services, quality provision of public space, social and cooperative housing (shared outdoor space or shared amenities) and collaborative- and solidarity-based economies contribute to a new innovative and democratic governance approach, aiming at the common good. To be driving force behind the eradication of inequalities.

Strategic planning is an essential component of management. It integrates spatial planning, proper plotting of land use, economic stability, infrastructures and other dimensions that are key responsibilities of local and regional government.

Access to basic services is a human right that should be guaranteed for all. Local and regional governments should expand services and, at the same time, reduce the environmental impact of urban infrastructures. To ‘square the circle’, they must be given powers to experiment with innovative approaches.
In everyone’s interest
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Oxfam GB
Non-Governmental Organizations
Three policy areas are particularly effective in reducing economic inequalities within countries, including high, middle and low income countries: social spending, progressive taxation and labour policies. All countries can do more to tackle inequality by improving these policy areas (DFI and Oxfam, 2018).
Evidence from 150 countries shows that investment in health, education and social protection reduce the gap between rich and poor (Martinez-Vazquez and Moreno-Dodson, 2014). A recent study of 13 developing countries found that spending on health and education accounted for 69% of the total reduction in inequality (Lustig, 2015).
Progressive taxation reduces inequality in both OECD and developing countries. Yet, many countries have been reducing both the top rate of personal income tax and the rate of corporate income tax. Since the 2008 financial crisis, reliance on regressive indirect taxation such as VAT has increased in many countries (Oxfam, 2019).
Economic inequality is entrenched with gender inequality. Growth everywhere is made possible by the unpaid care work of women, which is worth an estimated $10 trillion per year (Oxfam, 2019) and yet still fails to be recognised and valued for its contribution to the economy. Governments should also do more to reduce the burden of women’s unpaid care work, supporting universal, quality, free public healthcare and education which are designed to address the needs of women and girls and through gender responsive budgeting.
Progress in achieving Goal 10 is being undermined by some national and international economic policies which are leading to a race to the bottom in workers’ rights and in corporate taxation and too slow progress in providing good quality universal, gender responsive public services free at the point of use and universal social protection. Persistent gender economic inequality is also a major drawback to reducing economic inequality.
The existing monitoring system for Goal 10 is not sufficient to capture important aspects of economic inequality. Inequality concerns those left behind as well as runaway wealth and incomes at the top of the distribution. For example, in 2018 the wealth of the world’s billionaires increased by $2.5bn a day, while the wealth of the poorest 3.8 billion people fell by 11% (Oxfam, 2018). However, Goal 10 has no indicator to capture concentration of inequality or wealth at the top.
Target 10.1 can fail to capture increase in economic inequality because it only measures mean income growth and it only compares the bottom 40 percent with the average, instead of comparing the tails of the distribution. This means that the indicator would fail to capture a decline in the income share of the bottom 40 percent to the advantage of the top of the distribution (Galasso, 2015). The indicator for target 10.4 (labor share of GDP) is a very poor measure of the extent to which countries are implementing progressive policies.
Reducing inequality is functional to and dependent upon most other goals. World Bank’s projections show that at current rates of economic growth, extreme poverty will not be eradicated by 2030 unless inequality is reduced (WB, 2018). Goal 13 demands more equitable economic systems, given that the poorest half of the global population are responsible for only around 10% of global emissions, while the richest 10% of people in the world are responsible for around 50% of global emissions (Gore, 2015).
Despite being critical for the whole 2030 Agenda and unlike most other Goals, Goal 10 does not have a dedicated institution within the UN System with the mandate of looking after its monitoring and implementation. The UN Systems SDGs Action Database reveals that the UN system has undertaken very few meaningful activities in pursuit of SDG10, with the notable exception of ECLAC and the IMF (on IMF and inequality, see Mariotti et al 2017).
Achieving Goal 10 requires the creation of a Forum of UN stakeholders and we encourage the HLPF to include a recommendation in such sense in the Political Declaration that will conclude the SDGs Summit at UNGA in September 2019. A key function of such Forum should be to convene an annual global inequality summit, where countries could report on their progress in tackling the gap between rich and poor and international institutions could discuss international policy progress and explore the connection between Goal 10 and one or more set of goals.
At the World Bank and IMF’s Annual Meetings in Bali in October 2018, Oxfam and Development Finance International launched the Commitment to Reducing Inequality Index, a multidimensional index that ranks governments according to their performance in policy areas which are critical to reducing inequality. The launch was marked by a roundtable of finance ministers of progressive governments (including Iceland, Bolivia, Sierra Leone, Canada) convened by Oxfam’s CEO Winnie Byanyima and chaired by Senegal and New Zealand. Government’ representatives shared their experience in seeking to implement progressive policies and the difficulties encountered in the process. With a view of formalising an alliance of like-minded governments committed to reducing inequality, new roundtables will be convened at the UNGA 2019 SDGs Summit and at the 2019 IMF-WB Annual Meetings.

[REFERENCE LIST AVAILABLE UPON REQUEST]
Add indicators comparing the tails of the distribution (e.g. Palma ratio)
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NGO Committee on Migration
Non-Governmental Organizations
Analysis of the realities of modern migration, particularly that which occurs as a measure of desperation or in unsafe and irregular circumstances, serves as a benchmark of global progress toward the achievement of the entire 2030 Agenda. An important relationship exists between our global shortcomings in the protection of human rights and the natural environment and the necessity of human migration for survival. Data collection and popular education in this regard would serve as a powerful investments in building global understanding and political will to take action across the 2030 Agenda.
Putting Words into ACTion: Concrete Policies and Practices for the Implementation of a Civil Society Vision for the Global Compact: https://gallery.mailchimp.com/8093208e6abb2fb927fe1267f/files/71321e06-66c6-4a65-a8e3-2a2df9f12d66/CoM_Putting_Words_into_ACTion_Concrete_Policies_Practices_for_GCM_22_Nov_2017.pdf

Concrete Policies, Practices, and Partnerships to Promote Implementation of the
Global Compacts for Migrants and Refugees: https://ngo-migration.org/ngo-com-policies-and-practices-for-gcm-implementation_rev-3-dec-2018/
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Girl Child Art Foundation
Children & Youth, Non-Governmental Organizations
Encouraging projects that are advocacy and campaign based. Gender equality can mostly be achieved by ensuring that a large population of the target groups get the right knowledge and understanding.
Too many funding and support goes to trainings and workshops for the same recycled small groups of people and organisations. And little goes to media campaigns and the power of arts. They spend so much on these workshops and meetings and little is a achieved over huge populations.
Most of the goals support each other especially goal 1- Poverty reduction and goal 4- education. Projects campaigns could be planned in such away that they are linked properly for better results.
One our most effective model is using arts in form of music, theatre and visual art through mural paintings in public spaces and teaching through art.
Education can be more friendly and effective if we encourage learning through creative art medium.
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Union des Amis Sopcio Culturels d'Action en Developpement (UNASCAD)
Civil society
Il est clair que le développement durable est assis sur trois grandes pierres à savoir : ‘’économie, société et environnement’’. En ce sens, les moyens les plus efficaces pour mettre en branle l’ODD 10 se fondent surtout sur l’élimination des lois à l’état primitif en lieu et place à la rédaction, à l’adoption et à la mise en œuvre des lois, des politiques, des bonnes pratiques et des mesures appropriées surtout à la protection sociale pour mettre en action les chances de la grande égalité.
Si pour les pays développés et même pour les pays à revenu moyen, l’accès aux services relatifs à la protection environnementale, à la sante, à l’alimentation saine, à l’accessibilité à l’eau potable, aux transports réguliers et organisés, à l’éducation, à la justice est complètement équilibré mais quant aux pays à faible revenu comme les pays vulnérables en ajout avec les pays sans littoral et les petits États insulaires en développement- toute constatation faite - c’est la disparité complète. Les parties prenantes qui assurent la promotion intense de cet objectif ont pour devoir d’exercer le plaidoyer de haut niveau pour parvenir à la réduction de ces inégalités.
Tant dans l’engagement mondial que régional et local, nous pouvons dresser des balises amenant à des résultats stratosphériques et holistiques. Voilà pourquoi, dans le cadre de la progression de l’ODD 10 dans le reste du programme 2030, les pays surtout à faible revenu réclament l’adoption d’une attitude positive de la part des pays développés. Cela leur permettra de surmonter les obstacles sociaux, économiques, environnementaux étant leur véritable handicap. Oui, c’est vrai, la seule façon de réduire ces obstacles est incluse dans la formulation de participer avec aisance dans les grands rendez-vous de l’action mondiale.
Dans la visée de l’ODD 10 étant de réduire les inegalites dans les pays et d’un pays à l’autre, c’est s’assouplir les inégalités de revenu entre les pays. Pour y parvenir, il importe de considérer certains facteurs clefs tels que :

9.1- Permettre aux pays à faible revenu (PMA, certains pays d’Afrique, États insulaires, pays en développement sans littoral) de bénéficier des investissements directs découlés de l’aide publique au développement conformément à ses plans d’action au niveau national.
9.2- Exercer le plaidoyer pluri actif pour l’exécution des politiques migratoires de façon ordonnée, sûre, régulière et responsable
10- Faciliter l’accès aux services indispensable aux pays à faible revenu- en dignité et en droit.
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Education International
Workers & Trade Unions
- Abolition of tuition fees and other costs of education: direct and indirect costs of education remains the largest obstacle to education, particularly for the poorest.
- Ensuring education of the same quality for all: too often the quality of education provided corresponds with the socio-economic background of students. Public authorities must ensure free, universally accessible education. Oftentimes private providers of education exacerbate inequality in and through education.
- Investments in and expansion of early childhood education have been proven to be particularly effective in overcoming the differences in starting points of children.
- Implementing and enforcing a statutory minimum wage guaranteeing an income that allows people to live with dignity.
- Multinationals at the top of the supply chain must respect fundamental rights and ensure fair pay and decent work at all levels across the supply chain.
- Robust equal pay legislation and effective enforcement is needed.
- Social protection floors are essential tools in eliminating poverty, and driving factors in boosting employment, fostering skills development, formalising work (including the informal economy), reducing inequalities, and achieving inclusive economic growth.
- Greater global coherence urgently needed: IFIs are promoting wage cuts, reducing social protection systems, and cutbacks to vital public services
The difficulties of implementing the SDGs illustrate the developing world’s problems in fulfilling their promises and commitment to quality education. Far too many children, adolescents and adults do not have access to even basic education and skills. The inadequacy of investment in education and other public services, and of international development aid impedes the achievement of the SDGs.
SDG 4 commits to equitable education, yet most education systems remain deeply inequitable and reproduce and cement current structures and patterns of discrimination and exclusion. Equitable education implies that targeted measures are introduced to
Education remains inaccessible due to the associated costs for families, such as tuition fees and costs of school uniforms, books and learning materials, meals, and transport. At the same time, the quality of education differs across schools, contributing to reproducing and cementing inequalities, both within and among countries. Oftentimes public authorities fail to regulate and enforce national quality standards, particularly in private education institutions.
The privatization and commercialization of education renders it inaccessible to many families. This is particularly urgent in the early childhood education sector, but applies to all levels of education. The high tuition fees at tertiary level means that only the most privileged tend to be able to access education at this level.
Investing in and expanding public education systems is an effective way of challenging and overcoming current structures and patterns of discrimination and exclusion. Tuition fees must be abolished and urgent measures taken to make education systems more equitable and inclusive. Robust equal pay legislation and effective enforcement is needed. Minimum wages and collective bargaining are equally important to close the gap. Social protection floors are essential tools in eliminating poverty.
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Kosmos Associates in partnership with Coalition for Global Citizenship 2030
global citizens
Develop new strategies for wealth distribution and for global taxation based on a global ethic based on common good for each and every global citizen

Establish universal values as norms and as basis for all national and international negotiations

Promote the understanding that all people are global citizens with the inalienable right to happiness and wellbeing
The lack of a global ethic that recognizes
-the interlinkages between all SDGs and among all stakeholders
- the interdependency between all sentient beings and the Earth itself

The lack of awareness that a default global ethic based on unlimited growth ensures that inequities stay in place

The biggest shortfalls are gaps in consciousness of the interdependency of all global citizens

At State level, some big states bully smaller ones to allow access of corporations to resources of the developing country. Corporations bully small states in the same way.

Overuse of natural resources and conflict over natural resources are a constant threat to peace. Partnerships based on symptomatic fixes will always be exercises in frustration.

Multilateralism is compromised when values coherence is not established and spelled out.
Establish norms for dignity, happiness and wellbeing for all beings as starting points for all negotiations

Provide global citizenship education so that all children grow up understanding linkages and including interlinkages in all deliberations becomes a norm

Values are building blocks of cultures and they are quantifiable. Establishing norms for building on values alignment and for managing values digressions will help connect the dots between SDG10 and the rest of the 2030 Agenda.
Barrett Cultural Transformation Tools and other cultural quantification tools can be used to establish data-based, inclusive, authentic alignment and digressions from values fulfillment.
Since cultures vary so much, values fulfillment is the most reliable indicator of equity.
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MY World Mexico
We are part of the NGOMG and the MGCY
Promoting national and local public policies that are aligned to comply with international commitments such as the 2030 Agenda, related post 2015 development processes (such as the Sendai Framework, the New Urban Agenda and the Global Pact for Migration and the Global Pact for Refugees), the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR). This way, it can be guaranteed that public policies are based on consensus and more open to accountability and different stakeholders due to the nature of current multilateralism.
Lack of continuity in public policies, in the Latin American context there is a tendency to change plans of development and public policies every mandate, making difficult to address development issues in the long-term such as diminishing inequalities.
77
American Telephysicians
Business & Industry
Providing access to resources is the catalyzing factor in reducing inequalities. American Telephysicians believes in working with and through public, private and third sector organizations to reduce health inequalities and improve health. Through a strategic unified healthcare access, there is an urgency to establish and interlink innovative healthcare ecosystem.

American Telephysicians believes in investing in programs that address the social and environmental determinants of health; investing more in services to vulnerable segments of society; and to promote actions and policies that pave the way for proactive healthy behaviors by increasing the availability and access of services.

American Telephysicians urges investment in prevention to meet Global Goal 10 (in healthcare). Through a preventative model focused on leveraging technology with a reliable delivery model, strategies should focus on cost-effective measures and transparency and reducing spending pressures.
Inadequate access to healthcare access, transparency and delivery are a larger function of the country's socioeconomic indicators (UNDP 2007). American Telephysicians believes social determinants of health are the conditions in which we are born, we grow and age, and in which we live and work and agrees with WHO conclusion that investing in population-based prevention tackling the underlying causes of health inequalities. In addition to physical and financial barriers to healthcare, traditional beliefs and socio cultural elements influence the use and non use of health care facilities in developing countries such as Pakistan. American Telephysicians believes its model bridges the disparity in the local context by utilizing grassroots scalable approaches to healthcare wth a focus on education and awareness:
1. By delivering patient/family centric personalized holistic primary and speciality care towards transforming the care delivery model by providing value-based, accessible and quality healthcare services through personalized telemedicine and an innovative business model.
2. By providing our patients with a Passport to Health and Wellness and promoting patient education to help them make right health choices.
3. By utilizing proprietary systems and technologies for better care, outcomes and to curate a complex network of resources to enable physicians to provide comprehensive care, at the right time, in the right place, at the right cost, and by the right provider.
American Telephysicians believes in the ability of its healthcare platform to best leverage interlinkages between SDG10 reducing inequalities and the rest of the 2030 Agenda. Its healthcare ecosystem serves as a one-stop access platform by consolidating local and international healthcare services (including physicians) on its digital portal and connects them to its users to deliver value-based, accessible and quality healthcare by focusing on strong institutions (Global Goal 16). In addition, it fosters the utilization of assisted clinical intelligence technology and innovation (Global Goal 9) to standardize the care protocols for affiliated healthcare providers and to help patients make sound decisions about their own health (Global Goal 3). American Telephysicians firmly believes in developing and operating an innovative ecosystem that connects patients with multi-specialty based provides who engage in using integrated telemedicine (its own Universal EMR) to provide real time connected healthcare and healthcare awareness/education (Global Goal 4). The successful platform not only connects patients to local and distant healthcare providers via telemedicine but also interconnects healthcare providers for comprehensive healthcare delivery to ensure equity in access and transparency in delivery modalities for all, especially the most marginalized segments of society (Global Goal 1).
Multi-stakeholder engagement is key to inclusive and sustainable models in reducing inequalities. American Telephysicians believe in specializing digital health and telemedicine services by bringing together expertise, innovation and participation of a wide range of value based solutions. Revolutionizing access to healthcare requires policy ownership and acceptance from the legislators, the healthcare industry, and research experts to match frameworks with delivery.
https://www.americantelephysicians.com
78
World Vision
Other stakeholders active in areas related to sustainable development
1. Recognition that investing in children is the key to escaping inequality traps: Looking at the most effective ways of tacking inequality, World Vision believes early interventions and investment in vulnerable and marginalised children is the surest way of helping them break out the inequality trap, building their resilience, giving them hope for a more equitable future.
2. Involve communities in holding governments to account. Having indicators that track regional, national and sub-national targeting of the most vulnerable requires increased investment in data collection. Much progress has been made in tracking development outcomes by income group, but more is needed to ensure tracking of the most vulnerable groups, which vary from country to country and don‘t always align with income poverty. Involving communities can contribute to overcoming this challenge, particularly in fragile contexts when there are gaps in official statistics due to a lack of capacity or political will.
-Inequalities between and within countries remain wide and, in many places, have been growing. Inequalities disproportionately affect children, who experience exclusion directly and also face limited opportunities due to inequalities experienced by their parents. These inequalities harm not only the children and families who are deprived –but also their entire societies, by undermining prosperity and increasing the risks of instability.
• Challenging discriminatory attitudes, behaviours, and social and cultural norms that condone violence, is essential to end violence against children.
• Migration can increase the vulnerability of children, especially unaccompanied children, to violence and child trafficking. In designing and implementing safe migration policies, States should seek to reduce the vulnerability of children on the move.
Similar to poverty, inequalities increase children’s risk of experiencing different forms of violence including physical abuse, neglect, and sexual and economic exploitation. The relationship between inequality and violence against children (SDG16.2) is complex and multi-directional. While inequalities increase children’s vulnerability to violence, the failure to protect children from violence can also contribute to and exacerbate inequalities and discrimination. Goal 10 contains a number of targets that address social and economic inequalities, and are thus indirectly relevant to ending violence against children.
Accordingly, the failure to prevent and protect children from violence (SDG16.2) will negatively impact the ability of States to reduce inequality (SDG10) within countries.
Violence against children contribute to inequalities, reinforces exclusion and discrimination.
79
International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions
Non-Governmental Organizations
Truly universal programmes aimed at building capabilities in every community and for every individual are important. In order to reduce inequalities, specific efforts will be needed to ensure that no-one is denied the tools - and in particular the information - that they need to take the best possible decisions, and so to improve their lives.

Libraries can provide such a service, not just by ensuring that no-one need be excluded from internet access, but also offering the skills and support necessary to make the most of it. Given their understanding of community needs and priorities, they can play an important role in tailoring services, and indeed in many cases (for example that of people with disabilities) have an official responsibility to do so.

Through this work, they can help ensure that economic inequalities do not turn into information inequalities, which in turn can lie at the root of health, welfare, educational and other inequity.

Migrants in particular face challenges around integration into host countries. Libraries have proven their worth as safe spaces for newcomers, with staff taking initiatives to offer new skills and support. Their focus on developing language and reading skills are particularly important in this regard.
Too often, information can serve to divide people, when some have better access than others. This includes not only internet connectivity, but also access to the devices necessary to make full use of the possibilities offered (for example, it's far easier to write a CV or draft a business plan with a laptop or PC than a phone), the social and cultural factors that shape access, the laws (in particular those that risk limiting free access to information and free expression), and of course skills and attitudes. It is sadly the case that often those who need information most are the most likely either to hide their situation, or even not to know what is necessary.

Work is needed in order to understand this situation and how to change it, in particular as to the way the internet works, and the risks of excluding some, or restricting them to only certain types of content (particular platforms or services). A lack of adequately supported libraries in some countries and regions also stands in the way of progress towards the goals of SDG 10.

Migrants themselves often struggle to understand how things work in their new host country. They can easily feel cut off, and require internet access, home-language materials and support. Without the same possibilities as locals to identify and seize opportunities, they can also risk being marginalised, further increasing the risk of facing inequality. Work to ensure that migrants benefit from meaningful access to information is needed.
There is an important link between SDG10 and SDG16.10, which underlines the importance of access to information. As a fundamental human right, this applies to everyone – information should not be a driver of inclusion, not a source of exclusion.

Clearly, inequality plays out across almost all other SDGs. In line with the overall ambition to leave no-one behind, we need to think hard about health inequality, food inequality, educational inequality etc.

The links between inequality and other SDGs - almost all of which are two-way in nature - can be combatted by the sort of access to information that adequately supported libraries can provide.
Many of the examples cited in IFLA's responses to the other SDG surveys cover questions related to SDG 10, and there are further arguments available in this blog: https://blogs.ifla.org/lpa/2018/10/16/break-the-cycle-tackling-information-poverty-as-a-means-of-eradicating-income-poverty/.

Specific examples can include the work of libraries in Croatia to help the local Roma community to connect to the internet, and develop their ability to find work. This has not only helped individual members of the community to secure their livelihoods, but has also promoted better relations in general.

Another example comes from work in Russia to help children with learning difficulties improve their confidence in their own language skills through a reading to dogs initiative. Through this, young people at high risk of exclusion have increased their chances of economic and cultural integration.

A particularly powerful example is the mobile libraries for peace initiative in Colombia, which saw libraries set up in villages in formerly FARC-controlled areas. These areas have seen few public services and are highly deprived. The libraries not only symbolised the return of public support, but also brought new opportunities to learn, earn and grow personally.
We hope that work on SDG10 will include a focus on drivers of inequality, i.e. information poverty
80
World Solidarity (WSM)
Workers & Trade Unions
Higher wages are an important lever to reduce inequality and to allow people to lead a decent live. However, at the moment, the concept of a minimum wage is dominates the discourse on wage-setting policy. The evidence shows, however, that in most cases this minimum wage is not enough for workers and their families to maintain a decent standard of living. WSM believes we should urgently make work of wage-setting policies that provide “living wages” to working women and men around the world. Living wages, should allow a worker to buy sufficient and varied food for him or herself and his or her family, provide for housing, clothing, healthcare, transportation and education and have a small amount of savings for when something unexpected happens.

Yet another important way to accelerate progress towards SDG10 are universal social protection policies, in line with SDG1.3. Social protection is a human right and a key strategy to prevent, mitigate and combat social exclusion, inequality and vulnerability. Building national, comprehensive and largely supported social protection policies require the full involvement of all relevant stakeholders (governments, economic actors as well as civil society and trade unions) and multiple sources of financing (both contributory and non contributory schemes).

Finally fair and equitable taxation policies are extremely important to reduce inequality.
When it comes to wages, the biggest shortfall is that in current minimum wage discussions, the real cost of living of people is not adequately taken into account. According to ILO Convention 131, this is an important benchmark though to inform wage negotiations. The criteria that do dominate these negotations are productivity and comptetiveness (with neighbouring countries).
WSM would like to remind that over the last 4 decades, the share of income from labour has dropped steadily, meaning most working women and men see their relative purchasing power decreasing. Over the same period, the share of income from capital has dramatically grown.

When it comes to universal social protection, WSM believes we should work on political will. The evidence shows what the enormous return on investment is when people have access to adequate social protection services and benefits acroos the life cycle. The Global Partnership for Universal Social Protection has recently launched a 'Call to Action' on USP2030. We need to gather as much political support for this and Ensure that this political will galvanises in structural and effective dialogue at national level between all relevant stakeholders.

When it comes to tax justice, we need to remind ourselves that huge amounts of money still escape the national tax systems due to tax evasion and tax avoidance.
In terms of living wages, the link between SDG10 and SDG8 is obvious.
In terms of universal social protection, theare multiple links with several SDG's, including SDG1.3., SDG3, SDG5 and SDG8.
In terms of tax justice, SDG 10 links with SDG17 as there is an urgent need for more cooperation between Member States and international organisations to define enforceable minimum tax standards which would apply everywhere.
For universal social protection, we already referred to the Global Partnership for Universal Social Protection.
WSM also facilitates a thematic network on the right to social protection based on this multi-stakeholder approach. This network comprises 18 networks at national level and 3 regional networks (in Africa, Asia and Latin-America). in these networks, different social movements (trade unions, cooperatives, women and youth organisations, farmer associations, health mutual organisations etc)bring their respective knowledge and expertise together around a shared vision on the right to social protection. Together, they try influence the policy agenda at national, continental and international level, pushing for national, comprehensive and largely supported social protection policies for all.

For living wages, WSM works together with several allies to build support for the concept and gather further evidence on how to realise living wages for working people. We work together with ITUC, Clean Clothes Campaign and have had discussions with a number of companies.
81
The Fred Hollows Foundation
Non-Governmental Organizations
Reducing health disparities between populations contributes to the reduction of broader inequalities within and among countries. In recognition of this, health interventions should be targeted, and planned around needs assessments to ensure they are reaching the populations who need them most.
In Australia, health outcomes across a range of indicators are significantly worse in Indigenous populations compared to the non-Indigenous population. Vision loss among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults is primarily caused through cataract, diabetic retinopathy and trachoma. 94% of vision loss among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults is preventable or treatable. Australia is the only developed country in which Trachoma is still prevalent, and although it has been eradicated in many parts of the country, it remains an issue in remote aboriginal communities. Eye health is just one of the many areas in which Indigenous Australians experience poorer health outcomes than the non-indigenous population, and closing this gap remains a core programmatic priority for the foundation.

Globally, vision loss affects women disproportionately, and women are 1.3 times more likely to be blind than men. Women are more likely to lose their sight to Trachoma as they perform the majority of care, leaving them vulnerable to repeated infections. Women are also less likely to access screening and subsequent treatment for most major causes of blindness. This vision loss can prevent women and girls from participating in education or work outside of the home, and contributes to the broader educational and economic disparities which exist globally between women and men.
SDG 10 has touch points with almost all of the other SDGs. Successfully reducing inequalities within and among countries will contribute to the attainment of almost all of the other goals, most notably: SDGs 1 (poverty reduction), 3 (health and wellbeing) and 5 (gender).
In Australia, many civil society collaborations are working towards closing the gap in health outcomes between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians. The Foundation is an active member of: Vision 2020 Australia; The Close the Gap Campaign; State Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Eye Health Committees; and Regional collaborations. These coalitions advocate for sound policy decisions that champion the rights of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians.

To reduce gender-based inequalities, the Foundation has contributed to a number of multi-stakeholder initiatives. In 2017, the Foundation collaborated with other eye health and international health NGO’s to produce Eye Health for Women and Girls. A guide to gender-responsive eye health programming. The Foundation is also an active participant in the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness (IAPB) gender equity working group, which facilitates shared learning, exchange of good practice and guides IAPB's advocacy efforts on gender equity
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