Data: Legal Slavery — v1
|Free data from www.gapminder.org||id||version|
Updated: April 8, 2018
|CC BY 4.0 LICENCE||lslave||v1|
|Indicator 1:||Number of countries where slavery is legal||Are you seeing this offline? Please make sure you use the latest version. Here's the permalink:|
|Description:||Counting the number of countries where forced labour is legal, which means: there's no law or constitution prohibiting forced labor or serfdom, and the country hasn't yet signed any UN convention banning forced labor. And then, if state owned companies or the government itself is accused of practicing forced labor, while ILO can't investigate it, then slavery here is considered legal, despite what it says on the legal documents.||gapm.io/dlslave|
|Unit:||Number of countries among 195|
|Indicator 2:||Legal status of slavery|
|Description:||Slavery is considered legal in this dataset when a country has no law or constitution prohibiting forced labor or serfdom, and the country hasn't signed any UN convention against it, or the state is accused of practicing forced labor and ILO is stating that it is not able to investigate the accusations properly.|
|Unit:||Legal or Illegal|
|Download:||Excel file »|
|About this file||Example Charts|
|Gapminder has combined data from multiple sources into a long global trend based on dates of slavery abolishment for all countries. The last sheet contains our collection of dates of abolishment.||These charts show data from the other sheets in this workbook.|
|Data source summary|
| We first collected dates of slavery abolishments in the form of passed laws, constitutions or signatures of UN conventions, for all 195 states recognised by the UN. The first date when some kind of legal document was passed was chosen from the following sources: The three UN declarations for banning forced labor were written in 1926, 1930 and 1957 available on UN treaties website. The dates when countries passed domestic laws and constitutions that explicitly ban slavery or forced labor, we took from the database called Slavery in Domestic Legislation, compiled by Jean Allain and Dr. Marie Lynch, at Queen’s University Belfast. Most historic dates of abolishment before 1950 come from the English Wikipedia article called Timeline of abolition of slavery and serfdom. Finally we made one exception.|
In 2018 all governments have a legal document banning forced labor, but some of them seem to be practicing forced labor themselves. An organisation called www.antislavery.org and others report about forced labor commanded by state the owned cotton industries in Turkmenistan & Uzbekistan most commonly during cotton harvest in October every year. And there are plenty of reports of forced labour in work camps in North Korea. In each of these cases ILO is not fully content with the countries' abilities to collaborate to investigate these claims, and therefor we decided to mark these countries as not having made slavery illegal yet, even if they have all signed UN conventions and banned it by their constitution. After gathering the earliest date of abolishment for all countries we could count how many had not yet abolished, each year between 1800 and 2018.
|Detailed data source documentation|
|Author of this version: Ola Rosling|
|Permalink to this version: v1|
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|Free data from Gapminder.org: gapm.io/d_lslave_v1|
Antislavery: Web page on www.antislavery.org: "Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan — Tackling forced labour in cotton industry". Accessed December 2, 2017
|ILO means International Labour Organization: www.ilo.org|
ILO: Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29) (C.29). Accessed December 2, 2017 List of countries and dates of signing.
ILO: Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957 (No. 105) (C.105). Accessed December 2, 2017. List of countries and dates of signing.
ILO: ILO Country baselines: Turkmenistan. Accessed December 2, 2017.
|ILO: ILO Country baselines: Uzbekistan. Accessed December 2, 2017.|
|ILO: ILO Country baselines: North Korea. Accessed December 2, 2017.|
SDL: Slavery in Domestic Legislation Database, a database by Jean Allain and Dr. Marie Lynch at Queen’s University Belfast. Country pages accessed Accessed December 3-4, 2017.
Pinker, Steven. "the Better Angels of Our Nature: the Decline of Violence in History and Its Causes." London: Penguin, 2011.
Wikipedia: Article: Timeline of abolition of slavery and serfdom. English Wikipedia. Access December 1, 2017
UN: Slavery Convention: signed at Geneva on 25 September 1926 and amended by the Protocol New York, 7 December 1953 (STATUS AS AT : 23-11-2017 05:00:21 ED). Accessed December 2, 2017.
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