Antibiotics
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ABCDEFGHIJKLM
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ConsumptionRelative consumptionBroad/narrowSeasonal variation
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CountryJ01*JO1CJ01DJ01FJ01MJ01CE_%J01CR_%J01DD+DE_%J01MA_%J01_B/NJ01_SVJ01M_SV
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Austria14.986.641.73.561.366.130.14.79.17.68128.2114.2
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Belgium28.4416.281.592.922.690.330.4<0.19.549.72--
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Bulgaria18.188.052.3231.991.813.61.4116.79--
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Cyprus**31.0514.435.412.94.10.330.41.613.225.92--
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Czech Republic17.897.61.623.471.2211.121.70.56.84.15116.5102.8
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Denmark16.5110.290.032.380.5131.14.1<0.13.10.44112.8105.6
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Estonia11.054.220.882.160.812.311.4<0.17.48.77128.2104.1
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Finland18.56.612.331.470.887.77.4<0.14.80.76--
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France28.2315.622.673.7520.523.46.46.942.98--
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Germany14.464.12.612.351.515.62.23.510.44.32131.7123.8
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Greece**39.412.878.918.852.890.216.70.67.3148.41--
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Hungary15.676.691.9231.973.429.32.512.415.85141.5121.4
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Iceland**22.3112.080.621.561.0211.217.80.34.61.62112.9181.6
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Ireland20.3210.651.213.660.914.3270.54.55.65110.9100.6
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Italy27.3414.552.555.043.45<0.135.57.112.1109.99--
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Latvia11.845.590.571.130.910.412.10.57.35.32--
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Lithuania**12.686.990.81.480.831.810.20.365.33--
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Luxembourg28.613.964.183.872.940.330.9<0.110.335.17131.4120.6
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Malta21.349.85.043.151.790.240.418.4180.15--
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Netherlands11.214.360.041.450.873.316.1<0.17.66.79--
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Norway15.776.770.121.790.5423.3<0.1<0.13.40.2--
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Poland21.039.432.443.541.230.721.3<0.15.837.07--
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Portugal22.4412.081.813.412.970.240.91.613.328.32118106.6
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Slovenia14.399.670.42.11.112.728.80.77.63.58117.6103.7
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Spain20.3112.641.561.962.540.438.72.612.361.37--
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Sweden14.157.090.20.750.7727.81.70.25.50.17--
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United Kingdom18.78.60.552.730.4646.4<0.12.41.02114105.2
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* Denominator for relative consumption; ** Country provided only total care data
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Total care includes data both from the hospital and community sectors and overestimates the figures when used for reporting for the community sector.
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The quality indicators presented should not be used alone to evaluate the effect of programmes towards prudent use in the community. These indicators are not applicable for the hospital sector.
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Quality indicators
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Consumption
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J01J01_DID***Consumption of antibacterials for systemic use (J01) expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants and per day
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J01CJ01C_DIDConsumption of penicillins (J01C) expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants and per day
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J01DJ01D_DIDConsumption of cephalosporins (J01D) expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants and per day
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J01FJ01F_DIDConsumption of macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramins (J01F) expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants and per day
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J01MJ01M_DIDConsumption of quinolones (J01M) expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants and per day
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Relative consumption
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J01CEJ01CE_%Consumption of beta-lactamase sensitive penicillins (J01CE) expressed as percentage of the total consumption of antibacterials for systemic use (J01)
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J01CRJ01CR_%Consumption of combination of penicillins, including beta-lactamase inhibitor (J01CR) expressed as percentage of the total consumption of antibacterials for systemic use (J01)
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J01DD+DEJ01DD+DE_%Consumption of third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins (J01(DD+DE)) expressed as percentage of the total consumption of antibacterials for systemic use (J01)
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J01MAJ01MA_%Consumption of fluoroquinolones (J01MA) expressed as percentage of the total consumption of antibacterials for systemic use (J01)
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Broad/narrow
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J01J01_B/NRatio of the consumption of broad-spectrum (J01(CR+DC+DD+(F-FA01))) to the consumption of narrow-spectrum penicillins, cephalosporins and macrolides (J01(CE+DB+FA01))
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Seasonal variation
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J01J01_SVSeasonal variation of the total antibiotic consumption (J01)
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Seasonal variation: Overuse in the winter quarters (January–March and October–December) compared with the summer quarters (April–June and July–September) of a 1-year period starting in July and ending the next calendar year in June, expressed as percentage: [DDD per 1000 inhabitants and per day (winter quarters)/DDD per 1000 inhabitants and per day (summer quarters)-1] x100
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J01MJ01M_SVSeasonal variation of quinolone consumption (J01M)
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*** This column displays the original labels of the quality indicators as described in the article Coenen S, Ferech M, Haaijer-Ruskamp FM, et al. European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC): quality indicators for outpatient antibiotic use in Europe.  published in Qual Saf Health Care 2007;16:440–445.
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USE COMPARED
DISCOVERY VOID
OVER TIME, PLUS TYPE
GROWTH IN RESISTANT E-COLI
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