Education score by occupation, 1970-2008
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Education score by occupation - all workersScores:1 - 4th grade or less6 - Associate degree
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Universe: Civilian labor force (ESR1 = 1)2 - 5th thru 8th grade7 - Bachelor's degree
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Compare means: OCC90 by EDSCORE, split by YEAR 3 - High school, no diploma8 - Master's degree
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Source: IPUMS_201002164 - High school graduate9 - Advanced degree
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NOTE: A handful of mean education scores are not
statistically significant; they're highlighted in bold and red.
5 - Some college
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Occupation 1970 Mean1970 MOE1970 MOE% Mean1970 N1980 Mean1980 MOE1980 MOE% Mean1980 N1990 Mean1990 MOE1990 MOE% Mean1990 N2000 Mean2000 MOE2000 MOE% Mean2000 N2008 Mean2008 MOE2008 MOE% Mean2008 NMean Change 1970-2008Biggest gains in educationMean changeBiggest losses in educationMean change
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Legislators#DIV/0!6.520.13582.1%6606.510.08961.4%1,1286.660.081.2%1,274#DIV/0!FALSEExplosives workers3.36Helpers, surveyors-1.29
9
Chief executives and public administrators#DIV/0!5.580.0591.1%3,7005.830.06681.1%2,0246.510.007880.1%149,6396.510.007560.1%162,608FALSEShip crews and marine engineers2.09Furniture and wood finishers-0.84
10
Financial managers5.290.0140.3%44,5005.90.014060.2%51,7406.190.009840.2%84,2676.270.008240.1%116,0406.320.00750.1%136,1691.03Engravers2.05Programmers of numerically controlled machine tools-0.77
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Human resources and labor relations managers#DIV/0!5.650.0210.4%27,6405.630.01730.3%36,9755.740.014420.3%55,0356.070.014380.2%46,002FALSEGraders and sorters in manufacturing1.92Vocational and educational counselors-0.63
12
Managers and specialists in marketing, advertising, and publ5.220.0120.2%62,5005.750.009840.2%103,9806.220.008220.1%113,4916.430.006040.1%192,0146.560.006480.1%158,7471.34Shoemaking machine operators1.84Grinding, abrading, buffing, and polishing workers-0.61
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Managers in education and related fields7.180.0220.3%20,1007.340.018140.2%37,8006.770.01230.2%72,4996.880.010920.2%80,8727.030.010120.1%88,860-0.15Biological technicians1.75Metal platers-0.42
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Managers of medicine and health occupations5.610.0480.9%7,5006.140.03240.5%12,7806.180.018860.3%28,7286.430.015480.2%41,9216.530.014560.2%50,3500.92Optometrists1.62Secondary school teachers-0.35
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Postmasters and mail superintendents4.350.0451.0%2,0004.760.05741.2%1,8605.440.04540.8%2,8575.350.0611.1%1,911#DIV/0!N/AOptical goods workers1.6Winding and twisting textile/apparel operatives-0.29
16
Managers of food-serving and lodging establishments4.230.0160.4%33,400#DIV/0!4.950.008940.2%124,9025.030.010280.2%93,5575.080.008740.2%126,1580.85Inspectors and compliance officers, outside construction1.6Roofers and slaters-0.24
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Managers of properties and real estate4.060.0220.5%20,6004.820.018740.4%37,4205.40.011920.2%77,1235.470.01180.2%76,0835.590.010920.2%86,7041.53Welfare service aides1.59Packers and packagers by hand-0.18
18
Funeral directors5.040.0511.0%2,4005.140.06161.2%1,8005.470.05341.0%2,8525.510.05241.0%2,9875.90.05280.9%1,7700.86Podiatrists1.57Managers in education and related fields-0.15
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Managers of service organizations, n.e.c.#DIV/0!#DIV/0!5.850.013960.2%51,4396.390.016920.3%34,7626.450.015640.2%47,197FALSEFarm managers, except for horticultural farms1.54Health record tech specialists-0.15
20
Managers and administrators, n.e.c.4.920.0050.1%552,2005.450.004220.1%687,8605.780.003520.1%807,14160.004040.1%600,8306.040.003580.1%811,1101.12Managers of properties and real estate1.53Drywall installers-0.12
21
Accountants and auditors5.70.0110.2%82,3006.250.008340.1%123,4806.440.005260.1%216,9006.630.00490.1%227,0266.690.004420.1%281,6450.99Misc textile machine operators1.52Purchasing agents and buyers, of farm products-0.09
22
Insurance underwriters#DIV/0!5.640.07021.2%1,5405.640.02740.5%9,4315.920.03020.5%8,3806.050.02720.4%9,748FALSEShoe repairers1.5Miners-0.09
23
Other financial specialists#DIV/0!5.650.012520.2%63,0405.940.008940.2%99,1036.240.008780.1%108,3866.340.007620.1%134,368FALSEFreight, stock, and materials handlers1.49Sawing machine operators and sawyers-0.08
24
Management analysts#DIV/0!6.790.02520.4%17,8006.690.013820.2%44,3526.910.009760.1%75,4256.910.009180.1%87,796FALSEArchivists and curators1.46Chemical engineers-0.07
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Personnel, HR, training, and labor relations specialists#DIV/0!5.560.013940.3%58,3205.730.01210.2%65,4275.930.008780.1%110,2126.040.008780.1%105,850FALSERollers, roll hands, and finishers of metal1.46Plasterers-0.07
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Purchasing agents and buyers, of farm products3.710.0551.5%1,4004.90.0992.0%1,0004.780.09542.0%1,4634.870.0972.0%1,0443.620.12683.5%735-0.09Public transportation attendants and inspectors1.42Lathe, milling, and turning machine operatives-0.06
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Buyers, wholesale and retail trade4.670.0210.4%18,7005.250.02080.4%21,0805.210.016060.3%29,3185.290.015760.3%29,8035.550.015180.3%30,7780.88Registered nurses1.41Geologists-0.06
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Purchasing managers, agents and buyers, n.e.c.4.840.0210.4%20,4005.390.015940.3%36,3405.680.012040.2%54,7365.730.011260.2%59,1726.050.011820.2%57,0351.21
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Business and promotion agents#DIV/0!5.540.05941.1%3,8005.910.03740.6%6,9266.140.0330.5%8,3766.260.02520.4%13,428FALSE
30
Construction inspectors4.540.0451.0%2,8005.10.0370.7%6,1605.390.0280.5%9,2725.440.0270.5%9,6475.470.019840.4%15,8510.93
31
Inspectors and compliance officers, outside construction4.780.0310.7%8,5005.580.02680.5%15,1005.810.02020.3%20,6456.140.0230.4%13,1216.380.019440.3%19,7051.6
32
Management support occupations#DIV/0!6.380.06040.9%2,8405.470.01250.2%49,6275.670.018460.3%30,0936.210.015780.3%32,878FALSE
33
Architects6.680.0340.5%8,2006.980.02340.3%18,0806.910.013980.2%28,6977.090.012660.2%29,6177.240.01290.2%30,7570.56
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Aerospace engineer6.380.0190.3%21,8006.860.016040.2%33,2206.870.01010.1%50,0227.040.013040.2%28,7247.240.01170.2%31,2680.86
35
Metallurgical and materials engineers, variously phrased6.070.0691.1%1,5006.950.06641.0%2,0406.620.0761.1%1,4136.680.03780.6%4,2936.930.04540.7%3,2670.86
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Petroleum, mining, and geological engineers6.250.0691.1%8006.910.05520.8%2,1207.150.02720.4%2,4996.750.05140.8%1,8837.140.04220.6%1,7010.89
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Chemical engineers7.250.0280.4%4,4007.40.0470.6%3,6807.030.0340.5%4,4777.20.03380.5%3,9757.180.03760.5%3,744-0.07
38
Civil engineers6.440.0180.3%26,1006.830.01590.2%31,3406.890.010640.2%43,3217.020.010640.2%39,7717.160.00890.1%45,4580.72
39
Electrical engineer6.410.0130.2%51,2006.610.012620.2%60,2006.820.007980.1%85,0627.010.008860.1%69,6077.110.009920.1%56,9720.7
40
Industrial engineers5.770.0210.4%22,6005.870.01980.3%25,0206.220.016460.3%24,6696.510.016280.3%22,2106.730.018540.3%18,4390.96
41
Mechanical engineers6.310.0200.3%25,3006.50.02120.3%21,1406.640.016960.3%21,4016.690.014640.2%25,0396.590.017760.3%19,6280.28
42
Not-elsewhere-classified engineers6.190.0180.3%27,3006.660.016220.2%38,6606.810.010420.2%53,3727.030.009560.1%59,7607.140.008380.1%83,1370.95
43
Computer systems analysts and computer scientists6.170.0240.4%17,1006.530.018460.3%28,9606.750.00890.1%74,3146.190.00570.1%217,4886.340.005260.1%241,6000.17
44
Operations and systems researchers and analysts5.620.0300.5%12,2006.170.03440.6%9,6006.220.01410.2%37,6036.240.02040.3%19,4156.40.017660.3%21,4370.78
45
Actuaries6.330.1091.7%3007.30.081.1%8607.190.05140.7%1,5327.320.04280.6%1,6337.50.05380.7%1,4771.17
46
Statisticians5.940.0821.4%1,8006.510.0560.9%3,6006.880.0530.8%3,036#DIV/0!#DIV/0!N/A
47
Mathematicians and mathematical scientists7.090.0480.7%1,1007.740.07441.0%1,3007.630.07761.0%1,0967.680.04160.5%2,8637.40.03960.5%5,8190.31
48
Physicists and astronomers7.710.0190.2%4,9008.170.03660.4%5,0608.060.03320.4%5,3968.320.03220.4%3,3528.790.01880.2%2,6721.08
49
Chemists6.890.0290.4%10,3007.270.0290.4%10,4807.370.019160.3%15,6597.460.019180.3%11,2697.540.0210.3%11,3580.65
50
Atmospheric and space scientists6.50.2203.4%2006.560.1031.6%1,2206.810.09441.4%9727.270.07741.1%8727.720.05320.7%8421.22
51
Geologists7.380.0350.5%1,3007.620.04060.5%4,0207.40.02560.3%7,0377.360.0210.3%8,9887.320.02160.3%9,950-0.06
52
Physical scientists, n.e.c.#DIV/0!7.620.07821.0%1,2007.280.05560.8%1,8248.20.011780.1%27,7338.210.011420.1%30,614FALSE
53
Agricultural and food scientists5.940.0951.6%1,8006.760.07421.1%2,5006.630.05240.8%4,3057.020.04540.6%2,7026.870.0480.7%4,5210.93
54
Biological scientists7.170.0370.5%4,1007.850.0320.4%6,5807.650.02280.3%9,6697.640.01810.2%13,8417.430.02080.3%13,9790.26
55
Foresters and conservation scientists5.150.0440.9%5,5006.270.06121.0%3,6006.330.05320.8%3,1406.870.0440.6%2,0586.40.06361.0%1,8001.25
56
Medical scientists#DIV/0!7.660.0670.9%2,0408.150.0280.3%4,1338.650.010320.1%10,1018.070.01710.2%18,835FALSE
57
Physicians7.830.0080.1%33,5008.750.00670.1%56,9408.860.004020.0%74,4428.920.0030.0%79,8138.80.005280.1%89,8290.97
58
Dentists7.840.0140.2%10,1008.50.018960.2%14,9208.830.008840.1%21,3618.910.00670.1%23,2258.770.011520.1%26,0760.93
59
Veterinarians80.0000.0%2,5008.230.04440.5%3,5808.820.017640.2%5,2728.90.010680.1%6,0098.350.03980.5%6,2500.35
60
Optometrists70.0761.1%1,9007.960.0550.7%2,8808.790.018640.2%4,1088.850.02360.3%4,4718.620.03340.4%4,9241.62
61
Podiatrists7.170.1201.7%6008.330.07540.9%9208.90.04180.5%1,0188.930.02140.2%1,1318.740.04140.5%1,4471.57
62
Other health and therapy7.060.0691.0%1,8007.350.05680.8%4,0007.950.03840.5%9,5708.450.0230.3%11,2028.390.018240.2%13,7471.33
63
Registered nurses5.270.0100.2%92,4006.210.007540.1%130,5606.520.0050.1%195,1056.660.004420.1%205,2366.680.003760.1%255,3111.41
64
Pharmacists7.070.0250.3%9,8007.720.02040.3%13,4207.870.02020.3%17,2458.150.01560.2%19,8468.260.014460.2%23,5941.19
65
Dietitians and nutritionists5.530.0661.2%4,3005.850.050.9%5,9406.330.03740.6%9,0736.510.03940.6%7,4196.170.03660.6%10,9800.64
66
Respiratory therapists#DIV/0!5.520.03180.6%5,8405.940.0230.4%7,3716.10.02160.4%9,3146.120.014640.2%9,536FALSE
67
Occupational therapists#DIV/0!7.140.05380.8%1,9206.910.03960.6%3,7747.030.0250.4%4,8377.310.017880.2%7,713FALSE
68
Physical therapists#DIV/0!6.860.040.6%5,6606.80.02560.4%12,4876.870.019080.3%18,6267.120.016960.2%24,121FALSE
69
Speech therapists#DIV/0!7.790.03920.5%4,1807.810.016660.2%6,7487.80.01490.2%9,7157.690.019520.3%11,092FALSE
70
Therapists, n.e.c.6.360.0370.6%9,4006.730.0480.7%4,3406.760.03680.5%7,5967.20.0270.4%10,4327.120.019560.3%21,2450.76
71
Physicians' assistants#DIV/0!5.140.05461.1%3,1606.030.0581.0%2,5636.50.04040.6%5,5987.420.02980.4%5,932FALSE
72
Earth, environmental, and marine science instructors7.330.0831.1%9007.810.1692.2%3208.440.09221.1%239#DIV/0!#DIV/0!N/A
73
Biological science instructors7.650.0380.5%2,3008.260.07941.0%7608.210.07340.9%764#DIV/0!#DIV/0!N/A
74
Chemistry instructors7.610.0450.6%1,8008.20.08061.0%8207.820.10921.4%554#DIV/0!#DIV/0!N/A
75
Physics instructors7.530.0380.5%1,7008.080.10741.3%7208.070.11941.5%485#DIV/0!#DIV/0!N/A
76
Psychology instructors80.0000.0%1,0008.050.1281.6%7408.50.06840.8%529#DIV/0!#DIV/0!N/A
77
Economics instructors80.0000.0%9008.320.11281.4%4408.290.0811.0%304#DIV/0!#DIV/0!N/A
78
History instructors80.0000.0%2,0008.520.07120.8%5808.320.08621.0%416#DIV/0!#DIV/0!N/A
79
Sociology instructors80.0000.0%6008.620.05620.7%4208.210.13781.7%170#DIV/0!#DIV/0!N/A
80
Engineering instructors7.60.0480.6%2,0007.250.10461.4%1,0407.10.10061.4%904#DIV/0!#DIV/0!N/A
81
Math instructors7.740.0330.4%1,9007.620.08381.1%1,5407.720.05560.7%1,911#DIV/0!#DIV/0!N/A
82
Education instructors80.0000.0%7008.30.33.6%2007.320.263.6%155#DIV/0!#DIV/0!N/A
83
Law instructors80.0000.0%4008.750.03420.4%640900.0%502#DIV/0!#DIV/0!N/A
84
Theology instructors80.0000.0%5008.640.08681.0%2207.910.17922.3%299#DIV/0!#DIV/0!N/A
85
Home economics instructors7.20.1041.5%5006.250.386.1%1606.050.325.3%40#DIV/0!#DIV/0!N/A
86
Subject instructors (HS/college)7.460.0120.2%37,1007.960.011440.1%62,2807.790.008640.1%84,8747.790.006820.1%125,0277.850.006640.1%153,8650.39
87
Kindergarten and earlier school teachers5.910.0240.4%18,0005.730.02180.4%21,1205.660.014040.2%31,1005.790.011040.2%49,1455.870.009560.2%63,128-0.04
88
Primary school teachers7.30.0060.1%136,4007.520.005740.1%215,7206.930.004080.1%317,9877.240.002820.0%327,2977.340.003420.0%369,5730.04
89
Secondary school teachers7.640.0050.1%89,8007.690.010040.1%71,3407.190.008380.1%60,7867.330.00580.1%80,5837.290.007120.1%88,131-0.35
90
Special education teachers#DIV/0!6.690.06381.0%3,3406.360.04280.7%5,8826.840.02120.3%18,0996.830.01630.2%23,421FALSE
91
Teachers , n.e.c.5.520.0210.4%28,4005.910.017680.3%39,2606.040.011780.2%75,1645.350.006360.1%208,6105.820.005920.1%260,0620.3
92
Vocational and educational counselors7.270.0250.3%10,4007.310.02160.3%22,9006.890.017580.3%28,1756.560.012140.2%66,9546.640.010580.2%84,998-0.63
93
Librarians6.580.0310.5%12,1006.790.02640.4%16,7606.720.02080.3%20,6446.990.01940.3%17,3496.690.02080.3%20,2540.11
94
Archivists and curators5.220.0931.8%9006.890.08161.2%1,8206.640.0570.9%2,9356.780.04580.7%3,4546.680.04540.7%5,2951.46
95
Economists, market researchers, and survey researchers6.790.0310.5%7,7006.640.02920.4%11,9206.890.016320.2%19,4566.990.02020.3%15,9296.740.017660.3%26,671-0.05
96
Psychologists7.680.0310.4%4,4008.350.019520.2%12,9608.130.011660.1%28,5848.440.008380.1%25,2868.40.0110.1%32,0970.72
97
Sociologists7.20.1432.0%5007.710.13821.8%4807.450.16842.3%261#DIV/0!#DIV/0!N/A
98
Social scientists, n.e.c.6.790.0911.3%1,4007.750.06760.9%1,6607.110.05880.8%2,2507.410.03080.4%3,9677.160.03560.5%6,0620.37
99
Urban and regional planners6.930.0430.6%1,4007.550.05420.7%2,2207.20.03220.4%4,0097.410.02460.3%3,8567.460.02440.3%4,8840.53
100
Social workers6.50.0150.2%37,9006.680.015160.2%51,1606.490.01170.2%70,2346.650.012060.2%63,2636.710.009840.1%79,6350.21
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