GradeBand 9-12 Standards Documentation
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Current UtahNGSSEdited VersionResearch SourcesJustification (Where did this come from? NGSS? another state? Help someone explain why this is here.)Leadership Notes 10/5Revisions Made on 10/5
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Structure & Interactions in OrganismsSTRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF LIFE: Multicellular organisms have a pattern of heirarchal structure of interacting organs and organ systems. Feedback systems maintain stability. Cell structure, function and division produces and sustains complex organisms. Matter and energy cycles within and between living things.
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HS-LS1-1: Engage in argument from evidence that multicellular organisms have a pattern of hierarchical structural organization, in which any one system is made up of numerous parts and is itself a component of the next level. HS-LS1-1: Engage in argument from evidence that multicellular organisms have a pattern of hierarchical structural organization, in which any one system is made up of numerous parts and is itself a component of the next level. Engaging in argument from evidence that multicellular organisms have a hierarchical structural organization, in which any one system is made up of numerous parts and is itself a component of the next level. The hierarchical structure of organization is a foundational concept for structure and function of organisms. The committee felt the standard needed some clarification and identified patterns as a unifying crosscutting concept to this content. clarify last sentenceStandard BIO.2.1 Engage in argument from evidence that multicellular organisms have a pattern of hierarchical structural organization, in which the basic unit of life is the cell, cells form tissues, tissues form organs, organs form systems, and multiple systems form organisms.
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Bio-3-1: Describe the structure and function of organs.HS-LS1-2: Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms. (Alignment 1/2)HS-LS1-2: Develop and use a model to explain the structure and function of interacting organs and organ systems of mulitcellular organisms including similarities and differences of plants and animals. Construct an explanation that the structure and function of interacting organs and organ systems that make up multicellular organisms. Examples of organ systems working together could include circulatory and respiratory or circulatory and digestive systems. Examples of organs working together could include heart and lungs or kidneys and bladder.Develop and use a model to explain the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms. Examples of organ systems working together could include circulatory and respiratory or circulatory and digestive systems. Examples of organs working together could include heart and lungs or kidneys and bladder.Utah science educators incorporated this to address organs and organ systems, which was present in previous Utah standards, but not in NGSS. The 7th grade SEEd standard 7.3.3 states that 'Specfic organ functions will be taught at the high school level.' This standard addresses that content need. The emphasis statement builds on the statement from standard 7.3.3 by adding organs and was informed my Massachusetts standards. Add more examples for organs and systems interacting , from Mass: Emphasis is on the primary function of the following body systems (and structures): digestive (mouth, stomach, small intestine [villi], large intestine,
pancreas), respiratory (lungs [alveoli], diaphragm), circulatory (heart, veins, arteries, capillaries), excretory (kidneys, liver, skin), and nervous (neurons, brain, spinal cord)
Standard BIO.2.2 Construct an explanation about the structure and function of interacting organs and organ systems that make up multicellular organisms. Emphasize the following organ systems and component organs: circulatory (heart, veins, arteries, capillaries), excretory (kidneys, liver, skin), digestive (mouth, stomach, small intestine [villi], large intestine, pancreas), respiratory (lungs [alveoli], diaphragm), nervous (neurons, brain, spinal cord), muscular, and skeletal.
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Bio-3-2: Describe the relationship between structure and function of organ systems in plants and
animals.
HS-LS1-2: Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms. (Alignment 2/2)HS-LS1-3: Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information that shows similarities and differences in structure and function of plant and animal organ systemsand obtain, evaluate and communicate information while conducting an investigation? Utah science educators wanted to incorporate plant organ systems as well to emphasize the variety of structures that exist with similar functions in order to sustain life. add necessary plant systems for comparison to human systems listed aboveStandard BIO.2.3 Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information that shows similarities and differences in structure and function of plant and animal organ systems. Emphasize the following plant organ systems: shoot system (stem, buds, leaves, flowers) and root system.
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zNo Alignment in 9-12 Utah Science StandardsHS-LS1-3: Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis.HS-LS1-3: Plan and carry out an investigation to provide evidence of homeostasis and that feedback mechanisms maintain stability in organisms. Examples of investigations could include heart rate response to exercise, stomate response to moisture and temperature, and root development in response to water levels.can we use to focus on [cellular] homeostasis (cell transport, role of enzymes) here and move feedback mechanisms for the organ systems focus. NGSS specifically says not at the cellular level for feedback mechanisms.Homeostasis is a unifying concept in biology. The committee felt the need to identify examples in order to clarify the scope of the standard. change the wording of examples: heart rate response to changes in activity, stomata response to changes in moisture and temperature, and root development in response to variations in water level.Standard BIO.2.4 Plan and carry out an investigation to provide evidence of homeostasis and that feedback mechanisms maintain stability in organisms. Examples of investigations could include heart rate response to changes in activity, stomata response to changes in moisture or temperature, and root development in response to variations in water level.
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Bio-4-1: Compare sexual and asexual reproduction. (Covered in another course)HS-LS1-4: Use a model to illustrate the role of cellular division (mitosis) and differentiation in producing and maintaining complex organisms. (Alignment 2/2)HS-LS1-4: Construct an explanation, using evidence, of the role of cellular division (mitosis) in the production, growth and maintainance of systems within complex organisms.The committee identified the importance of the concept of mitosis as a process for growth in organisms, and that the memorizing specific steps of mitosis was not the emphasis. The committee also felt that emphasizing differentiation may be confusing at this point because of the complex genetic interactions and stages of development are beyond the scope of an introductory biology course. The emphasis statement came from Massachussetts standards. use 'mitosis' instead of cellular division, this standard still needs some clarification, emaphsis from Mass: Construct an explanation using evidence for why the cell cycle is necessary for the growth, maintenance, and repair of multicellular organisms. Model the major events of the cell cycle, including (a) cell growth and DNA replication, (b) separation of chromosomes (mitosis), and (c) separation of cell contents, I like this focus on the three phases of the cell cycle. We tend to focus on mitosis, which is only the splitting of the genetic material, and neglect the other components.Standard BIO.2.10 Construct an explanation using evidence about the role of mitosis in the production, growth, and maintenance of systems within complex organisms. Emphasize the major events of the cell cycle, including cell growth and DNA replication, separation of chromosomes, and separation of cell contents.
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Bio-2-3: Investigate the structure and function of cells and cell parts. HS-LS1-4: Use a model to illustrate the role of cellular division (mitosis) and differentiation in producing and maintaining complex organisms. (Alignment 1/2)HS-LS1-5: Develop and use a model to investigate the structure and function of cells and how scale, proportion, and quantity of organelles, cause the cell to have a specialized purpose. emphasis on how different cells have different ratios of organelles and how that relates to function/differentiation. Reasses the PracticeThe committee identified that understanding why differentiated cells have different proportions of cell parts in order to support the cell function was an important unifying concept for cell structure and function. Students can show a better conceptual understanding of the structure and function of life by looking at the patterns of proportion and quantity of organelles in a cell than just memorizing the organelles and their function. clarify, take out 'scale' and use function in place of 'purpose', this may need an Examples could include statement: mitochondria in muscle and nerve cells, chloroplasts in surface cells of leaves, pancreatic cells with more ribosomes etc. Do we need to include something about cell shape? Cellular specialization isn't all about organelles.Standard BIO.2.7 Develop and use a model to investigate the structure and function of cells and how the proportion and quantity of organelles and the shape of cells result in cells with specialized functions. Examples could include mitochondria in muscle and nerve cells, chloroplasts in the surface cells of leaves, ribosomes in pancreatic cells, and the shape of nerve cells and muscle cells.
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Bio-2-2: Describe the flow of energy and matter in cellular function. (Alignment 1/2)HS-LS1-5: Use a model to illustrate how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored chemical energy.The committee identified that the energy flow and matter cycling between the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration could be addresed in the same standard. Also, because we added in some standards about organs and systems, this would help maintain a manageable number of standards for this strand.Standard BIO.2.8 Develop and use a model to illustrate the cycling of matter and flow of energy through livings things by the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Emphasize that the products of one reaction are the reactants for the other and that energy is transferred during these reactions.
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Bio-2-1: Describe the fundamental chemistry of living cells.HS-LS1-6: Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for how carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen from sugar molecules may combine with other elements to form amino acids and/or other large carbon-based molecules.HS-LS1-6: Construct an explanation with evidence that all living things are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that cycles within organims to create the necessary macromolecules needed to sustain life. Macromolecules - they do not need to recognize the molecular structure BOUNCE OFF OF 8.3.2, progressions include recombinations into new molecules (hydrocarbon backbone)Macromolecules are essential molecules for life. The committee wanted the emphasis to be on how the primary elements living things are made of combine to form different molecules that fulfill life processes. The emaphasis is recognizing that the macromolecules are made from the same elements, and not the specific structure of each of those macromolecules. Also, the committee wants to make sure that the function of macromolecules was added to other standards with intent on relevance. The committee also wanted to make sure that there was vertical alignment to standard 8.3.2. Nitrogen should be part of the list of primary elements in living things. Add nitrogen to list because it is essential to proteins and nucleic acids. Needs an emphasis statement that clarifies students do not need to recognize macromolecule shape, but the fact that the elements are coming from an outside source to make the molecules in their bodies. What about enzyme function?Standard BIO.2.5 Construct an explanation based on evidence that all living things are primarily composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, and that the matter taken into an organism is broken down and recombined to make macromolecules necessary for life functions. Emphasize that molecules are broken apart during digestion and cellular respiration and the atoms involved are used to make carbohydrates, proteins, fats and nucleic acids.
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Bio-2-2: Describe the flow of energy and matter in cellular function. (Alignment 2/2)HS-LS1-7: Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new compounds are formed, resulting in a net transfer of energy.HS-LS1-7: Develop and use a model that illustrates the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration and the cycle of energy.Develop and use a model to construct an explanation how........BOUNCE OFF OF 8.3.3 **Engineering practice incorporated? Look at NGSS progressions and move forward from 8thThe committee combined LS 1-5 and LS 1-7 into the same standard. We felt one standard could encompass the scope of both energy flow and matter cycling and this would better vertically align with standard 8.3.3.change cycle of energy (incorrect)Standard BIO.2.8 Develop and use a model to illustrate the cycling of matter and flow of energy through livings things by the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Emphasize that the products of one reaction are the reactants for the other and that energy is transferred during these reactions.
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Carry out an investigation which provides evidence that
NGSS does not have a standard about the role of enzymes in cells. The committee felt this was something lacking and was necessary for a foundational understanding of cell functions. The standard was informed by Mass, DC & the Framework for K-12 Science Education.Enzymes and cellular transport are not in NGSS, does it need to be added? - could speak to adding in another investigationStandard BIO.2.6 Develop and use a model to describe the role of protein molecules as essential to the structure and function of the cell and living systems. Emphasize the role of enzymes to facilitate chemical reactions in cells.
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Similar to enzymes, the Framework progressions mention that students by 12th grade should have an understanding of cell movement, but there is not a standard specific to that. The committee felt the need to add a standard addressing this content. This also provides a place for the practice of plan and carry out an investigation to be added. This is a strength for the core. Standard BIO.2.9 Plan and carry out an investigation to demonstrate how cells maintain stability within a range of changing conditions by the transport of materials across the cell membrane. Emphasize osmosis, diffusion, active transport and passive transport.
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zNo Engineering in 9-12 Utah Science StandardsHS-ETS1-2: Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering.HS-ETS1-1: Design solutions for the causes and effects of complex real-world problems in feedback systems, organ systems and organs, and other conponents to the structure of life by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering. Examples could include disease treatment, artificial organs, and genetic material.
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Interactions With Organisms & the EnvironmentInteractions With Organisms & the Environment: The cycling of matter and flow of energy are part of a complex system of interactions within an ecosystem. Through these interactions, an ecosystem can sustain relatively stable numbers and types of organisms. Organism's individual and group behaviors can affect their ability to survive and reproduce. A stable ecosystem is capable of recovering from modest biological and physical changes. Extreme changes may have significant impact on an ecosystem's carrying capacity and biodiversity, causing a new ecosystem to form. Human activities can lead to significant impacts on an ecosystem, including extinction of species.
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Bio-1-3: Describe how interactions among organisms and their environment help shape ecosystems. (Alignment 1/3)HS-LS2-1 Use mathematical and/or computational representations to support explanations of factors that affect carrying capacity of ecosystems at different scales.HS-LS2-1 Use computational thinking to analyze data that provides evidence of factors that affect stability and change on a population's carrying capacity. Emphasis is on quantitative analysis and comparison of the relationships among independent factors including boundaries, resources, climate, and competition in an ecosystem. Examples may include but are not limited to ecosystems in the Rocky Mountain Region.Wy used HS-ETS1-4 and stated: Emphasis is on quantitative analysis and comparison of the relationships among independent factors including boundaries, resources, climate, and competition in the Rocky Mountain region. Examples of mathematical comparisons could include graphs, charts, histograms, and population changes gathered from simulations or historical, regional, or current data setsThe committee felt combining 2-1 & 2-2 added clarity to the standardData is a plural word. Should be "...data that provide..." Also, I would not use the phrase "Rocky Mountain Region". Utah is part of the intermountain region. Most of the state is actually the Basin and Range Province.Standard BIO.1.1 Plan and carry out an investigation in order to collect and analyze data to determine how biotic and abiotic factors can affect the stability and change of a population’s carrying capacity and an ecosystem's biodiversity.
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Bio-1-3: Describe how interactions among organisms and their environment help shape ecosystems. (Alignment 2/3)HS-LS2-2: Use mathematical representations to support and revise explanations based on evidence about factors affecting biodiversity and populations in ecosystems of different scales.HS-LS2-2: Plan and carry out an investigation exploring biotic and abiotic factors affecting the stability and change of an ecosystem's biodiversity. Emphasis is on finding the average, determining trends, and using graphical comparisons of multiple sets of data.Wy used HS-ETS1-4 and stated: Examples of mathematical representations include finding the average, determining trends, and using graphical comparisons of multiple sets of data. Revision refers to the scientific practice of modifying explanations using additional data analysis and/or research. This is very awkward as currently worded. What about "...factors affecting both the stability and change in biodiversity of an ecosystem."?
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zNo Alignment in 9-12 Utah Science StandardsHS-LS2-3: Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for the cycling of matter and flow of energy in aerobic and anaerobic conditions.HS-LS2-3 &2-4: Construct an explanation supported by evidence for the role of cycling of matter and flow of energy under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Emphasis is on using a mathematical model of stored energy in biomass to describe the transfer of energy from one trophic level to another. Examples could include bioremediation of hydrocarbons or other materials, sewage / waste treatment, or decomposition.Wy statement: Emphasis is on conceptual understanding of the role of aerobic and anaerobic respiration in different environments. Examples could include bioremediation of hydrocarbons or other materials, sewage / waste treatment, or decomposition.Students in high school biology still need a foundational understanding of energy flow in ecosystems. The examples from NGSS (bioremediation of hydrocarbons, sewage/waste treatment or decomposition) don't make sense for this concept at this point. The committee felt the need to clarify the standard and focus on energy flow in ecosystems through food chains and webs and use a different standard to focus on matter cycling. Standard BIO.1.2 Construct an explanation for the role of cycling of matter and flow of energy among organisms in an ecosystem. Emphasize the movement of matter and energy through different trophic levels of an ecosystem. Examples could include food chains, food webs, energy pyramids or pyramids of biomass.
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Bio-1-1: Summarize how energy flows through an ecosystem.HS-LS2-4: Use mathematical representations to support claims for the cycling of matter and flow of energy among organisms in an ecosystem.HS-LS2-4: Construct an explanation supported by evidence for the role of cycling of matter and flow of energy among organisms in an ecosystem.Wy:Emphasis is on using a mathematical model of stored energy in biomass to describe the transfer of energy from one trophic level to another and that matter and energy are conserved as matter cycles and energy flows through ecosystems. Emphasis is on atoms and molecules such as carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen being conserved as they move through an ecosystem.
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Bio-1-2: Explain relationships between matter cycles and organisms.HS-LS2-5: Develop a model to illustrate the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of carbon among the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere.HS-LS2-5: Collect and analyze data exploring the scale of carbon reservoirs to determine the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of carbon among the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere. Emphasis is on the size of reservoir and how it impacts changes of the ecosystem.Definitely change the CCC & SEPThe committee felt that there was a need for clarification of changes to the scale and proportion of reserviors and so added examples. Hmmm? This does not make sense as currently written. The link between the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration and the size of carbon sinks is not clear here.Standard BIO.1.3 Collect and analyze data to determine the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration and the scale and proportion of carbon reservoirs in the carbon cycle. Emphasize the cycling of carbon through the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere and how changes to the scale and proportion of various reservoirs impacts ecosystems. Examples of changes to the scale and proportion of reservoirs could include deforestation, fossil fuel combustion, and ocean uptake of carbon dioxide.
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Bio-1-3: Describe how interactions among organisms and their environment help shape ecosystems. (Alignment 3/3)HS-LS2-6: Evaluate claims, evidence, and reasoning that the complex interactions in ecosystems maintain relatively consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions, but changing conditions may result in a new ecosystem.HS-LS2-6:Make an argument from evidence for how ecosystems maintain relatively consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions, but how changing conditions during succession may result in a new ecosystem. Examples of changes in ecosystem conditions could include modest biological or physical changes, such as moderate hunting or a seasonal flood; and extreme changes, such as volcanic eruption or sea level rise.Wy used HS-ETS1-5 and stated: Examples of changes in ecosystem conditions could include modest biological or physical changes, such as moderate hunting or a seasonal flood; and extreme changes, such as volcanic eruption or sea level rise.Ecosystem dynamics, functioning, and resilience are important concepts for students to understand as natural and human-caused changes to ecosystems may require the problem solving skills of current and future generationsThe examples may still need some work, is there a way to incorporate changes typical in Utah ecosystems?Standard BIO.1.4 Develop an argument from evidence for how ecosystems maintain relatively consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions, but how changing conditions during succession may result in a new ecosystem. Examples of changes in ecosystem conditions could include moderate biological or physical changes, such as moderate hunting or a seasonal flood; and extreme changes, such as volcanic eruption or sea level rise.
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zNo Alignment in 9-12 Utah Science StandardsHS-LS2-7: Design, evaluate, and refine a solution for reducing the impacts of human activities on the environment and biodiversity.HS-LS2-7HS-ETS1-1: Design, evaluate, and refine a solution for reducing the impacts of human activities on the environment and biodiversity. Examples of impacts could include urbanization, reclamation projects, building dams, habitat restoration, and introduction of invasive species.Wy used HS-ETS1-1, 1-2,1-3,1-4 and stated Examples of impacts could include urbanization, reclamation projects, building dams, habitat restoration, anddissemination of invasive species.This engineering standard was a good fit for designing solutions to determine ecosystem impact. Utah has many examples of this as housing demands are increasing in many counties along the Wasatch front and in the St. George area. This also leads to and increased need for transportation access (front runner, legacy highway). Any solution includes taking the local ecosystems into account. This still needs and SEP & CCC written in Needing a "solution" indicates that there is a problem that needs to be remedied. However, some of the examples appear to be solutions to problems in and of themselves. For example: reclamation projects and habitat restoration.Standard BIO.1.5 Define a problem and design, evaluate, and refine a solution for reducing the impact caused by human activities on the environment and biodiversity. Examples of human activities could include urbanization, building dams, pollution, deforestation and introduction of invasive species.
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zNo Alignment in 9-12 Utah Science StandardsHS-LS2-8: Evaluate evidence for the role of group behavior on individual and species’ chances to survive and reproduce.HS-LS2-8: Obtain, evaluate and communicate information about the effect of group behavior on individual and species’ chances to survive and reproduce. Emphasis is on: (1) distinguishing between group and individual behavior, (2) identifying evidence supporting the outcomes of group behavior, and (3) developing logical and reasonable arguments based on evidence. Examples of group behaviors could include flocking, schooling, herding, and cooperative behaviors such as hunting, migrating, and swarming.Wy: Emphasis is on: (1) distinguishing between group and individual behavior, (2) identifying evidence supporting the outcomes of group behavior, and (3) developing logical and reasonable arguments based on evidence. Examples of group behaviors could include flocking, schooling, herding, and cooperative behaviors such as hunting, migrating, and swarming.Group behaviors are found in organisms ranging from unicellular slime molds to ants to primates, including humans. Many species, with a strong drive for social affiliation, live in groups formed on the basis of genetic relatedness, physical proximity, or other recognition mechanisms (which may be species specific). Group behavior evolved because group membership can increase the chances of survival for individuals and their relatives. While some groups are stable over long periods of time, others are fluid, with members moving in and out. Groups often dissolve if their size or operation becomes counterproductive, if dominant members lose their place, or if other key members are removed from the group. Group interdependence is so strong that animals that usually live in groups suffer, behaviorally as well as physiologically, when reared in isolation, even if all of their physical needs are met.
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zNo Alignment in 9-12 Utah Science StandardsHS-LS4-6: Create or revise a simulation to test a solution to mitigate adverse impacts of human activity on biodiversity.HS-LS4-6: Using computational thinking create or revise a simulation to test a solution to mitigate adverse impacts of human activity on biodiversity. Examples may include the impact of overpopulation, overexploitation, adverse habitat alterations, pollution, invasive species, and changes in climate on a threatened or endangered species or to the genetic variation within a species.OK, MS and Wy has this in Evolution
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zNo Engineering in 9-12 Utah Science StandardsHS-ETS1-1: Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants.
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Genetics
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Bio-4-3: Explain how the structure and replication of DNA are essential to heredity and protein
synthesis. (Alignment 1/2)
HS-LS1-1: Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the structure of proteins, which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells.HS-LS1-1: Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the structure of proteins, which carry out the essential functions of life resulting in specific traits. something to consider a limit (we don't want emphasis on memorizing every single step & enzyme etc). Check 7th gradeThe central dogma of protein synthesis is essential to understanding how traits are expressed in living things. Students in high school biology should have a basic conceptual understanding of protein synthesis, but do not need to memorize specific enzymes and detailed steps of the process. Genetics Standard document
Standard BIO.3.1 Construct an explanation for how the structure of DNA and RNA code for the structure of proteins, which regulate and carry out the essential functions of life, resulting in specific traits. Emphasize a conceptual understanding that the sequence of nucleotides in DNA determines the amino acid sequence of proteins through the processes of replication, transcription, and translation. Specific proteins and detailed steps of protein synthesis will be covered in advanced biology courses..
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Bio-4-3: Explain how the structure and replication of DNA are essential to heredity and protein
synthesis. (Alignment 2/2)
HS-LS3-1:. Ask questions to clarify relationships about the role of DNA and chromosomes in coding the instructions for characteristic traits passed from parents to offspring.HS-LS3-1:. Ask questions and make predictions about the causal role of DNA and chromosomes in coding the instructions for characteristic traits passed from parents to offspring.emphasis to clear up what we want students to do, reword to work in the CCC better: the cause & effect relationship? This is more specific to DNA structure of chromosomes and gene regulation - why are some genes on an off? Use DCI descriptions to help with wording - be cognizant of keeping it at grade level. Add structure and function CCCThe committee felt the NGSS standard as written was very vague. There wasn't a clear understanding of what students should be doing. The committee felt the need to add specific examples of common methods used for predicting genetic combinations and types of inheritance. Standard BIO.3.2 Ask questions and make predictions about how DNA in the form of genes carried on chromosomes is passed from parents to offspring through the processes of meiosis and fertilization during sexual reproduction. Emphasize the cause and effect relationship of genotype and phenotype. Examples could include pedigrees, karyotypes, genetic disorders, or Punnett squares to investigate different patterns of inheritance including dominance, codominance, incomplete dominance, sex-linked traits, and epigenetics.
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Bio-4-2: Predict and interpret patterns of inheritance in sexually reproducing organisms.HS-LS3-2: Make and defend a claim based on evidence that inheritable genetic variations may result from (1) new genetic combinations through meiosis, (2) viable errors occurring during replication, and/or (3) mutations caused by environmental factors.HS-LS3-2: Engage in argument based on evidence that inheritable genetic variations may be caused by new genetic combinations through meiosis and/or mutations caused either by viable errors occurring during meiotic replication or by environmental factors.Mutations during meiosis, mutations during the formation of gametes Emphasis on results of meiosis, not memorizing the steps and the biochemical mechanisms (from NGSS assessment boundary) these are meant for advanced coursesThe committee added examples to provide clarification for the scope and intent of this standard. Standard BIO.3.3 Engage in argument based on evidence that inheritable genetic variations may be caused by new genetic combinations during meiosis and/or mutations caused either by viable errors occurring during meiotic replication or by environmental factors. Examples of genetic variations could include genetic recombination from crossing over and nondisjunction during meiosis; non-lethal errors occurring during replication by insertions, deletions, or substitutions; and/or heritable mutations caused by environmental factors like radiation, chemicals, and viruses.
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zNo Alignment in 9-12 Utah Science StandardsHS-LS3-3: Apply concepts of statistics and probability to explain the variation and distribution of expressed traits in a population.HS-LS3-3: Analyze and interpret data to explain the variation and the patterns of expressed traits in a population.emphasis on patterns of inheritance which could include Mendilian, codominance, polygenic, x-linked traits, epigenetics. Change CCC to patternsThis standard seemed very broad, and the committee felt it was important to add an emphasis statement and examples. We also wanted more investigations, as that is an important science practice, and felt that this standard gave opportunity for that practice. Standard BIO.3.4 Plan and carry out an investigation to gather, analyze, and interpret data to explain the variation and patterns in distribution of the traits expressed in a population. Emphasize the distribution of traits as it relates to both genetic and environmental influences on the expression of traits. Examples of variation and patterns in distribution of traits could include sickle-cell anemia and malaria, the peppered moth and industrial emissions, hemoglobin levels in humans and high elevation, flowering time and climate, human skin color and UV light exposure, seasonal coat color, flower color and soil pH, or antibiotic resistance.
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zNo Engineering in 9-12 Utah Science StandardsHS-ETS1-3: Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and tradeoffs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts.HS-ETS1-3: Define a problem for which genetic engineering can provide a solution. Evaluate genetic engineering as a solution to this problem based on prioritized criteria and tradeoffs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts.The committe identified this engineering standard as a natural fit for genetic engineering. Examples of specifc Utah researched and develop technologies were included as examples: transgenic organisms, genetic testing and geneaological DNA tests (Transgenic mice (pioneered by our own nobel prize winner,Mario Capecchi), Genetic Testing (Myriad Genetics being world renowned for sequencing BRCA1, controversy over gene patents, and breast cancer testing), and Geneological DNA tests (Ancestry.com))Standard BIO.3.5 Define a problem for which genetic engineering can provide a solution. Evaluate genetic engineering as a solution to this problem based on prioritized criteria and tradeoffs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts. Examples of genetic engineering that could be investigated could include selective breeding, cloning, CRISPR, recombinant DNA, gene splicing, GMOs, transgenic organisms, genetic testing, and genealogical DNA tests.
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EvolutionEvolution Strand Paragraph
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Bio-5-2: Cite evidence for changes in populations over time and use concepts of evolution to explain these changes. (Alignment 1/2)HS-LS4-1: Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence.1. Obtain and evaluate information to identify patterns that show that common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by mulitple lines of evidence, such as similarities in DNA sequences, anatomical structures, and order of appearance of structures during embryological development. OK state standards http://okscienceframework.pbworks.com/w/page/111906271/Biology%20DCI%20Analysis The ongoing branching that produces multiple lines of descent can be inferred by comparing DNA sequences, amino acid sequences, and anatomical and embryological evidence of different organisms.Standard BIO.4.1 Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to identify patterns that show that common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of evidence, such as similarities in DNA sequences, amino acid sequences, anatomical structures, the fossil record, and order of appearance of structures during embryological development.
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Bio-5-1: Relate principles of evolution to biological diversity. (Alignment 1/3)HS-LS4-2: Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily results from four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment.2. Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution by natural selection is primarily caused by four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment.From NGSS; WY, OK both used this standard as it is.These factors cover Darwin's postulates, which explain the mechanism for natural selection.Standard BIO.4.2 Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution by natural selection is primarily caused by four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment.
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Bio-5-1: Relate principles of evolution to biological diversity. (Alignment 2/3)HS-LS4-3: Apply concepts of statistics and probability to support explanations that organisms with an advantageous heritable trait tend to increase in proportion to organisms lacking this trait.3. Analyze and interpret data to identify patterns that support the claim that organisms with an advantageous heritable trait tend to increase in proportion to organisms lacking this trait. Utah teachers adapted slightly from NGSSStandard BIO.4.3 Analyze and interpret data to identify patterns that support the claim that organisms with an advantageous heritable trait tend to increase in proportion to organisms lacking this trait.
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3.5 HS-LS2-8: Evaluate evidence to construct an argument for the effect of group behavior on individual and species’ chances to survive and reproduce. Examples of group behaviors could include flocking, schooling, herding, and cooperative behaviors such as hunting, migrating, and
swarming.
Wy: Emphasis is on: (1) distinguishing
between group and individual behavior, (2) identifying evidence
supporting the outcomes of group behavior, and (3) developing
logical and reasonable arguments based on evidence. Examples
of group behaviors could include flocking, schooling, herding,
and cooperative behaviors such as hunting, migrating, and
swarming.
Moved from ecology; focus on an individual's chance to survive and reproduce and the effects this will have on the species makes this standard fit the evolution strand.Standard BIO.4.4 Obtain, evaluate and communicate information about the effect of group behavior on individual and species’ chances to survive and reproduce. Emphasize: (1) distinguishing between group and individual behavior, (2) identifying evidence supporting the outcomes of group behavior, and (3) developing logical and reasonable arguments based on evidence. Examples of group behaviors could include flocking, schooling, herding, and cooperative behaviors such as hunting, migrating, and swarming.
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Bio-5-1: Relate principles of evolution to biological diversity. (Alignment 3/3)HS-LS4-4: Construct an explanation based on evidence for how natural selection leads to adaptation of populations.4. Use a simulation to model possible solutions to a real-world problem caused by natural selection and adaptation of populations. Analyze data from the model to construct an argument for which solution(s) can best solve the problem. Examples of real-world problems could include bacterial or viral resistance to drugs, plant resistance to herbicides, or changes in climate on food sources.HS-ETS1-4: Use a computer simulation to model the impact of proposed solutions to a complex real-world problem with numerous criteria and constraints on interactions within and between systems relevant to the problem. HS-LS4-4: Construct an explanation based on evidence for how natural selection leads to adaptation of populations.that investigates the cause and effect relationship of natural selection and population dynamics. Natural selection is both caused by and affects the human population; the effects are often harmful to us. This standard addresses how our actions can affect the evolution of other species and allows exploration of possible solutions. Standard BIO.4.6 Use a simulation to model possible solutions to a real-world problem caused by natural selection and adaptation of populations. Analyze data from the model to construct an argument for which solution(s) can best solve the problem. Examples of real-world problems could include bacterial or viral resistance to drugs, plant resistance to herbicides, or the effect of changes in climate on food sources.
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Bio-5-2: Cite evidence for changes in populations over time and use concepts of evolution to explain these changes. (Alignment 2/2)HS-LS4-5: Evaluate the evidence supporting claims that changes in environmental conditions may result in (1) increases in the number of individuals of some species, (2) the emergence of new species over time, and (3) the extinction of other species. (Alignment 1/2)5. Use evidence to construct an argument that supports the claim that changes in environmental conditions may cause (1) increases in the number of individuals of some species, (2) the emergence of new species over time, and (3) the extinction of other species.Standard BIO.4.5 Use evidence to construct an argument that supports the claim that changes in environmental conditions may cause (1) increases in the number of individuals of some species, (2) the emergence of new species over time, and (3) the extinction of other species.
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Bio-5-3: Classify organisms into a hierarchy of groups based on similarities that reflect their evolutionary relationships.HS-LS4-5: Evaluate the evidence supporting claims that changes in environmental conditions may result in (1) increases in the number of individuals of some species, (2) the emergence of new species over time, and (3) the extinction of other species. (Alignment 2/2)6. HS-LS4-6: Using computational thinking create or revise a simulation to test a solution to mitigate adverse impacts of human activity on biodiversity. Examples may include This was included in the ecology strand
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Engineering
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zNo Engineering in 9-12 Utah Science StandardsHS-ETS1-1: Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants.
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zNo Engineering in 9-12 Utah Science StandardsHS-ETS1-2: Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering.
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zNo Engineering in 9-12 Utah Science StandardsHS-ETS1-3: Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and tradeoffs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts.
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zNo Engineering in 9-12 Utah Science StandardsHS-ETS1-4: Use a computer simulation to model the impact of proposed solutions to a complex real-world problem with numerous criteria and constraints on interactions within and between systems relevant to the problem.
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