Y-DNA Haplogroup M and its Subclades - 2019
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Last revision date for this specific page: 1 January 2019
|Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes, and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated.|
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Y-DNA Tree Trunk
Newly confirmed in 2019 within subclade
Confirmed within subclade
^ Indicates a next-generation sequencing entry which does not yet meet quality guidelines for minimum number of reads.
^^ Indicates an entry which does not meet quality guidelines but may be helpful.
~ Indicates only an approximate location on the tree.
|The criteria for a representative SNP printed in bold for a subclade is: traditional usage, testing done in multiple labs, and/or being found in the area of the chromosome used in recent research studies.|
|SNPs listed below in italics (colored black or red) are quality variants from next-generation sequencing reports consistently showing as representing that subgroup|
|DID YOU NOTICE that the items in gray sometimes have a long name preceding their listing that is the same as just above? In this situation, evidence seems to indicate they also seem to belong to the same subgroup, but some confirmatory evidence is not yet available.|
|M1||M4, M5/P73, M106, M186, M189, M296|
|M1~||CTS7357.2, FGC13408.2,/Z16369.2, FGC29215, M5991, Page1, PH4279, PH3025, SK1828, SK1845, SK1846/Z43400, SK1847, SK1848, SK1849, SK1850, SK1851, SK1852, SK1853, SK1854, SK1855, SK1856, SK1857, Y1422.2/Z8214.2, Y26288/Z43397, Y26291/Z43398, Y26298/Z43408, Y26299/Z43409, Y26300/Z43410, Y27828/Z43395, Y27835/Z43399, YSC0000696, Z30832, Z30839, Z30840, Z30841, Z30890, Z30891, Z30892, Z30893, Z30894, Z30895, Z30896, Z30897, Z30898, Z30899, Z30900, Z30901, Z30902, Z30903, Z30904, Z30905, Z30908, Z30909, Z30910, Z30911, Z30912, Z30913, Z30914, Z30915, Z30916, Z30918, Z30919, Z30921, Z30922, Z30923, Z30924, Z30925, Z30926, Z30929, Z30930, Z30931, Z30932, Z30933, Z30934.1, Z30935, Z30936, Z30939, Z30940, Z30942, Z30943, Z30944, Z30945, Z30948, Z30949, Z30950, Z30951, Z30952, Z30953, Z30954, Z30955, Z30956, Z30957, Z30958, Z30959, Z30960, Z30961, Z30962, Z30963, Z30964, Z30965, Z30966, Z30967, Z30968, Z30972, Z30975, Z30976, Z30977, Z30978, Z30979, Z30980, Z30981, Z30982, Z30983, Z30984, Z30985, Z30986, Z30987, Z30988, Z30989, Z30991, Z30992, Z30993, Z30994, Z30995, Z30996, Z30997, Z30998, Z30999, Z31001, Z31002, Z31004, Z31006, Z31008, Z31009, Z31010, Z31011, Z31012, Z31013, Z31014, Z31015, Z31016, Z31017, Z31018, Z31019, Z31020, Z31021, Z31022, Z31023, Z31024, Z31025, Z31026, Z31028, Z31029, Z31030, Z31031, Z31032, Z31033, Z31034, Z31035, Z31036, Z31037, Z31038, Z31039, Z31040, Z31041, Z31042, Z31043, Z31044, Z31045, Z31048, Z31049, Z31050, Z31051, Z31052, Z31054, Z31055, Z31056, Z31057, Z31058, Z31059, Z31061, Z31063, Z31064, Z31065, Z31066, Z31067, Z31068, Z31069, Z31070, Z31071, Z31072, Z31073, Z31074, Z31075, Z31076, Z31077, Z31078, Z31080, Z31081, Z31082, Z31083, Z31085, Z31086, Z31087, Z31088, Z31089, Z31090, Z31093, Z31094, Z31095, Z31096, Z31097, Z31099, Z31100, Z31101, Z31102, Z31103, Z31104, Z31105, Z31106, Z31107, Z31108, Z31110, Z31111, Z31112, Z31113, Z31114, Z31115, Z31116, Z31117, Z31133, Z31134, Z31136, Z31137, Z31138, Z31140, Z31141, Z31143. Z31144. Z31145, Z31147, Z31148, Z31149, Z31150, Z31152, Z31153, Z31154, Z31155, Z31156, Z31157, Z31159, Z31160, Z31161, Z31162, Z31163, Z31164, Z31165, Z31166, Z31167, Z31168, Z31169, Z31170, Z31171, Z31172, Z31173, Z31174, Z31175, Z31181, Z31182, Z31183, Z31184, Z31185, Z31187, Z31188, Z31189, Z31190. Z31191, Z31192. Z31193, Z31194, Z31195, Z31196, Z31197, Z31198, Z33312, Z33344|
|M1a||BY8413.1/Z30938.1, SK1869, Z30835, Z30907, Z30917, Z30920, Z30928, Z30937, Z31000, Z31005, Z31007, Z31046, Z31060, Z31062, Z31079, Z31151, Z31158|
|M1a2||Z30928, Z31007, Z31146|
|M1a2a1~||FGC24709, FGC36703, SK1877, SK1879, Z42236, Z42237, Z42238, Z42239, Z42240, Z42241, Z42242, Z42243, Z42244, Z42245, Z42246, Z42247, Z42248, Z42249, Z42250, Z42251, Z42252, Z42253, Z42254, Z42255, Z42256, Z42257, Z42258, Z42259, Z42260, Z42261, Z42262, Z42263, Z42264, Z42265, Z42266, Z42267, Z42268, Z42269, Z42270, Z42271, Z42272, Z42273, Z42274, Z42275, Z42276, Z42277, Z42278, Z42279, Z42280|
SK1881, Z42285, Z42286, Z42287
SK1880, Z42281, Z42282, Z42283, Z42284
Z33330, Z33345, Z42288
P51, SK1872, Z42289, Z42290, Z42291, Z42292
|M1a3b||B256, SK1882, Z31135, Z33309, Z33313, Z33318, Z33319, Z33323, Z33325, Z33331, Z33336, Z33343, Z33347, Z33348, Z33350|
Z33310, Z33311, Z33317, Z33320, Z33321, Z33324, Z33326, Z33327, Z33332, Z33337, Z33341, Z33351
Z33114. Z33315, Z33316, Z33317, Z33329, Z33333, Z33339, Z33340, Z33342
SK1889, Z42293, Z42294, Z42295, Z42296
|M1a3b1b||Z42297, Z42298, Z42299. Z42300, Z42301, Z42302, Z42303, Z42304, Z42305, Z42306, Z42307, Z42308, Z42309, Z42310, Z42311, Z42312, Z42313, Z42314, Z42315, Z42307, Z42308, Z42309, Z42310, Z42311, Z42312, Z42313, Z42314, Z42315, Z42316, Z42317. Z42318, Z42319, Z42320, Z42321, Z42322|
Y26302/Z42326, Z42323, Z42324, Z42325, Z42327
BY3630.2, F1295.2, Z42328, Z42329, Z42330
|M1a3b1c||B269, Z31204.2, Z33269, Z33270, Z33271, Z33272, Z33273, Z33274, Z33276, Z33277, Z33278, Z33279, Z33280, Z33281, Z33282, Z33283, Z33284, Z33277, Z33278, Z33279, Z33280, Z33281, Z33282, Z33283, Z33284, Z33285, Z33286, Z33288, Z33289, Z33290, Z33291, Z33292, Z33293, Z33295, Z33296, Z33297, Z33298, Z33299, Z33300|
B271, Z33302, Z33305, Z33307, Z33308
B270, Z38339, Z38340, Z38341
B272, Z33740. Z33741, Z33742, Z33743
Z42538, Z42539, Z42540, Z42541, Z42542
Z43832. Z43833, Z43834, Z43835, Z43836
Z43411, Z43412, Z43413, Z43414, Z43415
MUTATION INFORMATION AT VERY BOTTOM HERE
Identical SNPs that were discovered separately are listed in alphabetical order, not necessarily in the order of discovery,
and separated by "/". Examples: M5/P73, M104/P22, M177, SRY9138
Removed P35_1, P35_2, P35_3, not meeting quality guidelines on 11 August 2016.
The chromosome location for M-P256 shown in Karafet (2008) seems off by one chromosome position.
All M samples from next-generation sequencing show the same mutation at adjacent chromosome position 8685231.
So this is the position tentatively listed in the ISOGG index. Listed 31 August 2016.
Y-DNA haplogroup M
reaches its known peak in Papua New Guinea, totaling one-third to two-thirds of population.
The haplogroup M Aborigines in Australia seem comparatively to be the most recent arrivals among Aborigines (Bergstrom).
Geographic distribution so far of ancestry of modern-day haplogroup M subgroup men (not complete):
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
N. Australia (Aborigines)
Papua New Guinea
Bergstrom et al, Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes. (pdf) Current Biology, 26:809-813, (2016).
Bergstrom et al, A Neolithic Expansion, but Strong Genetic Structure, in the Independent History of New Guinea Science, 357:1160-1163 (2017).
Cox M P & Lahr M M, Y-Chromosome Diversity Is Inversely Associated with Language Affiliation in Paired Austronesian- and Papuan-Speaking Communities from Solomon Islands. (pdf) American Journal of Human Biology, 18:35-50, 2006.
Hurles et al, European Y-Chromosomal Lineages in Polynesians: A Contrast to the Population Structure Revealed by mtDNA. American Journal of Human Genetics, 63:1793-1806, 1998.
Hurles et al, Y Chromosomal Evidence for the Origins of Oceanic-Speaking Peoples. Genetics, 160:289-303, January 2002.
Karmin et al, A Recent Bottleneck of Y chromosome Diversity Coincides with a Global Change in Culture. Genome Research, doi: 10.1101/gr.186684.114, published online March 13, 2015.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.