Sources-A Shared Fight
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HeadlineSourceFound Via
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A Shared Fight: The National, State, and Local MovementsTitle Slide
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Ernestine L. Rose addresses Michigan legislatureCarol A. Kolmerton, The American Life of Ernestine Rose (New York: Syracuse University Press), 56.Google Books
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Seneca Falls Convention"Signers of the Declaration of Sentiments," National Parks Service, https://www.nps.gov/wori/learn/historyculture/signers-of-the-declaration-of-sentiments.htm.
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Early suffrage support in Michigan's State SenateKarolena M. Fox, "History of the Equal Suffrage Movement in Michigan," Michigan History 2, no. 1 (January 1918): 90-91. Google Books
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First National Women's Rights Convention"More Women's Rights Conventions," National Parks Service, https://www.nps.gov/wori/learn/historyculture/more-womens-rights-conventions.htm.
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Ain't I a Woman Speech"Sojourner Truth: Ain't I A Woman?," National Parks Service, https://www.nps.gov/articles/sojourner-truth.htm.
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Lenawee County Suffrage PetitionJournal of the House of Representatives of the State of Michigan (Lansing: Hosmer and Fitch, 1855), 451.Google Books
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The Civil WarAllison Lange, "Women's Activism during the Civil War," National Women's History Museum, http://www.crusadeforthevote.org/civil-war-activism. http://www.crusadeforthevote.org
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Women's Loyal National League Founded"The Civil War: The Senate's Story." United States Senate, https://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/civil_war/WomensNationalLoyalLeague.htm.senate.gov
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13th Amendment ratifiedCommon knowledge
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American Equal Rights Association (AERA) foundedKathryn Cullen-Dupont, "American Equal Rights Association," in Encyclopedia of Women's History in America, 2nd ed., (New York: Facts on File, 2000), 11.Google Books
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School Suffrage for Michigan's tax-paying women Clara B. Arthur, Progress of Michigan Women, n.p., 1912, 7.Hathitrust
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First issue of The Revolution"First page of first issue of The Revolution," Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/resource/cph.3b08623/.
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Symbolic vote in Sturgis, MichiganElizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Matilda Joslyn Gage, History of Woman Suffrage vol. 3 (Rochester, NY: Susan B. Anthony, 1886), 514.Google Books
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14th amendment ratifiedAllison Lange, "The 14th and 15th Amendments," National Women's History Museum, http://www.crusadeforthevote.org/14-15-amendments.
http://www.crusadeforthevote.org
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Sturgis women vote and run in school board electionThe Revolution, September 24, 1868, p. 6
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Universal Suffrage amendment presented to Congress"Samuel C. Pomeroy: A Featured Biography," United States Senate, https://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/generic/Featured_Bio_Pomeroy.htm.
https://www.senate.gov
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The AERA divides over the 15th amendmentKathryn Cullen-Dupont, "American Equal Rights Association," in Encyclopedia of Women's History in America, 2nd ed., (New York: Facts on File, 2000), 12.Google Books
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National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) FoundedKathryn Cullen-Dupont, "National Woman Suffrage Association," in Encyclopedia of Women's History in America, 2nd ed., (New York: Facts on File, 2000), 182.Google Books
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American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA) foundedKathryn Cullen-Dupont, "American Woman Suffrage Association," in Encyclopedia of Women's History in America, 2nd ed., (New York: Facts on File, 2000), 13.Google Books
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Wyoming suffrage Act of 1869"Wyoming and the 19th Amendment," National Parks Service, https://www.nps.gov/articles/wyoming-women-s-history.htm. https://www.nps.gov
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First issue of the Woman's JournalThe Woman's Journal, January 15, 1870, p. 1
Harvard Digital Collections
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Michigan State Woman Suffrage Association (MSWSA) foundedBoston Daily Advertiser, January 18, 1870, p. 1
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Two Michigan women voteSacramento Daily Union, June 21, 1871, p. 3
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Victoria Woodhull's Address"The First Woman to Address a House Committee," United States House of Representatives, https://history.house.gov/Historical-Highlights/1851-1900/The-first-woman-to-address-a-congressional-committee/.https://history.house.gov
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Susan B. Anthony Arrested for Voting"Confrontations for Justice," National Archives, https://www.archives.gov/exhibits/eyewitness/html.php?section=3. https://www.archives.gov
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Sojourner Truth turned away from the pollsCarleton Mabee, Sojourner Truth: Slave, Prophet, Legend (New York: New York University Press, 1995), 181-182.Google Books
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Joint resolution for Women's Suffrage Stalls in the Michigan SenateElizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Matilda Joslyn Gage, History of Woman Suffrage vol. 3 (Rochester, NY: Susan B. Anthony, 1886), 516-517.Google Books
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Women's suffrage referendum tabled in MichiganElizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Matilda Joslyn Gage, History of Woman Suffrage vol. 3 (Rochester, NY: Susan B. Anthony, 1886), 517.Google Books
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MSWSA addresses Michigan LegislatureElizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Matilda Joslyn Gage, History of Woman Suffrage vol. 3 (Rochester, NY: Susan B. Anthony), 517.Google Books
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Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) Founded"Early History," National Woman's Christian Temperance Union, https://www.wctu.org/history.html.
https://www.wctu.org/history
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Michigan Legislature approves a statewide Woman Suffrage Referendum Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Matilda Joslyn Gage, History of Woman Suffrage vol. 3 (Rochester, NY: Susan B. Anthony, 1886), 518-519.Google Books
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Grand Rapids Woman Suffrage Association (GRWSA) foundedAlbert Baxter, History of the City of Grand Rapids, Michigan, (Grand Rapids, MI: Munsell and Company), 197. Google Books
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Suffrage amendment defeated in MichiganAnthony to Isabella Beecher Hooker, Tenafly, NJ, January 20, 1875, in The Selected Papers of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony: National protection for national citizens, 1873 to 1880, ed. Ann D. Gordon (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press), 145-146.
Google Books
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Michigan State Woman Suffrage Association disbandsVirginia Ann Paganelli Caruso, "A History of Woman Suffrage in Michigan," (PhD diss., Michigan State University). 73.
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Woman Suffrage Amendment in Congress"19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution," Library of Congress, http://www.loc.gov/rr//program/bib/ourdocs/19thamendment.html. http://www.loc.gov
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Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony organize in MichiganNational Woman Suffrage Association, Report of the Sixteenth Annual Washington Convention, (Rochester, NY: Press of Charles Mann, 1884) 86.Google Books
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Colored Women’s Progressive Franchise AssociationJane Rhodes, Mary Ann Shadd Cary: The Black Press and Protest in the Nineteenth Century (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1999), 199.
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School Suffrage for Michigan MothersThe General School Laws of Michigan (Lansing, MI: W.S. George and Co., 1881) 13.Hathitrust
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Equal Suffrage Association of Michigan (ESAM) foundedSusan B. Anthony and Ida Husted Harper, History of Woman Suffrage vol. 4 (Rochester, NY: Susan B. Anthony, 1902), 755.Google Books
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Grand Rapids Equal Suffrage Association Founded"Woman Suffrage in Michigan," Woman's Journal, January 1, 1883. Harvard Digital Collections
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The Alpha foundedRowell's American Newspaper Directory vol. 17 (New York, Geo. P. Rowell and Co., 1885), 1302. Google Books
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School Suffrage for Grand Rapids women
"Women Voting in Michigan," Woman's Journal, September 19, 1885.
Harvard Digital Collections
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U.S. Senate Rejects Susan B. Anthony Amendment"Looking for a Right to Vote: Introducing the Nineteenth Amendment," National Parks Service, https://www.nps.gov/articles/introducing-the-19th-amendment.htm.
https://www.nps.gov
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Grand Rapids women run for Board of Education"School Elections," Grand Rapids Telegram-Herald, September 6, 1887.Chronicling America
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Many Defeats"Legislative Lore," Grand Rapids Telegram-Herald, March 6, 1891.Chronicling America
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A woman on the school board"Woman Suffrage in Grand Rapids," Woman's Journal, September 8, 1888.Harvard Digital Collections
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National Council of Women of the United States foundedLouise Barnum Robbins, ed., History and Minutes of the National Council of Women of the United States (Boston: E.B. Stilling and Co., 1898), 10-13.Harvard Digital Collections
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The Woman's Column founded"The Woman's Column in the Suffrage Movement: The Woman's Column," The Albert M. Greenfield Digital Center for the History of Women's Education, http://greenfield.brynmawr.edu/exhibits/show/the-womans-column/the-womans-column-and-the-suff/the-womans-column.
http://greenfield.brynmawr.edu
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Belles v. BurrMichigan Reports: Cases Decided in the Supreme Court vol. 76 (Chicago: Callaghan and Co., 1890), 1-30. Google Books
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State Association Changes Name"Michigan Annual Meeting," Woman's Journal, March 30, 1889.Harvard Digital Collections
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NWSA and AWSA merge to form NAWSAAllison Lange, "Suffragists Unite: National American Woman Suffrage Association," National Women's History Museum, http://www.crusadeforthevote.org/nawsa-united.
http://www.crusadeforthevote.org/nawsa-united
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Wyoming statehood and suffrage"Wyoming and the 19th Amendment," National Parks Service, https://www.nps.gov/articles/wyoming-women-s-history.htm.
https://www.nps.gov
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Grand Rapids Political Equality Club founded "The First Annual," Grand Rapids Herald, March 23, 1893.Women's History Bajema Clippings, Grand Rapids Public Library
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Federal Suffrage Association foundedCharles E. Neu, "Olympia Brown and the Woman's Suffrage Movement," The Wisconsin Magazine of History 43, no. 4 (Summer 1960): 283.JSTOR
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Emily Burton Ketcham at the Chicago World's FairEmily Burton Ketcham, "Are Women Citizens and People?" in
The Congress of Women Held in the Woman's Building, ed. Mary Kavanaugh Oldham Eagle (Philadelphia: International Publishing Co., 1895) 361.
Google Books
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Municipal Suffrage in Michigan"The Governor Commended," Jackson Citizen, May 6, 1893. America's Historical Newspapers Database
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Municipal Woman Suffrage Struck Down in Michigan"No Women Voters," Grand Rapids Evening Press, October 24, 1893.America's Historical Newspapers Database
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NACW foundedAllison Lange, "National Association of Colored Women," National Women's History Museum, http://www.crusadeforthevote.org/nacw.
http://www.crusadeforthevote.org
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NAWSA comes to Grand Rapids"Random Notes of the Visitors: Many Have Won Fame in the Cause They Dearly Love," Grand Rapids Herald, April 30, 1899.Grand Rapids Public Library Digital Collections
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National Legislative League founded"The National Legislative League," Woman's Journal, April 7, 1900.Harvard Digital Collections
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Emily Burton Ketcham Dies"Mrs. Ketcham Dead," Grand Rapids Herald, January 13, 1907.Grand Rapids Public Library Digital Collections
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NACW petitions CongressRosalyn Terborg-Penn, African American Women in the Struggle for the Vote, 1850-1920 (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1998), 95.
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Grand Rapids Equal Franchise Club Founded"Plans Are Being Perfected," Grand Rapids Herald, April 12, 1910. Grand Rapids Public Library Digital Collections
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Suffragists present massive petition to CongressApril 18, 1910, Grand Rapids Evening Press, p. 8.America's Historical Newspapers Database
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GR Suffragists at the Homecoming Parade"Suffragettes Last, Not Least," Grand Rapids Herald, August 27, 1910.Grand Rapids Public Library Digital Collections
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National OppositionAllison Lange, "Opposition to Suffrage," National Women's History Museum, http://www.crusadeforthevote.org/naows-opposition.
http://www.crusadeforthevote.org
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Michigan Men for Woman's SuffrageMarch 23, 1911, Grand Rapids Evening Press, p. 5America's Historical Newspapers Database
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Michigan to vote on suffrage"Woman Suffrage to Be Submitted," Grand Rapids Evening Press, March 28, 1912. America's Historical Newspapers Database
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Woman's Journal Celebrates MichiganApril 6, 1912, Woman's Journal, p. 1Harvard Digital Collections
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State Suffrage Campaign HQ Opens in GR"Women Offer to Help Suffragists," Grand Rapids Herald, May 1, 1912. Grand Rapids Public Library Digital Collections
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Victory stolen"Suffrage Beaten By 760 Majority," Jackson Citizen Patriot, December 19, 1912. America's Historical Newspapers Database
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MESA Storms the Legislature"Michigan Asks Immediate Action," Woman's Journal, January 25, 1913.Harvard Digital Collections
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Suffrage Parade in DCSheridan Harvey, "Marching for the Vote: Remembering the Woman Suffrage Parade of 1913," Library of Congress, https://guides.loc.gov/american-women-essays/marching-for-the-vote.
https://guides.loc.gov
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Another suffrage defeat in MichiganApril 10, 1913, Grand Rapids Evening Press, p. 9America's Historical Newspapers Database
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National Women's Suffrage DayMay 3, 1914, Grand Rapids Herald, p. 1Grand Rapids Public Library Digital Collections
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MESA indexes politiciansAugust 16, 1915, Grand Rapids Herald, p. 5Grand Rapids Public Library Digital Collections
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Votes for Women issue of The CrisisAugust 1915, The Crisis
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Michigan Suffragist's Painting Featured in The CrisisAugust 1915, The Crisis, Cover
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Michigan Suffragists delay state amendment November 10, 1915, Saginaw Daily News, p. 1America's Historical Newspapers Database
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First Woman in Congress"Rankinm Jeannette," United States House of Representatives, https://history.house.gov/People/Listing/R/RANKIN,-Jeannette-(R000055)/.
https://history.house.gov
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Prohibition in Michigan John Fitzgibbon, "King Alcohol: His Rise, Reign, and Fall in Michigan," Michigan History 2, no. 4 (October 1918): 779.Google Books
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Suffragists Respond to U.S. entry into WWI"Local Suffragists May Offer Services," Grand Rapids Press, April 7, 1917.America's Historical Newspapers Database
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Michigan Women Get Presidential Suffrage"Governor Signing State Suffrage Bill," Kalamazoo Gazette, May 20, 1917.America's Historical Newspapers Database
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Silent Sentinel Backlash"National Woman's Party Protests During World War I," National Parks Service, https://www.nps.gov/articles/national-womans-party-protests-world-war-i.htm.
https://www.nps.gov
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Wilson supports suffrage before senate"A Vote for Women," United States Senate, https://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/minute/A_Vote_For_Women.htm.
https://www.senate.gov
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Suffrage Cartoon in the Grand Rapids Press"To the Men of Michigan," Grand Rapids Press, October 31, 1918. America's Historical Newspapers Database
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Victory for Michigan Women"Women Will Get Vote; Suffrage is Winner by 15,000," Grand Rapids Press, November 6, 1918. America's Historical Newspapers Database
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WWI Ends
"Women's Suffrage and WWI," National Parks Service,https://www.nps.gov/articles/womens-suffrage-wwi.htm.
https://www.nps.gov
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Equal Franchise Club disbands"Equal Franchise Club Disbands," Grand Rapids Press, December 14, 1918. America's Historical Newspapers Database
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Michigan League of Women Voters"Suffragists in Heated Session Take New Name," Grand Rapids Press, April 4, 1919. America's Historical Newspapers Database
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Congress passes 19th Amendment"Document for August 18th:
19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Women's Right to Vote," National Archives, https://www.archives.gov/historical-docs/todays-doc/?dod-date=818.
https://www.archives.gov
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Rush to ratification"Michigan and the 19th Amendment," National Park Service, https://www.nps.gov/articles/michigan-and-the-19th-amendment.htm.
https://www.nps.gov
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League of Women Voters"The League of Women Voters Through the Decades!," League of Women Voters, https://www.lwv.org/league-women-voters-through-decades.https://www.lwv.org
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19th amendment ratifiedScott Bomboy, "The vote that led to the 19th Amendment," National Constitution Center, https://constitutioncenter.org/blog/the-man-and-his-mom-who-gave-women-the-vote/.
https://constitutioncenter.org
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Grand Rapids League of Women Voters"Women Ready to Organize League," Grand Rapids Press, June 9, 1921. America's Historical Newspapers Database
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