EPIC DC Reference List for TAC
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#Person Entering Reference (Initials)Publication YearAuthorTitlePublication NameURLAbstract NoteDate Added
1VV2015Aarstad, Cassidy; Kean, Andrew; TaufikArc Fault Circuit Interrupter Development for Residential DC Electricity10/8/2015 16:34:00
2VV2015Nordman, Bruce; Christensen, KenDC Local Power Distribution with microgrids and nanogridsDC Microgrids (ICDCM), 2015 IEEE First International Conference onhttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=715203810/26/2015 21:46:00
4VV2015Backhaus, Scott; Swift, Gregory W.; Chatzivasileiadis, Spyridon; Tschudi, William; Glover, Steven; Starke, Michael; Wang, Jianhui; Yue, Meng; Hammerstrom, DonaldDC Microgrids Scoping Study—Estimate of Technical and Economic Benefitshttp://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2015/03/f20/DC_Microgrid_Scoping_Study_LosAlamos-Mar2015.pdf10/26/2015 22:34:00
12VV2015VoltserverVoltServer technology - the dawning of digital powerhttp://www.voltserver.com/Technology.aspx10/28/2015 22:09:00
15VV2015Whaite, Stephen; Grainger, Brandon; Kwasinski, AlexisPower Quality in DC Power Distribution Systems and MicrogridsEnergieshttp://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/8/5/4378This review paper discusses power quality considerations for direct current (DC) electric power distribution systems, particularly DC microgrids. First, four selected sample DC architectures are discussed to provide motivation for the consideration of power quality in DC systems. Second, a brief overview of power quality challenges in conventional alternating current (AC) distribution systems is given to establish the field of power quality. Finally, a survey of literature addressing power quality issues in DC systems is presented, and necessary power quality considerations in DC distribution system design and operation are discussed.10/29/2015 0:31:00
19VV2015Glasgo, Brock; Azevedo, Inês; Hendrickson, ChrisUnderstanding the potential for electricity savings and assessing feasibility of a transition towards DC powered buildingshttp://www.usaee.org/usaee2015/submissions/OnlineProceedings/USAEE%202015%20Paper_Glasgo.pdf10/29/2015 0:40:00
21VV2015Rajaraman, V.; Jhunjhunwala, A.; Kaur, P.; Rajesh, U.Economic analysis of deployment of DC power and appliances along with solar in urban multi-storied buildings2015 IEEE First International Conference on DC Microgrids (ICDCM)Lighting, fans and electronic devices form a significant and growing portion of power-load at homes and need power back-up support in case there are frequent power-cuts. A Diesel generator is generally used today in multi-storied buildings to provide this backup. The DC system, proposed in this paper, provides a far more energy-efficient alternative using renewable power-source for backup. It creates a pull for a home to move towards far more energy efficient DC loads. The solution provides a GREEN option to the existing solution. This paper provides a fresh perspective on the problem of eliminating conversion losses for uninterrupted operation of DC appliances. A cost benefit analysis shows that this DC system can reduce costs to the consumer by eliminating the complex electronics embedded in the inversion process. A rough measurement of the conversion losses for commercially available inverters and battery chargers illustrates that gains of 30% to 45% are easily obtainable.10/29/2015 0:43:00
22VV2015Kaur, P.; Jain, S.; Jhunjhunwala, A.Solar-DC deployment experience in off-grid and near off-grid homes: Economics, technology and policy analysis2015 IEEE First International Conference on DC Microgrids (ICDCM)India is a power deficit country and one third of its homes are off grid or near off grid. This paper presents an efficient and affordable Solar DC solution for powering such homes. Though several solutions have emerged in the past for powering these homes, those have been expensive and energy inefficient. These solutions rely on several DC to AC and AC to DC conversions, to feed the widely used AC home loads, thus, wasting a large chunk of the expensive power. The proposed Solar DC solution for off-grid homes (OGH) is developed to use the generated PV power efficiently. With this solution, the panel and battery size is reduced by 2 to 2.5 times and the cost to power a house is reduced to nearly half the cost of the existing solutions. The paper also presents a techno-economic comparison between the proposed OGH solution with some existing solar systems.10/29/2015 0:44:00
23VV2015Capasso, Clemente; Veneri, OttorinoExperimental study of a DC charging station for full electric and plug in hybrid vehiclesApplied Energyhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030626191500495XThis paper is aimed to analyze design criteria, setting up, control strategies and experimental tests related to a power configuration of DC micro-grid for fast charging of full electric and plug in hybrid vehicles. The proposed DC fast charging architecture is derived by an analysis comparing the main characteristics of well known architectures, mainly based on AC and DC bus, taking also into account the integration of renewable energy sources (RESs) with stationary energy storage systems and fleets of road electric/hybrid vehicles. On the base of the proposed architecture a laboratory prototype of charging station has been realized by means of a 20 kW AC/DC bidirectional grid tie converter interconnected with two different power DC/DC converters of similar rated power. In this micro-grid architecture the AC/DC converter realizes a conversion stage at 790 V DC, whereas other two converters allow either the electric vehicle battery packs to be charged or an energy storage buffer to save electric energy and support the main grid during the fast charging operations. The laboratory tests described in this paper are mainly devoted to characterize the laboratory demonstrator, in different operative conditions, such as vehicle-to-grid (V2G), charging/discharging operations of different types of storage systems and fast charging operations of road electric vehicles. Then the study of the proposed power conversion architecture is focused on the evaluation of charging/discharging power, efficiency, energy flux management and its impact on the main grid. In addition proper control strategies are evaluated and implemented, allowing the proposed architecture to follow the required operations. The obtained experimental results demonstrate real advantages in terms of charging times and power requirements from the main grid, when adopting DC buffer architecture for fast charging operations. Finally, these results support the identification of a knowledge base, useful to evaluate energy management and control strategies to be adopted for DC charging stations and each one of their power converters in a smart grid scenario with distributed generation systems.10/29/2015 0:45:00
24VV2015Seyedmahmoudian, M.; Arrisoy, H.; Kavalchuk, I.; Oo, A. Maung; Stojcevski, A.Rationale for the use of DC microgrids: feasibility, efficiency and protection analysisEnergy and Sustainability V: Special Contributionshttps://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=h6nkBgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA69&ots=iBxDqiMw_7&sig=lodizWuH4GXn7oRJ9jhzixPt-0w10/29/2015 0:50:00
28VV2015Kann, Shayle; Shiao, MJ; Honeyman, Cory; Kimbis, Tom; Baca, Justin; Rumery, Shawn; Jones, Jade; Cooper, LeandraU.S. Solar Market Insight Q1 2015 Executive Summaryhttp://www.seia.org/sites/default/files/resources/Y3pV3Vn7QKQ12015SMI_0.pdf11/7/2015 1:15:00
29VV2015VicorNew BCM Bus Converter Modules with Unprecedented PerformanceVicor PowerBloghttp://powerblog.vicorpower.com/2015/10/new-bcm-bus-converter-modules-with-unprecedented-performance/Today we announced new members of our Bus Converter Module (BCM®) series of isolated, fixed conversion ratio, DC-DC converters. The new converters, which combine Vicor’s sine-amplitude DC-DC conversion technology with Vicor’s unique thermally adept Converter housed in Package (ChiP) packaging technology, outperform best-in-class contemporary products11/13/2015 19:15:00
31VV2015University of PittsburgDirect Current Architecture for Modern Power Systems (DC-AMPS)http://www.engineering.pitt.edu/Sub-Sites/Labs/Electric-Power-Systems/_Content/Research/Current/DCAMPS/11/18/2015 19:08:00
32VV2015Boeke, U.; Wendt, M.DC power grids for buildings2015 IEEE First International Conference on DC Microgrids (ICDCM)Direct current (DC) power grids are an interesting option for buildings to connect natural DC power sources such as photovoltaic power systems with DC loads like lighting, IT systems as well as speed-controlled electric motors of heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The paper documents learnings, measurements and efficiency differences of a test bed installation with both a 230 V AC and a 380 V DC grid. Both subsystems supply LED luminaires with electricity from utility mains and AC respectively DC grid connected photovoltaic solar power systems. An efficiency advantage of 2 % has been measured with the 2 kW DC grid test bed. 5 % energy savings are described as potential.11/18/2015 23:17:00
33VV2015Weiss, R.; Ott, L.; Boeke, U.Energy efficient low-voltage DC-grids for commercial buildings2015 IEEE First International Conference on DC Microgrids (ICDCM)The European ENIAC R&D project consortium DC Components and Grid (DCC+G) is developing suitable, highly efficient components and sub systems for 380 VDC grid to show the benefits of DC grid concept on test site in an office environment. The newly developed DC grid components and their integration into a generic system are presented in this paper. The targeted overall efficiency saving compared to AC grid is 5% and the energy conversion from PV (photo voltaic) is calculated to be 7% more cost effective compared to traditional PV installations. This paper also shows the realized DC grid prototypesupplying an office building of the Fraunhofer Institute in Erlangen, Germany, and describes general benefits of a DC grid system. The DC grid prototype consists of a DC lighting system, a DC low power supply for IT infrastructure, DC electric vehicle charger, a DC μCHP unit, DC photovoltaic MPPT units, a central rectifier and grid controller unit as well as a mixed AC/DC power monitoring unit. It is shown that less conversion losses and higher distribution efficiency can be achieved with a 380 VDC grid compared to conventional AC grids.11/18/2015 23:19:00
34VV2015Sasidharan, Nikhil; Madhu M., Nimal; Singh, Jai Govind; Ongsakul, WeerakornAn approach for an efficient hybrid AC/DC solar powered Homegrid system based on the load characteristics of home appliancesEnergy and Buildingshttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378778815302358In this paper, a new and efficient hybrid AC/DC solar powered Homegrid model is proposed based on the load characteristics of a typical set of home appliances working on a 220 V, 50 Hz system. The load characteristics of home appliances are represented by a static ZIP (constant impedance (Z), constant current (I) and constant power (P)) coefficient model, a useful load model in power flow studies. A Homegrid system is formed by analysing the distortion produced by modern household equipment, and a K-factor with a significant role in the overheating of residential/distribution transformers is determined. Further, the ZIP load model is validated by a simulation and the results are compared with experimental data. To improve the efficiency and quality of the traditional Homegrid system, a solar powered hybrid AC/DC supply network model is proposed. This system eliminates redundant power conversion stages and mitigates the loss due to the harmonics by a shift of harmonic intensive loads to the Direct Current (DC) network side. Its effectiveness has been investigated with a simulation in MATLAB as well as with hardware implementation. This proposed energy efficient Homegrid model could be quite helpful in fulfilling the idea of net zero or surplus energy buildings.11/19/2015 17:48:00
38VV2015Keles, Cemal; Karabiber, Abdulkerim; Akcin, Murat; Kaygusuz, Asim; Alagoz, Baris Baykant; Gul, OzanA smart building power management concept: Smart socket applications with DC distributionInternational Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systemshttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142061514005195Recent developments in power electronics increase DC bus utilization in electrical distribution systems due to its numerous advantages compared to AC distribution system in term of energy efficiency, safety, electromagnetic compatibility and renewable energy integration. This study presents a power management system concept based on domestic DC distribution with smart sockets for future smart houses. Energy efficient smart buildings are possible by integrating smart meter, smart sockets, domestic renewable energy generation and energy storage systems for integrated energy management, and this integrated system supports demand side load management, distributed generation and distributed storage provisions of future smart grids. Coming era of smart grids has implications for domestic DC distribution concepts with smarts sockets. Paper describes use of smart DC sockets as an integral part of building power management automation and presents a load shedding algorithm for plug load control for buildings. Simulations show performance of the proposed system components.11/20/2015 19:29:00
39VV2015Elsayed, Ahmed T.; Mohamed, Ahmed A.; Mohammed, Osama A.DC microgrids and distribution systems: An overviewElectric Power Systems Researchhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378779614003885This paper presents an overview of the most recent advances in DC distribution systems. Due to the significantly increasing interest that DC power systems have been gaining lately, researchers investigated several issues that need to be considered during this transition interval from current conventional power systems into modern smart grids involving DC microgrids. The efforts of these researchers were mostly directed toward studying the feasibility of implementing DC distribution on a given application, DC distribution design-related aspects such as the system architecture or its voltage level, or the unique challenges associated with DC power systems protection and stability. In this paper, these research efforts were categorized, discussed and analyzed to evaluate where we currently stand on the migration path from the overwhelming fully AC power system to a more flexible hybrid AC/DC power system. Moreover, the impediments against more deployment of DC distribution systems and some of the proposed solutions to overcome those impediments in the literature will be discussed. One of the obstacles to increased DC system penetration is the lack of standards. This problem will be discussed, and the most recent standardization efforts will also be summarized and presented.11/20/2015 19:31:00
40VV2015Monadi, Mehdi; Amin Zamani, M.; Ignacio Candela, Jose; Luna, Alvaro; Rodriguez, PedroProtection of AC and DC distribution systems Embedding distributed energy resources: A comparative review and analysisRenewable and Sustainable Energy Reviewshttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032115006607The integration of distributed generation (DG) units into distribution networks has challenged the operating principles of traditional AC distribution systems, and also motivated the development of emerging DC systems. Of particular concern are the challenges associated with the operation of conventional protection schemes and/or devices. This paper first analyses the fault current characteristics in AC and DC distribution systems; it then presents a comprehensive review of the latest protection methods proposed for distribution systems embedding DGs. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of each method are outlined and compared. The differences between the protection algorithms employed in/proposed for AC and DC systems are also discussed. Finally, this study identifies the future trends and provides recommendation for researches in the field of protections of DC distribution networks.11/20/2015 19:40:00
41VV2015Zhang, Fengyan; Meng, Chao; Yang, Yun; Sun, Chunpeng; Ji, Chengcheng; Chen, Ying; Wei, Wen; Qiu, Hemei; Yang, GangAdvantages and challenges of DC microgrid for commercial building a case study from Xiamen university DC microgrid2015 IEEE First International Conference on DC Microgrids (ICDCM)This paper discussed the advantages and challenges of DC microgrid for commercial building. The data obtained from the DC microgrid constructed at Xiamen University shows that DC microgrid with rooftop solar system is an efficient way to power varies DC loads inside the building. The capacity of the solar system on the rooftop normally will be enough to power the LED light loads in commercial buildings, even for high rise buildings. In order to power heavy loads such as air conditioning and EV charging stations, extra power are required, which can be obtained from the BIPV on the sidewall, glass window, or adjacent parking lots. To ensure the stable bus voltage and continuous operation of the DC microgrid, a suitable energy storage unit and two way AC/DC invertors are needed. Therefore we believe to use the solar power only for the matched DC loads, and keep existing AC power in the building to power the rest loads (or an AC and DC hybrid microgrid) maybe a more viable solution. The economical analysis shows that installation cost of a DC microgrid system is about $2.2/W, which is becoming a marketable technology.11/20/2015 19:44:00
46VV2015Planas, Estefanía; Andreu, Jon; Gárate, José Ignacio; Martínez de Alegría, Iñigo; Ibarra, EdortaAC and DC technology in microgrids: A reviewRenewable and Sustainable Energy Reviewshttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032114010065Microgrids are a suitable, reliable and clean solution to integrate distributed generation into the mains grid. Microgrids can present both AC and DC distribution lines. The type of distribution conditions the performance of distribution line and implies different features, advantages and disadvantages in each case. This paper analyses, in detail, all this parameters for AC and DC microgrids in order to identify and describe the available alternatives for building and configuring a microgrid. Elements and issues involved in the implementation and development, such as protections, power converters, economic analysis, and availability are discussed and described. This analysis constitutes a tool for selecting a suitable configuration of a microgrid adapted to the needs in each situation. In addition, the paper provides a picture of the current situation of microgrids, and identifies and proposes future research lines.11/25/2015 21:36:00
49VV2015Cal Poly State UniversityThe DC House Projecthttp://www.calpoly.edu/~taufik/dchouse/index.html11/25/2015 22:24:00
51VV2015Fregosi, D.; Ravula, S.; Brhlik, D.; Saussele, J.; Frank, S.; Bonnema, E.; Scheib, J.; Wilson, E.A comparative study of DC and AC microgrids in commercial buildings across different climates and operating profiles2015 IEEE First International Conference on DC Microgrids (ICDCM)Bosch has developed and demonstrated a novel direct current (DC) microgrid system that maximizes the efficiency of locally generated photovoltaic energy while offering high reliability, safety, redundancy, and reduced cost compared to equivalent alternating current (AC) systems. Several demonstration projects validating the system feasibility and expected efficiency gains have been completed and additional ones are in progress. This paper gives an overview of the Bosch DC microgrid system and presents key results from a large simulation study done to estimate the energy savings of the Bosch DC microgrid over conventional AC systems. The study examined the system performance in locations across the United States for several commercial building types and operating profiles. It found that the Bosch DC microgrid uses generated PV energy 6%-8% more efficiently than traditional AC systems.12/14/2015 10:07:00
52VV2015IEEE Standards AssociationIEEE and EMerge Alliance Sign Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to Allow Collaboration in Hybrid AC/DC Microgrid Power Standardizationhttp://standards.ieee.org/news/2015/emerge_mou.html12/15/2015 0:01:00
53CM2015Nordman, B.; Christensen, K.The need for communications to enable DC power to be successful2015 IEEE First International Conference on DC Microgrids (ICDCM)Alternating Current (AC) is the most common form of power available within buildings. This has historical reasons rooted in large-scale utility generation and distribution of power. With the rapid emergence of local renewables (notably solar) in buildings, the availability of Direct Current (DC) power is becoming more prevalent. In this position paper, we argue that managed power distribution of DC is possible with the addition of communications about power. We claim that with communications DC power distribution becomes much more efficient and effective than with no communication, and provides other benefits. The Local Power Distribution (LPD) model is described where commodity interfaces enable a “plug and play” approach to operating DC power sources, batteries, and loads within a building. We seek a future where communications coupled with DC power distribution, storage, and use can create buildings that are more efficient and easier to operate.12/15/2015 0:33:00
56VV2016Rodriguez-Diaz, E.; Vasquez, J.; Guerrero, J.Intelligent DC Homes in Future Sustainable Energy Systems: When efficiency and intelligence work together.IEEE Consumer Electronics MagazineThe evidence that climate change is real and most likely caused by human-related activities has made the international community consider a new energy model. Europe has led the initiative, moving away from fossil fuels toward renewable energies, while powerful countries such as the United States and China are lagging behind and still rely heavily on coal, gas, and oil as energy sources. Europe has set ambitious goals for 2020 regarding the increase of renewable energy production, energy efficiency, and greenhouse gas emission reduction. The concept of a microgrid is perfectly aligned with the new energy strategy. A microgrid eases the integration of renewable energy sources (RESs) and energy-storage systems (ESSs) at the consumption level, aiming to increase power quality, reliability, and efficiency. The increasing importance of dc-based loads has reopened the discussion of dc versus ac distribution systems. As a consequence, much research has been done on dc distribution systems and their potential for residential applications. Furthermore, the growing presence and use of smart devices in homes reveal a promising future for intelligent homes integrated in the Internet of Things (IoT), where residential electrical power systems work in cooperation with smart devices to achieve smarter, more sustainable, and cleaner energy systems.1/12/2016 18:24:00
57VV2015Iyer, S.; Dunford, W.G.; Ordonez, M.DC distribution systems for homes2015 IEEE Power Energy Society General MeetingUnprecedented expansion of native direct current (DC) powered equipment (computers and consumer electronics) has increased household DC electricity consumption over the past decade. Since power utilities deliver alternating current (AC) rather than DC, the conversion process (rectifier) used to supply DC loads is very inefficient. This paper investigates the suitability of employing conventional AC wiring to distribute DC power to supply loads directly, in particular around outlet/switch arcing issues. The problem of arcing in DC system is very predominant and needs to be addressed to meet safety requirements while improving the efficiency of the system. In order to overcome the arcing issues, an alternative flat DC wiring system is proposed which offers improved transient electrical and thermal characteristics for household wiring. The flat wire solution employs the same raw materials and provides improvements in parasitic values associated with arcing while reducing thermal resistance. The proposed flat wire geometry is expected to achieve reduction of arcing and improve the overall efficiency of the distribution system. Simulations of the two preliminary AC and DC systems are provided for typical domestic loads and switching events. A complete set of experimental results will be included in the final version of the paper.1/12/2016 18:27:00
58VV2015Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.An Overview of Low Voltage DC Distribution Systems for Residential Applications5th IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics-Berlin 2015http://vbn.aau.dk/ws/files/219724154/2015_ICCE_An_Overwiew_of_LVDC_Distribution_systems_for_Residential_Applications.pdf1/12/2016 18:30:00
60VV2015Chen, Fang; Burgos, R.; Boroyevich, D.Efficiency comparison of a single-phase grid-interface bidirectional AC/DC converter for DC distribution systems2015 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE)The focused bidirectional ac/dc converter works as the interface between dc distribution systems (future residential dc system, energy storage system etc.) and the ac utility. The interface converter regulates ac side current and dc side droop voltage. It also limits the current if ac or dc side is short. An design procedure is developed to optimize the efficiency of this interface converter. Different bidirectional 2-level and 3-level topologies with state of the art IGBTs and SiC MOSFETs are compared. The choice of switching frequency, inductor current ripple and passive components are optimized for each candidate. Grid interconnecting standards are used as the design requirements. The result shows the 2-level full-bridge topology with paralleled SiC MOSFETs has the highest efficiency. The 3-level T-type topology with hybrid devices (IGBTs and SiC MOSFETs) has a good trade-off between efficiency and passive volumes.1/12/2016 18:58:00
61VV2015Mackay, L.; Hailu, T.; Ramirez-Elizondo, L.; Bauer, P.Towards a DC distribution system - opportunities and challenges2015 IEEE First International Conference on DC Microgrids (ICDCM)The increasing amount of distributed energy resources requires significant changes to today's power systems. Most of the distributed resources are dc inherently or have a dc link. Therefore, connecting them with a dc distribution system seems beneficial. This paper presents the opportunities and challenges of dc distribution systems, starting with the requirements of future power systems. It will be looked at how dc can fulfill them with meshed grid architectures, increased system availability and new market models. New protection strategies for large dc distribution systems and their open research questions are discussed.1/12/2016 19:11:00
64VV2015Emerson Network Power400V DC Resource Centerhttp://www.emersonnetworkpower.com/fr-EMEA/Brands/Netsure/ensys-400v-dc/Pages/resource-center.aspx1/12/2016 21:16:00
66VV2016BusinessWirePhilips Unveils First Lighting Installation That Leverages Power over Ethernet on Major University Campus as Part of Clemson University’s Watt Family Innovation Center | Business Wirehttp://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20160121005196/en/Philips-Unveils-Lighting-Installation-Leverages-Power-Ethernet1/22/2016 17:57:00
67VV2015Yeager, K.DC Microgrid Performance Excellence in Electricity Renewal2015 IEEE First International Conference on DC Microgrids (ICDCM)DC Microgrid Performance Excellence in Electricity Renewal is a major stimulating result of the decade-long non-profit Galvin Electricity Initiative and its objective of demonstrating and promoting truly intelligent 21st Century “Perfect Power” electricity distribution systems. The resulting Performance Excellence in Electricity Renewal (PEER) program with DC Microgrid certification is now being formally administered by the Green Building Certification Institute (GBCI). The PEER program equips all electricity stakeholders with key performance capabilities, outcomes, metrics, and examples of DC Microgrid best practices. The PEER program at GBCI is also now providing a Webinar series to train PEER professionals and educate customers, stakeholders and policy makers to best universal advantage.1/22/2016 21:08:00
71VV2015Boeke, U.Deliverable: D 4.5.1. Demonstration of Industrial Applicationhttp://dcgrid.tue.nl/files/D4_5_1_Demonstration_of_Industrial_Application_v1.0.pdf1/26/2016 23:26:00
73VV2015Ravula, S.Direct Current Based Power Distribution Architectures for Commercial Buildingshttp://www.energy.ca.gov/research/epic/documents/2015-12-03_symposium/presentations/Session_1A_4_Sharmila_Ravula_Robert_Bosch.pdf1/28/2016 0:12:00
77VV2015nuLEDsNuleds - Led Lightinghttp://www.nuleds.com/2/3/2016 18:13:00
78VV2016Ode, MarkNot Your Average DC | EC Maghttp://www.ecmag.com/section/not-your-average-dc2/4/2016 0:16:00
80VV2016IGORPower Over Ethernet Lighting | POE Lighting ControlIGORhttp://www.igor-tech.com/Our unique Power Over Ethernet Lighting Platform gives you intelligent control over your building's entire lighting system with drastic energy savings.2/28/2016 19:03:00
81VV2015IET StandardsCode of Practice for Low and Extra Low Voltage Direct Current Power Distribution in Buildingshttp://www.theiet.org/resources/standards/lvdc-cop.cfm2/3/2016 19:03:00
83VV2015Innovative LightingPoE LED LightingGENISYS PoE Lighting Systemshttp://www.innovativelight.com/commercial-industrial-led-lighting/poe-led-lighting/Power over Ethernet (PoE) has several advantages over traditional high power systems presently used in buildings.2/28/2016 19:01:00
85VV2015Makdessian, Alec; Huynh, ThongPoE technology for LED lighting delivers benefits beyond efficiency (MAGAZINE)http://www.ledsmagazine.com/articles/print/volume-12/issue-8/features/dc-grid/poe-technology-for-led-lighting-delivers-benefits-beyond-efficiency.htmlAlthough the energy efficiency of solid-state lighting has been documented, the most efficient way to power the lighting has been the subject of debate. Alec Makdessian and Thong Huynh describe how Power over Ethernet (PoE) technology brings networking and control advantages to LED lighting systems that AC mains power cannot provide.2/28/2016 18:52:00
86VV2016ADC Energy, Inc.ADC Energy, Inc.http://www.adcenergy.org/2/3/2016 18:40:00
88VV2015LUXCan power over Ethernet transform how we control lights in the workplace?http://www.luxreview.com/article/2015/06/when-power-meets-intelligencePower over Ethernet puts control and power for LED lighting on the same cables, making it much easier to create smart, efficient buildings. Robert Bain investigates2/28/2016 19:12:00
89VV2016PhilipsLuxSpace PoEPhilips Lightinghttp://www.lighting.philips.com/main/prof/indoor-luminaires/downlights/luxspace/luxspace-poeLuxSpace PoE LuxSpace Downlights | Philips Lighting2/28/2016 19:00:00
90VV2015NFPANFPA 850: Recommended Practice for Fire Protection for Electric Generating Plants and High Voltage Direct Current Converter Stationshttp://www.nfpa.org/codes-and-standards/document-information-pages?mode=code&code=8502/4/2016 0:32:00
91VV2016BrocadeBrocadeBrocadehttp://www.brocade.com/en.htmlBrocade networking solutions help the world's leading organizations transition smoothly to a world where applications and information reside anywhere.2/28/2016 19:20:00
92VV2016Cisco BlogsCisco UPoE Powers Cutting Edge Retail Experience At The Dandy Labblogs@Cisco - Cisco Blogshttp://blogs.cisco.com/enterprise/cisco-upoe-powers-cutting-edge-retail-experience-at-the-dandy-lab2/28/2016 20:02:00
94VV2016Centre for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research (ZSW)Number of Electric Cars Worldwide Climbs to 1.3 Millionhttp://www.zsw-bw.de/uploads/media/pr05-2016-ZSW-DataE-Mobility.pdf3/14/2016 18:38:00
95VV2015Asmus, Peter; Elberg, RichelleDirect Current Distribution Networkshttps://www.navigantresearch.com/wp-assets/brochures/DCDN-15-Executive-Summary.pdfThe market for direct current (DC) distribution networks is not a single, cohesive market. Rather, it encompasses several disparate opportunities—telecommunications towers, data centers, grid-tied ...3/14/2016 18:44:00
98VV2016Ethernet Alliance2016 Ethernet Roadmaphttp://www.ethernetalliance.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Ethernet-Roadmap-2sides-29Feb.pdf3/21/2016 22:18:00
99VV2016Wills, R.DC Microgrids Gain Popularity in Commercial Buildingsei, The Magazine of the Electroindustryhttp://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NEMA/g59228_nema_mar16/#/18Digital Edition3/22/2016 1:01:00
100VV2015VicorBCM® Bus Converterhttp://www.vicorpower.com/documents/datasheets/ds-BCM380P475T1K2A30.pdf3/22/2016 22:53:00
105VV2015Cho, J.; Kim, J-H; Chae, W.; Lee, H.; Kim, J.Design and Construction of Korean LVDC Distribution System for Supplying DC Power to CustomerCIRED 2015http://cired.net/publications/cired2015/papers/CIRED2015_0604_final.pdf4/15/2016 17:28:00
107VV2015Maly Lisy, S.; Smrekar, M.Three Case Studies of Commercial Deployment of 400V DC Data and Telecom Centers in the EMEA Regionhttp://www.emergealliance.org/portals/0/documents/events/intelec/TS01-2.pdf4/15/2016 17:53:00
111VV2015Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation SecretariatAPEC Smart DC Community Power Opportunity Assessment4/15/2016 20:17:00
114VV2015Aarstad, Cassidy; Kean, Andrew; TaufikArc Fault Circuit Interrupter Development for Residential DC Electricity4/15/2016 21:15:00
116VV2015Pande, A.; Goebes, M.; Barkland, S.Residential ZNE Market Characterizationhttp://calmac.org/publications/TRC_Res_ZNE_MC_Final_Report_CALMAC_PGE0351.01.pdf4/15/2016 21:32:00
117VV2015Hardesty, L.Direct Current Powers BuildingEnergy Manager Todayhttp://www.energymanagertoday.com/direct-current-powers-building-0114185/Adolfson & Peterson Construction is beginning Phase I of a project to redevelop the city of Fort Collins, Colorado’s municipal services complex. The first project is the erection of a new 3-story, 37,500-sq-foot Utilities Administration Building that will rely on Direct Current Power, as opposed to traditional Alternating Current. This will make the building unique ...Continue Reading4/15/2016 21:36:00
120VV2016ARDA PowerBurlington DC Microgrid Project ConfigurationARDA Powerhttp://www.ardapower.com/configuration.htmlThe Burlington DC Microgrid will contain solar and gas generation, a flow battery, and uninterruptible DC and AC loads, and will be connected to the AC grid with both islanding and grid interactive capabilities.4/19/2016 19:02:00
121VV2016ARDA PowerARDA Battery DC-DC ConverterARDA Powerhttp://www.ardapower.com/battery-dc-dc-converter.html4/19/2016 19:03:00
122VV2016Olk, Harald; Mundt, JulianePhotovoltaics for Productive Use Applications. A catalogue of DC-Applianceshttps://collaboration.worldbank.org/docs/DOC-207665/5/2016 22:29:00
123VV2015PhilipsPhilips shines light on opening of the office of the future – the Edge in AmsterdamPhilipshttp://www.philips.com/a-w/about/news/archive/standard/news/press/2015/20150625-Philips-shines-light-on-opening-of-the-office-of-the-future-the-Edge-in-Amsterdam.htmlThe Edge in Amsterdam is a highly sustainable building featuring a high level of intelligence thanks to the innovations and technologies it incorporates.5/6/2016 0:29:00
124VV2015BUCEADC micro-grid photovoltaic power generation efficiency simulation analysis reports (Unpublished Manuscript)5/6/2016 0:47:00
128VV2016Direct Current BVDC System Innovation and System Transitionhttp://www.directcurrent.eu/en/Direct Current BV DC System Innovation and System Transition System innovation and system transition of the current AC world to a sustainable DC world. Developing and designing innovative solutions on product and system level. We are dcifying the world! ...5/20/2016 0:58:00
130VV2015Díaz, E. R.; Su, X.; Savaghebi, M.; Vasquez, J. C.; Han, M.; Guerrero, J. M.Intelligent DC Microgrid living Laboratories - A Chinese-Danish cooperation project2015 IEEE First International Conference on DC Microgrids (ICDCM)This paper presents a research project focus on the development of future intelligent direct-current (DC) microgrids which is being deployed for highly efficient integration of distributed generation and modern electronic loads. The project is based on the collaboration between research institutes in China and Denmark, aiming to explore the different aspects of DC microgrids: design, modelling, control, coordination, communications and management. In addition, a future Living Laboratory will also be integrated into the Intelligent DC Microgrids Laboratory, which will serve as demonstration facility for low voltage direct-current (LVDC) distribution systems. Research is carried out in both Intelligent DC Microgrid Laboratories, focused on industry in China and residential applications in Denmark.6/4/2016 0:07:00
131VV2016Pantano, Stephen; May-Ostendorp, Peter; Dayem, KatherineDemand DC. Accelerating the Introduction of DC Power in the Homehttp://clasp.ngo/Resources/Resources/PublicationLibrary/2016/DemandDC6/8/2016 17:14:00
132VV2016Global LEAPThe State of the Global Off-Grid Appliance Markethttp://www.cleanenergyministerial.org/Portals/2/pdfs/Global_LEAP_The_State_of_the_Global_Off-Grid_Appliance_Market.pdfThis report was commissioned by Global Lighting and Energy Access Partnership (Global LEAP), an initiaive of the Clean Energy Ministerial, and developed in partnership with Dalberg Global Development Advisors and CLASP. Funding to support the development of this report was provided by the United States Department of Energy, which leads the Global LEAP initiative, Energising Development (EnDev), and ClimateWorks Foundation. The report contains the first-ever snapshot of the global off-grid appliance market, and includes information on key market trends in three of the most important and promising appliance categories: fans, televisions, and refrigerators. The report presents a data-driven analysis of the current and potential scale of the global off-grid appliance market, as well as a discussion of barriers to the development of this market. It draws on input provided by a wide range of market stakeholders, from manufacturers and industry representatives to technical experts, policymakers, and other researchers.6/9/2016 17:28:00
133VV2015Madduri, AchintyaA Scalable DC Microgrid Architecture for Rural Electrification in Emerging Regionshttp://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/2015/EECS-2015-240.html6/9/2016 18:28:00
138VV2016Direct Current BVDC in utility building becomes realityhttp://www.directcurrent.eu/en/news/news-archive/82-dc-in-utility-building-becomes-realityDC in utility building becomes reality Aalsmeer, March 22, 2016 Direct Current BV has started with the engineering and realization of DC nets in utility building. Examples include the Pulse building at the Delft University of Technology designed by Valstar Simonis and the ABN AMRO Pavilion at the ...7/18/2016 21:03:00
139VV2016DKEGERMAN STANDARDIZATION ROADMAP: Low Voltage DC, Version 1New and innovative applications in the field of energy supply and electromobility require the development of a constant stream of new solutions for using direct current systems. This also applies for building installations in which, for example, a DC power infrastructure could be installed in addition to the AC mains as a means of reducing losses in individual parts of the grid. And this is where the German Standardization Roadmap comes in: a collaboratively developed document that combines a description of the state of the art with guidance and requirements. The Standardization Roadmap focuses on four major areas. Following an examination of the economic and legal framework it looks at safety, protection concepts and grid structures. It continues with a closer look at system topologies and use cases, before finishing with a concluding chapter on equipment and components. The recommendations given in the individual sections are then summarized at the end. On the basis of the findings made while working on this roadmap, the bodies concerned are urged to check whether their standards already sufficiently address the needs of LVDC, and to plug any identified gaps in a timely manner.7/22/2016 20:40:00
143VV2016Cardwell, DianeA Suburban Experiment Aims for Free EnergyThe New York Timeshttp://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/04/business/energy-environment/solar-power-energy-efficient-net-zero.htmlTwenty homes in a California subdivision are testing a zero net energy goal: to make at least as much energy as they use over a year.8/24/2016 21:17:00
144VV2016Downey, KyleMicrogrids: The Future of Smarter Grid Design and Energy Stability - Law Street (TM)Law Street (TM)http://lawstreetmedia.com/issues/energy-and-environment/microgrids-smarter-grid-energy-stability/Microgrids are small energy distribution centers that are localized to a specific area and they can offer a much greater efficiency and energy security.8/24/2016 21:20:00
145VV2016Reiner, Markdc Project—Alliance for Sustainable Colorado WHITE PAPER: 1http://www.sustainablecolorado.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/dc-Project-White-Paper-1.pdf8/24/2016 21:30:00
146VV2016Ehrlich, BrentThe Death and Rebirth of DC PowerBuildingGreenhttps://www.buildinggreen.com/feature/death-and-rebirth-dc-power8/24/2016 21:35:00
148VV2016IECImplementing the standardization framework to support the development of Low Voltage Direct Current and electricity access: Final report IEC Systems Evaluation Group 4 - Low Voltage Direct Current Applications, Distribution and Safety for use in Developed and Developing Economies9/27/2016 18:34:00
149VV2016Pika EnergySmart Batteries: A New Standard in Distributed Storage10/7/2016 21:26:00
153VV2016Brenguier, J.; Vallet, M.; VAILLANT, F.Efficiency gap between AC and DC electrical power distribution system2016 IEEE/IAS 52nd Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Technical Conference (I CPS)This paper analyzes the average efficiency gap in a building final electrical distribution system when loads and multiple sources are either linked by an AC distribution bus or a DC distribution bus. This paper shows that the gap is rather small to be a good enough reason for adopting AC or DC for low voltage electrical power distribution.10/7/2016 22:17:00
161VV2016Murata Power SolutionsLatest products for power solutions in industrial applicationshttp://www.murata-ps.com/data/catalogs/industrial_app_products.pdfMurata Power Solutions is a manufacturer of AC/DC power supplies and DC/DC converters. This document is the product catalog for their power supply and converter product lines.10/9/2016 20:30:00
162VV2016CUI, Inc.Power Quick Guide | CUI Inchttp://www.cui.com/catalog/resource/power-quick-guide.pdfCUI is a power supply manufacturer that makes AC/DC power supplies and DC/DC converters, as well as LED drivers. This document provides an summary listing of all their power-related products.10/9/2016 20:11:00
163VV2015Frank, Stephen M.; Rebennack, SteffenOptimal design of mixed AC–DC distribution systems for commercial buildings: A Nonconvex Generalized Benders Decomposition approachEuropean Journal of Operational Researchhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0377221714008121Direct current (DC) electricity distribution systems have been proposed as an alternative to traditional, alternating current (AC) distribution systems for commercial buildings. Partial replacement of AC distribution with DC distribution can improve service to DC loads and overall building energy efficiency. This article develops (i) a mixed-integer, nonlinear, nonconvex mathematical programming problem to determine maximally energy efficient designs for mixed AC–DC electricity distribution systems in commercial buildings, and (ii) describes a tailored global optimization algorithm based on Nonconvex Generalized Benders Decomposition. The results of three case studies demonstrate the strength of the decomposition approach compared to state-of-the-art general-purpose global solvers.10/10/2016 17:07:00
165VV2011Uesugi, TakehiroQuantitative Simulation of energy saving impacts through DC power supply at residential sector10/18/2016 22:54:00
166VV2016Wright, MauryEaton demonstrates distributed DC power for LED lighting at LFILEDs Magazinehttp://www.ledsmagazine.com/articles/2016/05/eaton-demonstrates-distributed-dc-power-for-led-lighting-at-lfi.htmlA Distributed Low Voltage Power architecture that carries power and control to LED luminaires is a new initiative for Eaton and the company will seek to standardize the approach.10/23/2016 12:26:00
167VVEatonEaton Highlights Broad Array of Connected Lighting Capabilities at LIGHTFAIR 2016http://www.eaton.com/Eaton/OurCompany/NewsEvents/NewsReleases/PCT_193071310/23/2016 12:27:00
168VV2014LennoxSunsource Home Energy Systemhttp://resources.lennox.com/FileUploads/SunSource_Home_Energy_System.pdfDescribes the Lennox Sunsource system that allows direct distribution of PV power to an HVAC system. Note this is not a direct DC system because it uses solar modules with microinverters.11/1/2016 17:31:00
169VV2016Glasgo, Brock; Azevedo, Inês Lima; Hendrickson, ChrisHow much electricity can we save by using direct current circuits in homes? Understanding the potential for electricity savings and assessing feasibility of a transition towards DC powered buildingsApplied Energyhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306261916309771Advances in semiconductor-based power electronics and growing direct current loads in buildings have led researchers to reconsider whether buildings should be wired with DC circuits to reduce power conversions and facilitate a transition to efficient DC appliances. The feasibility, energy savings, and economics of such systems have been assessed and proven in data centers and commercial buildings, but the outcomes are still uncertain for the residential sector. In this work, we assess the technical and economic feasibility of DC circuits using data for 120 traditionally-wired AC homes in Austin, Texas to understand the effect of highly variable demand profiles on DC-powered residences, using appliance-level use and solar generation data, and performing a Monte Carlo simulation to quantify costs and benefits. Results show site energy savings between 9% and 20% when solar PV is distributed to all home appliances. When battery storage for excess solar energy is considered, these savings increase to 14–25%. At present DC equipment prices, converting all equipment to DC causes levelized annual costs of electricity to homeowners to roughly double. However, by converting only homes’ air conditioning condensing units to DC, the costs of direct-DC are greatly reduced and home site energy savings of 7–16% are generated. In addition to quantifying savings, we find major nontechnical barriers to implementing direct-DC in homes. These include a lack of standards for such systems, a relatively small market for DC appliances and components, utility programs designed for AC power, and a workforce unfamiliar with DC. Experience with DC is growing in other sectors, and with time this will be transitioned to a broader audience of engineers, electricians, and building inspectors to ensure that not only are the systems themselves safe, but that the image of direct current circuits becomes less foreign over time. Direct current may very well have a place in the residential sector, and research and development should continue to explore other potential benefits that might make a stronger case for a more widespread transition to what now appears a promising technology.11/9/2016 0:04:00
170VV2017Cacciato, M.; Nobile, G.; Scarcella, G.; Scelba, G.Real-Time Model-Based Estimation of SOC and SOH for Energy Storage SystemsIEEE Transactions on Power ElectronicsTo obtain a full exploitation of battery potential in energy storage applications, an accurate modeling of electrochemical batteries is needed. In real terms, an accurate knowledge of state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) of the battery pack is needed to allow a precise design of the control algorithms for energy storage systems (ESSs). Initially, a review of effective methods for SOC and SOH assessment has been performed with the aim to analyze pros and cons of standard methods. Then, as the tradeoff between accuracy and complexity of the model is the major concern, a novel technique for SOC and SOH estimation has been proposed. It is based on the development of a battery circuit model and on a procedure for setting the model parameters. Such a procedure performs a real-time comparison between measured and calculated values of the battery voltage while a PI-based observer is used to provide the SOC and SOH actual values. This ensures a good accuracy in a wide range of operating conditions. Moreover, a simple start-up identification process is required based on battery data-sheet exploitation. Because of the low computational burden of the whole algorithm, it can be easily implemented in low-cost control units. An experimental comparison between SOC and SOH estimation performed by suggested and standard methods is able to confirm the consistency of the proposed approach.11/11/2016 21:04:00
171VV2016Wright, MauryLow-voltage scheme trivializes installation of LED lighting and supports controls (MAGAZINE)LEDs Magazinehttp://www.ledsmagazine.com/articles/print/volume-13/issue-8/features/dc-power/low-voltage-scheme-trivializes-installation-of-led-lighting-and-supports-controls.htmlThe first commercial installation of a new distributed low-voltage power platform for SSL delivers unprecedented ease of installation and excellent integration of lighting controls, reports Maury Wright, and the scheme should also deliver added efficiency due to centralized power conversion.11/17/2016 2:11:00
172VVPV-TechIndian PV projects suffering from poor selection of DC cablesPV-Techhttp://www.pv-tech.org/news/multiple-indian-pv-projects-suffering-from-poor-selection-of-dc-cablesMany Indian solar PV projects are performing poorly because intense pressure to reduce costs is leading to developers and contractors selecting poor quality components with sub-optimal designs, according to consultancy firm Bridge to India.11/22/2016 22:42:00
173VVZimmerman, Scott; Liesay, William; Evans, WilliamDC-powered modular SSL delivers efficiency and flexibilityLEDs Magazinehttp://www.ledsmagazine.com/articles/print/volume-13/issue-6/features/dc-modular-lighting/dc-powered-modular-ssl-delivers-efficiency-and-flexibility.html11/21/2016 22:17:00
174VV2013Hirose, Keiichi; Reilly, J. T.; Irie, H.The sendai microgrid operational experience in the aftermath of the tohoku earthquake: a case studyhttps://www.smart-japan.org/english/vcms_cf/files/The_Operational_Experience_of_Sendai_Microgrid_in_the_Aftermath_of_the_Devastating_Earthquake_A_Case_Study.pdf12/16/2016 20:55:00
175VV2015Hummel, Michael; Grant, Galen; Benton, Byron; Kuetter Desmond, KimWorking ExampleHigh Performance Buildingshttp://www.hpbmagazine.org/attachments/article/12211/15Su-Zero-Net-Energy-Center-San-Leandro-CA.pdf12/16/2016 23:15:00
176VVPreparedness.comPortable Power Centershttp://preparedness.com/powercenters.htmlThese are some existing products on the market that provide solar input, storage, and DC power output.12/19/2016 6:03:00
177VVUniversity of ArkansasNSF Grant Will Help Researchers Change Power for Data Centers from AC to DCUniversity of Arkansas Newshttp://news.uark.edu/articles/33784Electrical engineering researchers at the University of Arkansas' Center for Grid-Connected Advanced Power Electronics Systems, or GRAPES, have received $300,000 to help convert U.S. data centers from AC to DC power.12/19/2016 20:56:00
178VV2014Grillo, S.; Musolino, V.; Piegari, L.; Tironi, E.; Tornelli, C.DC Islands in AC Smart GridsIEEE Transactions on Power ElectronicsThe advantages arising from dc distribution networks are related to the possibilities of achieving higher quality supply and easier reconfigurability of the system. This paper presents the concept of introducing some dc islands interconnected with the ac distribution network. This will make it easier to connect storage systems, electrical drives, power converters, and renewable sources (i.e., photovoltaic panels). In order to realize the aforementioned goals, a methodology for designing the control strategy of different power converters connected to a dc bus without a centralized system management control unit is proposed. In this way, a plug-and-play functionality for connecting new power converter interfaced elements in the dc network able to stabilize the voltage under different working conditions is realized. In order to prove the advantages obtainable with such a network, a 100-kW dc test facility has been realized at the laboratories of RSE. Different working conditions were tested by means both of numerical and experimental results, proving the effectiveness of the proposed strategy for voltage regulation, continuity of service, and the smart use of storage devices.12/21/2016 18:27:00
179VV2014Locment, F.; Sechilariu, M.DC microgrid for future electric vehicle charging station designed by Energetic Macroscopic Representation and Maximum Control Structure2014 IEEE International Energy Conference (ENERGYCON)This paper presents an urban DC microgrid based on photovoltaic which allows to charge the plug-in electric vehicles and to supply a DC load. Taking into account the public grid connection, the applied local control aims to extract maximum power from photovoltaic sources and manages the power flow with respect to electric vehicles state of charge and the DC load power demand. The urban DC microgrid is modeled by using Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) and Maximum Control Structure (MCS). The simulation results for ensuring the maximal utilization of produced electricity, under different conditions, show the validity of the model and the feasibility of the proposed system design.12/21/2016 18:29:00
180VV2013Justo, Jackson John; Mwasilu, Francis; Lee, Ju; Jung, Jin-WooAC-microgrids versus DC-microgrids with distributed energy resources: A reviewRenewable and Sustainable Energy Reviewshttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032113002268This paper presents the latest comprehensive literature review of AC and DC microgrid (MG) systems in connection with distributed generation (DG) units using renewable energy sources (RESs), energy storage systems (ESS) and loads. A survey on the alternative DG units' configurations in the low voltage AC (LVAC) and DC (LVDC) distribution networks with several applications of microgrid systems in the viewpoint of the current and the future consumer equipments energy market is extensively discussed. Based on the economical, technical and environmental benefits of the renewable energy related DG units, a thorough comparison between the two types of microgrid systems is provided. The paper also investigates the feasibility, control and energy management strategies of the two microgrid systems relying on the most current research works. Finally, the generalized relay tripping currents are derived and the protection strategies in microgrid systems are addressed in detail. From this literature survey, it can be revealed that the AC and DC microgrid systems with multiconverter devices are intrinsically potential for the future energy systems to achieve reliability, efficiency and quality power supply.12/21/2016 18:31:00
181VVUniversity of PittsburgDC HEARThttp://dcpower.pitt.edu/12/21/2016 18:36:00
182VVNortherntool.comGPI GPRO 12 Volt Commercial Grade Fuel Transfer Pumphttp://www.northerntool.com/shop/tools/product_200665169_200665169DC fuel pump12/21/2016 18:37:00
183VVAmbiboxAmbibox. Technical Informationhttps://www.ambibox.de/downloads/ambibox_techinfo.pdf1/3/2017 18:47:00