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ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZAA
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WALS
TonuaoChineseJapaneseKoreanVietnameseNote
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HeadedSecond to lastmixedFinalFinalInitial
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Adjective-VerbStative Verbs
Distinct (but copula omission)
Stative verbsStative verbsStative defective verbs
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TypologyAnalyticAnalyticAgglutinativeAgglutinativeAnalytic
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HonorificsSimple affixeslexical titlesYes!Yes!!!!!Yes (fusional)
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Topic-CommentTopic-ProminentTopic-ProminentTopic-ProminentTopic-ProminentTopic possible
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IsochronySyllableSyllableMoraSyllableWord
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Pro-dropYesMostly YesYesYes
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Noun-VerbDistinct
Indistinct / zero derivation
DistinctDistinctDistinct
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P T K B D G5not distinguishedOther gapsno gapsother gapsother gaps
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Voiced Consonants Contrast
4NoneFricatives aloneFricatives and PlosivesNoneFricatives alone
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Tone13No4+Pitch accentNosix
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Syllable Accent14
higher pitch for first syllable
Underlies Tokyo pitch accent
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Morpheme Fusion20concatenative
isolating and concatenative
Exclusively concatenative
Exclusively concatenative
Exclusively isolating
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Noun morpheme complexity
21A
oneoneoneonezero
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Verb morpheme complexity
21B
oneoneoneoneone
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Maximal Verb categories22nonenone4ish6ishnone
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Marking in clauses, NPs, and whole language23, 24, 25Adependentdependentdependentdependentnone
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A and P marking
25B
non-zeronon-zeronon-zeronon-zerozero
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Inflections go:26suffixingsuffixingsuffixingsuffixingnot much
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Uses reduplication27full and partialfull and partialfull onlyfull and partialfull and partial
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Case28nonononono
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Verbal person/number
29nonononono
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Plurals33suffixingsuffix/nonesuffixsuffixsuppletion
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Plurals optional?34
optional, only on humans
optional, only on humans
optional, only on humans
optional, only on humans
optional for all nouns
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Plurals pronouns35
person stem + nominal plural affix
Person stem + nominal plural affixPerson stem + nominal plural affixPerson-number stem + nominal plural affixPerson stem + pronominal plural affix
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Associative Plural36same as additive?periphrasticsame as additivesame as additivenone
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Articles37indefinite?only indefiniteonly indefiniteperiphrastic indefiniteboth
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Clusivity39no?Yesnonokinda
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Deixis41Three-wayTwo-wayThree-wayThree wayThree way defective
2.5?? CC 此 (this), distal 彼 (that), and distance-neutral 是
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Demonstratives42
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Gender44PronounsPronounsPronounsNoPronounsneeds generic/genderless 3rd person
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Pronoun politness45dropbinary formsdropdropdrop
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Indefinite pronoun46interrogativemixedinterrogativeinterrogativeinterrogative
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Reflexive = intense47yesyesyesyesyes
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Cases distinguished494?no87no
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Cases on phrases50yes?noyesyesno
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Markers51Postpositionnot exactlyPostpositionsPostpositionsnot exactly
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Distributive numbals54suffix?nosuffixingsuffixingno
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Classifier55YesYesYesYesYes
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Genitive/Adj/Rel. Clause
60Fully collapse?weakly differentiatedSome morphological differencehighly differentiated
Adjectives and relative clauses collapsed
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Lone adjectives61marked on next?marked on next worddepends on conjugation classmarked on next word
marked on previous word
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Action Nominal Clause
62Forbid?nodouble possessivesentientialpossessive accusative
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And=With?63no?yes
yes, but syntactically differentiated
nono
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Noun-And=Verb-And?64nonononoyes
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Tense-Aspect goes69suffix?suffix and prefixsuffixingsuffixingprefix
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Special Prohibative71yesyesyesyesyes
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Possibility74verbal construction
verbal construction
verbal affixotherverbal construction
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Word order81SVO / V(-2)SVOSOVSOVSVO
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Subject Verb82SVSVSVSVSV
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Object Verb83VOVOOVOVVO
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Object Oblique Verb84XVOXVO / VOXXOVXOVVOX
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Adposition (cp. 51)85postpositionsnot exactlyPostpositionsPostpositionsnot exactly
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Genitive vs noun86Genitive-NounGenitive-NounGenitive-NounGenitive-NounNoun-Genitive
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Adjective-Noun87Adjective-Noun!!!Adjective-NounAdjective-NounAdjective-NounNoun-Adjective
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Demonstrative-Noun88Demonstrative-Noun
Demonstrative-Noun
Demonstrative-Noun
Demonstrative-Noun
Noun-Demonstrative
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Numeral-Noun89Numeral-NounNumeral-NounNumeral-NounNumeral-NounNumeral-Noun
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Relative Clause-Noun90
Relative Clause-Noun
Relative Clause-Noun
Relative Clause-Noun
Relative Clause-Noun
Noun-Relative Clause
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Polar Question Particle
92Final!FinalFinalnoneFinal
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Wh-word in situ93yesyesyesyesyes
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Adverbial Subordinator and Clause
94final?mixedfinalfinalinitial
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Object adposition95mixed?mixedOV and postOV and postVO and pre
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VO RC Noun96VO-RC-NVO-RC-NOV-RC-NOV-RC-NVO-N-RC
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VO Adj Noun97VO-Adj-NVO-Adj-NOV-Adj-NOV-Adj-NVO-N-Adj
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Morphosyntax98, 99soft N-AneutralN-AN-Aneutral
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Ditransitives105indirect-directmixedindirect-directindirect-directdouble object
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Interrogative116ParticlesParticleParticleVerb morphologyParticle
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Possession117TopicLocationLocationTopic
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Linguistic Universals (Greenberg's)
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"If the nominal object always precedes the verb, then verb forms subordinate to the main verb also precede it."
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"When the descriptive adjective precedes the noun, the demonstrative and the numeral, with overwhelmingly more than chance frequency, do likewise."
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"When any or all of the items (demonstrative, numeral, and descriptive adjective) precede the noun, they are always found in that order.
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