Operation Groundbreaker
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Criostóir Nuinseann
Came from a Norman family based in Delvin, Co. Westmeath. Educated in Clare Hall, Cambridge. Met Queen Elizabeth I as she paid a visit to Clare Hall. Upon being made aware of the Queen's professed interest in learning Irish, Nugent later presented her with an Irish/Latin/English phrasebook (which he authored) in 1564. This is thought to have been the first serious attempt to explain the Irish language to someone from outside the Irish-speaking world. Distinguishedefence of the Pale during the war against Shane O'Neill, and commanded government forces in his native county. Knighted for such services in 1566. During the Nine Years War (which lasted from 1594 to 1603) against Hugh O'Neill, he served as a military commander for the Crown in the Irish midlands. His duties included intelligence gathering; this entailed, appropriately for Nugent's skills, translating O'Neill's Irish-language correspondence into English. Allegations were made that he secretly collaborated with O'Neill (or at least refused to oppose him); but it must be noted that he was commissioned to contact O'Neill by the Earl of Ormond, one of the Crown's most senior supporters in Ireland. Between 1599 and 1600, however, Nugent's lands proved indefensible and he surrendered to the enemy. This, along with his loyalty to the Catholic religion and his bilingualism (a trait which engendered mistrust towards Irishmen in the English service), was enough to prove disloyalty on his part in the eyes of his rivals in the Crown service. Nugent was thus roundly discredited, arrested in 1602 and died in the same year before any trial for treason was convened against him. Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ef/Elizabeth_I%27s_primer_on_Irish.jpgNugent's "A Primer of the Irish Language, compiled at the request and for the use of Queen Elizabeth."By Sir Christopher Nugent, 9th Baron of Delvin, d. 1602 Uploaded by Rannpháirtí anaithnid at en.wikipedia [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons53.6106,-7.0925Casey (2016)
Fláithrí Ó Maol Chonaire
Joined the Franciscans in Spain. Translated a catechism from Spanish into Irish in 1593. This is considered the first formal attempt by the Catholic Church to oppose the spread of Protestantism in Ireland. Accompanied Don Juan de Águila on his attempted invasion of Ireland in 1601. Appointed Archbishop of Tuam in 1609. His most famous work in Irish " EMANUEL Leabhar ina bhfuil modh iarrata agus fhaghala fhoirbhtheachda na beathadh riaghaltha ar attugadh drong airighthe Sgáthan an Chrábhaidh drong oile Desiderius" was published by the Irish Franciscans in St. Anthony's College, Leuven (in modern-day Belgium) in 1616. Associated with Irish exiles who wished to send a Spanish army to Ireland. Played a key role in the decisions concerning the appointment and promotion of officers in the Spanish army's Irish regiment, and in planning future Spanish-based military invasions of Ireland.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7e/Lives_of_Irish_Martyrs_and_Confessors_%281880%29_%2814801140703%29.jpgPortrait of Flaithrí Ó MaolchonaireBy Myles O'Reilly [No restrictions], via Wikimedia Commons50.883333,4.7
Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011); Donovan (1913); Mac Craith (2009); Ó Fiaich (1971)
Eoghan Rua Mac an Bhaird
Born in Kilbarron, Co. Donegal into a family who were the hereditary filí of the O'Donnell clan of Donegal. Followed its leadership to Spain in 1607. A prolific poet, having composed works in praise of the O'Donnell's. Spent a great deal of time in Flanders. Received a pension of 30 escudos a month from the Spanish King. Engaged in unspecified activities for the Spanish army. Translated a book of military tactics into Irish, called ‘leabhar ar riaghlachaibh et ar inneall an chogaidh’.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8e/Velazquez-The_Surrender_of_Breda.jpgThe Surrender of Breda depicting one of the Spanish army's greatest victories.Diego Velázquez [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons51,4.5Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011)
Aodh Mac Aingil1572AD
Real name Aodh Mac Cathmhaoil. Educated at a bardic school on the Isle of Man. Employed by Hugh O'Neill as a tutor for his sons. Went to Spain, accepted in to the Franciscan Order in 1603, ordained in 1605 and made a Spanish army chaplain on the 23rd of December of same year. Remained in this post for a lengthy period. Founded St. Anthony's College, Leuven along with Flaithrí Ó Maolchonaire. Nicknamed 'Mac Aingil' (son of an angel) whilst there, and became a distinguished theologian. Published 'Scáthán shacramuinte na haithridhe' (his only work in Irish) in 1618.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b3/Aodh_McAingil_MacCathmhaoil.pngPortrait of Aodh Mac AingilBy unknown artist [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons54.25, -4.5Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011)
Brian Mac Giolla Coinnigh1582AD
Thought to have been born somewhere in Connacht. A student in Leuven in 1621. Ordained into the Franciscans in 1622. Served as a chaplain for the Spanish army detachment commanded by Captain Somhairle Mac Domhnaill in the Netherlands c. 1623. Translator of 'Riaghal Threas Uird S. Froinsias, dá ngoirthear Ord na hAithrighe' (a Franciscan text) from the original Latin into Irish. Said to have encouraged Toirdhealbhach Ó Mealláin to write a diary of military events in Ulster during the Irish Rebellion of 1641 and the Cromwellian invasion of Ireland.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b0/Owen_Roe_O%27Neill.JPGEoghan Rua Ó Néill, AKA Owen Roe O'Neill. An Irish officer who served with distinction in both the Spanish army and the Irish Confederate army.By J.T. Gilbert [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons50.883333,4.7Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011)
Somhairle Mac Domhnaill
Related to the MacDonnells of Antrim. Fled to Spain due to fighting between said clan and the English Crown. By 1622 he was a captain of musketeers in the Spanish army. Earned distinction fighting in Bohemia (especially in a battle outside the gates of Prague in 1624). Enabled the Irish College in Leuven to copy extremely valuable items of Irish literature such as "Agallamh na Senórach", "Duanaire Finn" and "Leabhar Uí Chonchubhair Dhuinn" . Thought to have died in 1632.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/be/Defenestration-prague-1618.jpgThe Defenestration of Prague (1618), one of the events that led to the Thirty Years' War.Matthäus Merian the Elder [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons50.883333,4.7Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011)
Piaras Feiritéar
Commanded the Irish troops who successfully besieged two castles in Tralee. Built a war machine called 'the sow' which enabled soldiers to shatter walls with sledge-hammers and iron bars. Highly-praised as a poet for such works as "Mochean d’altrom an oirbheirt" and "Léig dhíot th’airm, a mhacaoimh mná". Executed by Parliamentarian forces in 1653.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/72/Caislean_an_Fheirt%C3%A9araigh1.JPGThe remains of Piaras Feiritéar's castle in Ard na Caithne, Co. Kerry.By Dáibhí Ó Bruadair (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons52.166667,-9.75Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011)
Toirdhealbhach Mac Cochláin
Member of a family of Catholic landowners based in Offaly and Westmeath. Elected MP at some point (constituency unspecified). His patronage enabled Míchél Ó Cléirigh to write "Réim Ríoghraidhe na hEreann agus Seanachas na Naomh" in 1630. Entered the Spanish army due to the confiscation of his lands, reached the rank of captain and was killed in Flanders.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/31/Annals_of_the_Four_Masters_Signature.jpgSignature page from the Annals of the Four Masters, Ó Cléirigh's signature is first in the listBy The original uploader was Derty Harry at Polish Wikipedia (University College Dublin Archives Department [1],) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons51,4.5Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011)
Event: the publication and dissemination of "Teagasc Criosdaidhe".
Giolla Brighde Ó hEodhasa, a Fermanagh-born poet, published "Teagasg Criosdaidhe", as part of the Catholic Church's Counter-Reformation campaign. It was widely used amongst Irish mercenary soldiers serving in France and the Netherlands. Ó hEodhasa was a Franciscan, a poet and a lecturer in philosophy and divinity at St. Anthony's College, Louvain (where he was also Guardian for a time). Also responsible for "Rudimenta Grammaticae Hibernicae", a four-part work (three parts Latin, one part Irish) concerning the structure of Irish poems.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ee/Tercio_piquiers.jpgSpanish army pikemen in action. This is not an Irish unit, but it is used in the entry for period authenticity.By The original uploader was Jp.negre at French Wikipedia (Transferred from fr.wikipedia to Commons.) [FAL], via Wikimedia Commons49.75, 6.166667Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011)
Séafraidh Ó Donnchadha an Ghleanna
Ó Donnchadha's family were said to run a bardic school in Killarney. He, his father and two of his brothers helped to besiege Tralee castle. He was a famous composer of poems and songs in Irish.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d7/O%27Donoghue.pngThe O'Donoghue coat of armsBy self-created (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons52.0588,-9.5072Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011)
Séamus Buí Mac Coitir
Rceived military training in Europe during the Cromwellian period. Reached the rank of lieutenant shortly after the Restoration. Took part in the assasination of the regicide ,John Lisle. Later appointed captain in the English army in the interim and posted to the West Indies, taking part in England's wars against France and Holland. Captured during an attack on French holdings on the island of St. Christopher. Later released, then appointed secretary and marshal of the Leeward Islands. Worked as a 'royal hitman', targeting exiled Cromwellians, such as John Lisle, who were linked to the execution of Charles I. Appointed deputy-governor, then governor, of Montserrat; later fought at the battle of Sedgemoor, and was knighted. Appointed Sheriff of Cork, and later made lieutenant-colonel in the regiment of Lord Clancarty. Later elected MP for Cork City and fought at the battle of Newtownbutler. Appointed governor of Cork subsequently, and appointed commander of all Jacobite forces in West Munster. Under the terms of the Treaty of Limerick, it was confirmed that Mac Coitir could keep his lands. This was due to testimony by Cork Protestants that he behaved in a humane manner towards them. In the traditional manner of a Gaelic chieftain, he was a generous patron of Gaelic learning and an anthology was composed in his honour.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/94/Death_warrant_of_Charles_I.jpgThe death warrant of King Charles I and the wax seals of the 59 commissioners.See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons46.519833,6.6335Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011); Morley (2009); Raithby (1819)
Toirdhealbhach Óg Mac Donnchadha
MP for Sligo in 1689. A captain in Dillon's Regiment of King James' army. Commander of the Ballymote garrison before becoming a prisoner in Enniskillen in May of the same year, but later escaped. He was a poet, as well as being the patron of poets and storytellers.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/01/Ballymote_Castle_-_geograph.org.uk_-_1480337.jpgBallymote Castle (presumably the one associated with Mac Donnchadha).Stephen Armstrong [CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons54.0896,-8.5167Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011)
Event: the authorship of Cinn Lae Uí Mhealláin.
A Franciscan friar who served as a chaplain in the forces of Féilim Ó Néill during the Irish Rebellion of 1641 and the Cromwellian invasion of Ireland. Kept a diary in Irish of military matters in Ulster from a Confederate (Catholic) perspective during the years specified in this entry. The diary was entitled "Cinn Lae Uí Mhealláin". Ó Mealláin was thought to have done so at the instruction of Brian Mac Giolla Coinnigh. His actual dates of birth and death are unspecified, so the dates in which he was active are used for this entry.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e8/Sir_Phelim_O%E2%80%99Neill.pngFéilim Ó Néill (under whose command Ó Mealláin served).By English School (National Portrait Gallery) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons54.4119,-6.7459Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011)
Thaddeus O'Rourke
Joined the Franciscan order on the Continent c. 1674. Following the death in battle of a relative who was an officer in the army of the Holy Roman Empire, O'Rourke was appointed chaplain and private secretary to Prince Eugene of Savoy, the commander of that force. O'Rourke was awarded a gold cross and a diamond ring for his service. Although he was a Catholic clergyman, he was able to return to Ireland due to written testimonies from the Prince. Elevated to the rank of bishop of Killala. A change in the nature of the Anglo-Austrian relationship led to stricter enforcement of the anti-Catholic Penal Laws, however, and O'Rourke had to go into hiding. Whilst doing so, he was a tutor to his relative, Charles O'Conor of Bellanagare, a future Gaelic scholar who would earn fame as a writer and antiquarian.Wikimedia Commons
The Duke of Marlborough greeting Prince Eugene of Savoy after their victory at Blenheim, Oil on canvasBy Robert Alexander Hillingford [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons48.2,16.35Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011); Conlan (2009)
Brian Mag Uidhir
Had been an officer in the Jacobite army, but resigned due to objection to their treatment of Williamite prisoners following the siege of Crom. A great patron of Gaelic literature, and invited many writers and scribes to his home in Knockninny, Co. Fermanagh.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8c/Crom_Old_Castle_-_geograph.org.uk_-_167807.jpgA part of the old castle at Crom.DM McAtamney [CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons54.16595,-7.4465Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011)
Liam an Dúna Mac Cairteáin
As a soldier in the cavalry regiment of Cormac Mac Cárthaigh Spáinneach (Charles Mac Carthy), Mac Cairteáin participated in the ambush of a Williamite detachment in Carrignavar. Strongly associated with the Blarney Cúirt Éigse (court of poetry). Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2e/Jacobite_Standard_%281745%29.svgEmblem of Jacobitism.Celtus at en.wikipedia [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons51.989,-8.477Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011)
Aodh Buí Mac Cruitín
Worked as a poet and antiquarian. Born in Clare, and came from a family which had been chief historians to the O'Brien clan. Spent some time in Dublin. Moved to Leuven in 1728, where he published ' The elements of the Irish language grammatically explained in English'. Later that same year (at age 48), he enlisted in Clare's Regiment of the Irish Brigade in Flanders. He composed a poem during his tour of duty predicting a war against the English, and left the army in 1729. Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d7/Clare_inf_1720.pngThe uniform of Clare's Regiment during Mac Cruitín's time.Par L' empereur Charles (Travail personnel) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
52.943694, -9.375528
Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011)
John Sebright
One of only two CATTUVVIRR entries without proven Irish ancestry. However, he is included on the timeline because, having served as an officer with both the 83rd Regiment of Foot and the 52nd Regiment of Foot, he was appointed Colonel of the 18th (Royal Irish) Regiment of Foot in 1762. Also served as a Member of Parliament for Bath. He had inherited extremely valuable Irish manuscripts, and with the help of Edmund Burke (see next entry), gave them to Trinity College Dublin. Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ea/Bunker_Hill_by_Pyle.jpg
British soldiers depicted in action at the battle of Bunker Hill, Massachussetts (1775). The designation of the regiment is not given, but soldiers from the 18th (Royal Irish) Regiment of Foot were present at this battle, and Sebright held the honorary position of Colonel of the Regiment from 1762 to 1794.
Howard Pyle [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons53.3444, -6.2577Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011); Murphy (2007); O'Brien (2002)
Edmund Burke
Note: 1781 is the date the Sebright manuscripts (see previous entry) were sent to Trinity. Burke was a statesman who is typically accepted as the founder of modern conservatism. Amongst his accomplishments are (a) organising Whig support for the war against Revolutionary France, and (b) helping bringing the Sebright manuscripts (see previous entry) to the aforementioned university. The latter was due to a lifelong interest in the Irish language and its literature.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a2/EdmundBurke1771.jpgEdmund BurkeJoshua Reynolds [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons53.3444, -6.2577Heywood (2003); O'Brien (2002)
Henry Flood
Born in Kilkenny. Educated at Trinity College Dublin and Christ's College Oxford. Member of the Irish Parliament for Kilkenny and later Callan. Was a colonel in the Volunteer movement, a national militia raised to (a) defend the Irish Protestant state and (b) press for greater parliamentary reform. Flood left a sum of money in his will to Trinity College Dublin for the study of Irish. Some sources maintain that the bequest was made not only to encourage the study of Irish in Trinity, but also to promote it there. This suggests that Flood had an interest in preserving the spoken language. However, one of his descendants insists that he was only interested in studying it for antiquarian purposes, not in continuing its existence. His family went on to contest the will, and the money was never invested accordingly. Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ef/Portrait_of_Henry_Flood.jpgA portrait of Henry Flood.By Bartholomew Stoker (1763-1788) (History Ireland) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons52.6477,-7.2561
Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011); McNeill (1910); Ó Cearnaigh (1992); Ó hÉanna (2013)
Tomás Ó Gormáin
From an Irish-speaking Clare family. Qualified as a physician in Paris. Worked as a geneologist for Irish exiles in France and Spain. Joined the Regiment of Walsh of the French army's Irish Brigade; saw service on the American side during the Revolutionary War along with 200 Irish officers. Returned to Ireland after the French Revolution, and played a key role in presenting both the Book of Ballymote (which he helped to translate in France due to having learnt Ogham). Also elped initiate the study of the Book of Lecan in the Royal Irish Academy.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/af/Book_of_Ballymote_008r.jpgfol. 8r of the Book of Ballymote (AD 1390), part of the Auraicept na n-Éces, explaining the Ogham script.fol. 8r of the Book of Ballymote (AD 1390), part of the Auraicept na n-Éces, explaining the Ogham script. {{PD-art}}48.8567,2.3508Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011); Harbison (2009)
Henry Charles Sirr
Educated in Oswald's school at Dapping's Lane, Dublin. Joined the 68th Regiment of Foot. Thought to have learned Irish whilst stationed in Munster. Took part in the siege of Gibraltar in 1782. Made aide-de-camp to General George Elliot. Rose to the rank of captain. Resigned in 1792 and became a merchant. Joined the Stephen's Green Light Infantry in 1796 (eventually becoming its adjutant) due to the threat of a French invasion. Later became 'deputy town major' of Dublin during the 1798 Rebellion, and took part in the arrest of Lord Edward FitzGerald. Later commissioned a dragoon major. Helped to found the Irish Society for Promoting Scriptural Education in the Irish Language (AKA the Irish Society), becoming a friend and associate of Power Trench in the process. The Irish Society was a Protestant missionary body founded in 1818 and dedicated to spreading Biblical knowledge amongst the Irish poor. By 1849, it had published 30,000 books of devotional material. This contrasts starkly with opposing religious organisations. For instance, the Catholic Book Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge Throughout Ireland which was founded in 1827, published 5 million books within a decade exclusively in English. Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/44/The_Arrest_of_Lord_Edward_Fitzgerald_by_George_Cruikshank.jpgThe arrest of Lord Edward FitzGeraldGeorge Cruikshank [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons36.143,-5.353Blaney (1996); Kleinman (2009); Titley (2011)
Maitias Ó Conmhidhe
A well-educated Galway man who emmigrated from Ireland to Granada in 1783. A year later, he moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and enlisted for one year's service in the militia. After this he spent time trading with the indigenous peoples and learned some of their languages. Worked as a translator in New Orleans, then Cuba and later returned to Philadelphia, where he spent the rest of his life. Credited with having compiled a major English-Irish dictionary.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f7/Flag_of_Pennsylvania.svgThe flag of the Commonwealth of PennsylvaniaBy Simtropolitan, Jean-Pierre Demailly (old version) (from the xrmap flag collection 2.7) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons39.95,-75.166667Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011)
Robert Stewart
Surviving son of, and successor to, the Marquess of Londonderry. Member of the Irish Parliament for County Down. Gazetted a lieutenant-colonel in the Londonderry Militia upon the outbreak of war with France in 1793. As Chief Secretary for Ireland between 1798 and 1801, he played a key role in suppressing the uprising of the United Irishmen. Popularly known as Viscount Castlereagh, which was the courtesy title bestowed upon him as the son of an aristocrat until the death of his father. Served as British Foreign Secretary from 1812 until his suicide in 1822. During his lifetime, Castlereagh helped to set up a Gaelic society in Dublin, which was devoted to the study and translation of works in Irish.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/51/Lord_Castlereagh_Marquess_of_Londonderry.jpgLord CastlereaghThomas Lawrence [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons54.9958, -7.3074Geoghegan (2009); Ua Cearnaigh (1992)
Power La Poer Trench
Son of William Trench, 1st Earl of Clancarty, a landlord with a good reputation. Born in Sackville Street, Dublin. Educated at Harrow and at a classical school in Castlereagh. Entered the Anglican Church as a clergyman. Was a captain in his father's corps of yeomanry, which raised on their Galway estate, during the 1798 Rebellion. Subsequently led detachments of dragoons against agrarian agitators up until the 1820s. Ordained Bishop of Waterford, later the Bishop of Elphin, and was later the last Anglican Archbishop of Tuam. Was President of the Irish Society from 1818 until the end of his life. This organization was dedicated to converting Irish Catholics to the Anglican religion through the medium of their own language. For that purpose, Trench also (and unsuccessfully) tried to set up a college in Tuam in which Anglican clergymen would learn oral Irish. However, he later helped to finance a chair of Irish in Trinity College Dublin's School of Divinity. The chair was established in 1840, not long after Trench's death.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4a/Power_Le_Poer_Trench.pngPower La Poer TrenchBy Richard James Lane (engraver), after a painting by Clemintina Robertson (artist) (http://catalogue.nli.ie/Record/vtls000313227) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011); Lunney (2009)
George Augusta Hill
George Hill - who was the younger brother of Arthur Hill, the 2rd Marquess of Downshire - was first a British army officer, then elected MP for Carrickfergus and eventually became a landlord upon buying 23 acres in Gweedore, Co. Donegal. Learned Irish, and employed a tutor to have his family educated in the language. Built a school and a store on his land, both of which had Irish inscriptions on them. 1831: given a copy of Foras Feasa ar Éirinn by Aeneas MacDonnell. 1832: Dáibhí Ó Murchadha made a copy of Agallamh Oisín agus Pádraig for Hill. 1852: nine volumes of Irish manuscripts, which were in the possession of Lord Hill, were exhibited as part of the twenty-second meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in Belfast. 1902: 21 manuscripts, which helped make up Hill's personal library, were auctioned.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/20/Wellingtons33rd.jpgReenactors in the uniform of the 33rd Regiment of Foot (Wellington's Redcoats), who fought in the Napoleonic Wars between 1812 and 1816, here showing the standard line 8th Company.Wyrdlight at English Wikipedia55.03562,-7.64555Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011)
John Mitchel
A Derry-born, Down-raised journalist with strong Irish nationalist sympathies. Joined the Young Ireland movement, where his interest in the language first developed. Upon reaching America, Mitchel became an outspoken advocate of slavery. When the American Civil War broke out, he attempted to join the Confederate infantry, but due to short-sghtedness, was forced to enlist in an ambulance committee which occasionally engaged in guard duties. Whilst this unit saw action during the battles of the Wilderness and Spotsylvania (both in 1864), Mitchel was most famous as a journalist who editorialized in favour of the war effort. He also helped to support Confederate agents operating in Ireland, especially Father John Bannon, and one Captain Lalor. Imprisoned after the war for his anti-Union stance. Mitchel was a strong supporter of the Irish language, but never achieved fluency, and also wrote about Celtic languages as well as Ireland's ancient Brehon laws for an American encyclopedia 2 years before his death.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/John_Mitchel_Paris%2C_1861.JPGSee page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Dillon (1888); Quinn (2008); Ryan (1939); Uí Fhlannagáin (2008)
Seán Ó Mathúna
A founding member of the Fenian Brotherhood. Although from a Catholic family, he studied Irish at Trinity College Dublin (from whence he did not formally receive a degree). Translated Foras Feasa ar Éirinn under the title "The history of Ireland by Geoffrey Keating, D.D. translated from the original Gaelic and copiously annotated". This was later published by Patrick Haverty. Helped to raise the 99th Regiment (affiliated with the New York National Guard, and made up largely of Fenians), and was elected Colonel. However, practical command was exercised by Patrick J. Downing, a veteran of the Irish Brigade. The regiment was primarily concerned with guarding Confederate prisoners in Elmira, New York. Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4b/JohnO%27Mahony1867.jpgBy not identified [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
42.085278, -76.809167
Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011); Uí Fhlannagáin (2008)
William James Smythe
Born in Carnmoney, Co. Antrim. Military career lasted from 1830 to 1881. Attached to the Royal Artillery for most of this time. Participated in the 6th Kaffir War, and decorated accordingly. Held several important positions on the staff of the Royal Artillery Institution at Woolwich. Played a key role in arms deals with Germany and Belgium. Investigated the military academies of Russia, France, Austria and Italy on behalf of the British Empire. Served in India before his retirement from active service. Made Colonel-Commandant of the Royal Artillery and placed on the retired list at the rank of full general. 1882: patron of an organization founded in Belfast on St. Patrick's Day to promote the Irish language, literature, music and culture. Sat on the committee of the Society for the Preservation o the Irish Language, and was one of its Vice-Presidents. Helped to persuade St. Patrick's College Drumcondra to set up a professorship of Irish. Smythe left £3000 in his will to the Royal Irish Academy for the study of Irish.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/31/London%2C_Woolwich%2C_Royal_Arsenal06.jpgView of James Clavell Square in Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, South East London. In the background the Royal Artillery Museum.By Kleon3 (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons-32,27Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011); Murphy, D. (2009)
Mícheál Caomhánach
Helped to recruit for the Union army in Autumn 1861. Joined what Murphy & Quinn (2009) "the 99th New York National Guard" of the Union army during January 1864, taking part in garrison duties. Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2007) refer to it as "Regiment 99" in their biography of Seán Ó Mathúna, but use only the term "New York Volunteers" in Caomhánach's case. As a journalist, Caomhánach wrote mainly English, but translated many works from Irish to English. He, along with Fr Micheál P. Ó hIceadha, endorsed Risteard de Hindeberg as Chair of Celtic Studies in the Catholic University of America in Washington. As a member of the AOH, Caomhánach also helped to finance the chair.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/13/Freedom_to_Ireland.pngFenian posterBy Currier & Ives. [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons43,-75Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011); Murphy & Quinn (2009)
Patrick Haverty
Haverty worked as an apprentice in Brian Geraghty's book shop in Dublin, before moving to the U.S. in 1847. Published Owen Connellan's edition of The Annals of the Four Masters in 1846. Worked in a bookshop in New York. After having worked as a journalist, and then as a miner, he returned to New York and opened his own bookshop at 110 Fulton Street. Helped Thomas Francis Meagher to raise the Irish Brigade, and went on to serve in one of its regiments. Published several books in Irish, amongst them Bourke’s Easy Lessons, which is thought to have been the first book in that language to have been published in America. Also responsible for publishing Seán Ó Mathúna's translation of Foras Feasa ar Éirinn. Haverty is thought to have inspired Ó Mathúna to undertake the work in the first place. Also published the notes from John O'Donovan's edition of The Annals of the Four Masters.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/30/Battle_of_Fair_Oaks_Meagher.jpgBy Currier & Ives [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons40.7127, -74.0059Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011)
Thomas Norris
Born in Killarney, Co. Kerry. Emmigrated to the US in the 1850's. Joined the 9th New York Regiment (from which the 69th New York Regiment grew). Left the regiment after the First Battle of Bull Run. Helped to raise Company H of the 170th New York Infantry, later rising to the rank of captain. Wounded at Petersburg, discharged after the war. Associated with Irish language societies before and ater the war, and wrote frequently on matters of grammar. In 1885, Norris read an address at the White House in person to President Grover Cleveland on the day following his inauguration, and published poems in Irish in his honour. Buried in Calvary Cemetery.New York State Military Museumhttps://irishamericancivilwar.files.wordpress.com/2016/04/thomas_david_norris1.jpg?w=630Captain Thomas NorrisReproduced with the kind permission of Damien Shiels40.7127, -74.0059Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011); Murphy (2007); Shiels (2016)
Albert Delahoyde
A native of Dublin, who, along with roughly 1400 other Irishmen, joined the St. Patrick's Battalion of the Papal army, an infantry unit which was formed in July of 1860, to fight against Italian reunification. Promoted to sergeant-major. Captained a company during the Siege of Rome in 1870. Carried on in this capacity until the unification of Italy, and the disbandment of the Zouaves. Resolved to learn Irish whilst still on the Continent, after being ridiculed when having been forced to admit that, as an Irishman, he had no knowledge of his own language. 1858: began a subscription to a publication called Antiquities, by Martin O'Brennan. 1891: on the council of Aontacht na Gaeilge, a predecessor of Conradh na Gaeilge. 1898: encouraged the publication of Mionchomhrá leis an Athair Peadar, and offered to contribute financially to same. Elected President of the London branch of the Conradh on 3 November. Gave a donation to the Aran Library. 1899: attended both the Conradh's Oireachtas and Comhdháil. Was present at the Annaghdown Feis. Awarded prizes to school students who used the most Irish outside of school. 1901: presented volumes 1-3 of the Irish Texts Society volumes to the Aran library. 1902: gived prizes for the best recital at this year's Oireachtas.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/10/Papal_Zouave.jpgAn unnamed zouave in the St. Patrick's Battalion in which Delahoyde served. Note the shamrock visible on the zouave's uniform (to the viewer's left).By Photographer, Fratelli D'Alessandri, Roma. (Lombardi Historical Collection) [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011); Murphy (2007)
John Healy
Archbishop of Tuam, historian, and strongly conservative figure within the Irish Catholic Church. A scholar of Middle Irish (the kind of Irish generally accepted to have been written and spoken between the 9th and 12th centuries), Healy supported Conradh na Gaeilge. Helped to found the Tourmakeady Gaelic College, but engaged in conflict with the Conradh regarding authority over the College. Later opposed the 1909-10 campaign to make Irish compusory. Argued in favour of Britain's military campaign during the First World War.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dc/WWI_Irish_recruiting_poster_LOC_cph.3g10979.jpgA poster for British Army recruitment in Ireland during the First World War.By David Allen & Sons Ltd., 40 Gt. Brunswick St., Dublin. [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons53.515, -8.851MacAonghusa (1993); Maume (2009c)
Mac Giolla Phádraig
AKA Sir Bernard Edward Barnaby Fitzpatrick, 2nd Baron Castletown. Studied law and modern history at Brasenose College, Oxford. Volunteered as an ambulance worker for the Red Cross Society during the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. Came to London in 1871, and was commissioned as a junior subaltern in the Life Guards. Resigned this commission in 1874 to marry, but later served as lieutenant-colonel of the 4th Battalion, Leinster Regiment. Served as Assistant Adjutant-General to Lord Roberts during the First Boer War (1880-1881), during which he was decorated for valour, and decorated for heroism during the Egyptian campaign (c. 1882). Served only as a recruiting agent - due to his age - during the First World War. Elected MP for Portarlington in 1880, describing himself as a Conservative/Liberal. He later succeeded to his father's seat in the House of Lords. Learned Irish whilst on holidays in Connemara as a young man. Gaelicised his surname "Fitzpatrick" to "Mac Giolla Phádraig". Gave money to the Gaelic League. Co-founded the Celtic Association. As a Unionist-minded landlord, Castletown used Irish when threatened with violence by members of the IRA.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4a/2ndLordCastletown.jpgA portrait of "Mac Giolla Phádraig", AKA 2nd Lord CastletownSee page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons26, 30Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011); Rouse (2009)
Otway Cuffe
The third and youngest son of John Otway O'Connor Cuffe, 3rd Earl of Desart. Captain in the Rifle Brigade, and later aide-de-camp to the Duke of Connaught, during the Ashanti War of 1874. After his army service finished, he is said to have raised a company of volunteers in Kilkenny (date unspecified, and conflict unspecified). Joined the Kilkenny Central branch of the Gaelic League. Heavily contributed to it financially. Served as its President from 1904–12 (although he never attained fluency). Supplied it with books. Due to his connections to both the British army and monarchy, was the object of suspicion by other nationalists such as Arthur Griffith, especially when he persuaded the branch request that a Kilkenny Corporation loyal address to Edward VII be bilingualized. Because of his military background, was criticised for attending League meetings at which the British military was mocked. Liked to dress in a "Gaelic" manner, involving a hat, a full-skirted blue coat, knee-breaches, buckled shoes and stockings. Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a4/Rifle_Brigade_Memorial-Grosvenor_Gardens.jpgRifle Brigade Memorial-Grosvenor GardensBy Lonpicman (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons8, -2Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011); Maume (2009a)
Maurice George Moore
Born in Ballyglass, Co. Mayo. Educated by a governess at home, and at a Catholic public school in England. Later accepted into the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, and commissioned a sub-lieutenant in the army in 1874. 1875: promoted to lieutenant in the 88th Regiment (later the Connaught Rangers). 1877-1879: participated in the South African Kaffir and Zulu wars. 1882: made a captain in the 1st Battalion, Connaught Rangers in November. February 1883: promoted to Major. December 1900-May 1902: commanded his battalion during the Second Anglo-Boer War. Involved in the relief of Ladysmith, and fought at Colenso, Spion Kop and Vaal Krantz. Raised a mounted column from within the Rangers which campaigned in the Cape Colony, Natal, the Transvaal and the Orange Free State. For his service, Moore was brevetted colonel, and made a CB. Moore was a proponent of the Gaelic Revival, and as a self-taught Irish speaker, perfected his skills with native speakers serving under his command. 1903: helped to organise evening schools in Mayo which promoted the teaching of the nation's history and language. 1906: retired from the army on the 16th of July. 1909: supported the campaign which confirmed Irish as a compulsory matriculation subject for the National University of Ireland.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/05/Richard_Simkin03.jpgMembers of the Connaught Rangers in uniformRichard Simkin [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons-30, 25Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011); Coleman (2009)
T. W. Rolleston
Offaly-born writer. Attended St. Columba's College, Dublin (where he was most likely introduced to Irish). Heavily involved in various literary and cultural societies. Associated with the Conradh intermittently until 1909. Had been President of two separate branches. Involved in translations of some of the works of Goethe into Irish. Argued for the creation of a separate Conradh for Protestants. Also involved in Cumann na Scríbheann Gaeilge. During the First World War, Rolleston worked for the British, and was attached to the "Obscure Languages Section", and was responsible for translating documents written in Irish.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c9/1_Finn_heard_far_off_the_first_notes_of_the_fairy_harp.jpgAn illustration on the cover of one of Rolleston's books, "The High Deeds of Finn and Other Bardic Romances of Ancient Ireland".By STEPHEN REID [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons53.25, -7.5Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011); Murphy, W. (2009)
Stephen Gwynn
Educated on scholarships in St. Columba's College Dublin and Brasenose College Oxford. Mid 1890's: joined the Conradh in London. 1905: helped to represent Donegal at the Conradh's ardfheis. Elected to the Coiste Gnó at this event. Helped to found Dáil Uladh. 1906: re-elected to the Coiste Gnó. Elected to the House of Commons as an IPP candidate for Galway. Was the only member of that party to have ever sat on the Coiste Gnó. 1907: re-elected to the Coiste Gnó (representing London). 1908: one of the treasurers for a commitee, which was set up by the Conradh, to combat TB in Galway. Insisted on sending two of his sons, Denis and Aubrey, to Scoil Éanna. Denis was amongst the school's first intake of students. 1909: on the 10th of February, Gwynn attended the IPP general convention. He seconded fellow IPP MP John Dillon in opposing a motion in favour of compulsory Irish as a matriculation subject for the National University of Ireland. The motion was carried; Gwynn disagreed with the majority of Conradh members on this matter, and decided in August not to stand in further Coiste Gnó elections. 1910: May served on the Scoil Éanna board of governors from this year onward. Enlisted in the Leinster Regiment (at age 50) during the First World War. Later commissioned as an officer in the Connaught Rangers. He was the only former member of the Coiste Gnó known to have been a combat officer in the British armed forces during this conflict (compare with James Owen Hannay, a former Coiste Gnó member who was a chaplain). Whilst in the Rangers, Gwynn ensured that "Clare's Brigade", rather than the more commonplace "It’s a long way to Tipperary", was used as the regimental march. He was decorated with the Legion d’honneur for his wartime service in France. 1924: in July of this year, Gwynn condemned the Railway Bill on the grounds that public money would be better spent on educational sources pertaining to the language. He also criticized the new Irish state for not having a coherent and meaningful language policy.
Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d9/Great_Irishmen_in_war_and_politics_%281920%29_%2814592024808%29.jpgStephen GwynnBy Internet Archive Book Images [No restrictions], via Wikimedia Commons50.0144, 2.8258Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011); Maume (2009b); Reid (2011)
James George O'Keeffe
From Springville near Kanturk in Co. Cork. O'Keeffe's family were strongly associated with Irish music and the Irish language. A neighbour exposed O'Keeffe to the Irish literary manuscript tradition. Upon completing his education at Blackrock College, O'Keeffe emigrated to London and began work as an accountant with the War Office in London. Whilst here, he began to associate with both the Irish Literary Society and Conradh na Gaeilge, working as an immensely-popular teacher for the latter, and also taught Irish dancing. In 1902, he was transferred (for professional reasons) to Dublin, where he associated with the Keating Branch of the Conradh. Involved in a group called Sparrán na Scillinge, which was dedicated to organizing feiseanna in Munster. Became actively involved in the School of Irish Learning. In collaboration with John Strachan, he edited "Táin Bó Cuailgne from the Yellow Book of Lecan". O'Keeffe co-edited both "Anecdota from Irish MSS" and "Irish Texts". Transferred out of Dublin in 1912. Upon the outbreak of the First World War, he was sent to the United States, where he is thought to have been involved in the financial arrangements which led to American entry into the war. Worked in a similar capacity in Canada and Mesopotamia until his retirement in 1926. Received a CBE in recognition of his work that same year. Died in 1937.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/31/Britannialion.jpgAn advertisement for a gathering in support of the Anglo-American alliance during the First World War.See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons52.175, -8.9Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011)
James Owen Hannay
Developed an interest in Irish history and literature due to an acquaintance with T. W. Rolleston, and joined the Conradh as a result. Hoped that it could be a unifying force in Irish society. Hannay studied Irish with help from a native speaker, and became vice-president of the Westport (Co. Mayo) branch. In 1906, he authored a Conradh pamphlet. Elected to the Coiste Gnó. Helped to organize the first ever Irish language service in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin on St. Patrick's Day of that year. Having published numerous successful novels, Hannay became embroiled in a controversy when a character in one of those works (namely The Seething Pot) was thought to have been based on a real-life parish priest in Westport. Various Catholic figures worked to have Hannay removed from the Coiste. However, he eventually resigned in order to avoid causing further division, but did stay on as an member. Hannay served as a British army chaplain in the First World War from 1916-17.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/99/James_O._Hannay_plaque%2C_Belfast_-_geograph.org.uk_-_1599588.jpgA plaque to the Rev. Hannay, AKA George A. BirminghamAlbert Bridge [CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons54.597, -5.93Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011)
Liam Mac Giolla Bhríde
2nd Baron Ashbourne, and christened William Gibson. Seemingly the first person to have addressed the British House of Lords in Irish. Developed an interest in Irish whilst attending Trinity College Dublin. Went on to attend classes in Dublin and London, becoming a very active League member in the process. Gave financial support to Scoil Éanna in 1911. Adopted the name "Mac Giolla Bhríde". Wrote for Guth na nGaedheal. President of the Conradh's London branch from 1908-14. Resigned his post in protest at what he saw as the politicisation of Conradh na Gaeilge. In 1914, Ashbourne urged Irish MPs to address Parliament in Irish. Supported the First World War due to his love for France. Gave £1000 to the Conradh for debt relief in 1926. Unanimously elected President of the entire League in 1928. Resigned his position in 1932 in a dispute over the independence of feiseanna. Died in Compiegne, France 10 years later.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e3/William_Gibson_2nd_Baron_Ashbourne_June_10_1929.jpgWilliam Gibson, 2nd Baron Ashbourne. Photo taken 10 June 1929. National Library of Ireland referenceBy National Library of Ireland on The Commons (Flickr: June 10, 1929) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons49.4149, 2.8231Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011); Murphy (2012).
Thomas O'Donnell
Famous for being one of the two IPP MPs who were most strongly supportive of the Irish language, the other being John Pius Boland. Began work as a teacher in 1892. Associated with Conradh na Gaeilge from 1893 onwards. Helped to found the Killorglin branch in 1900. Played a crucial role in the Conradh's campaign to have bilingual instruction in Irish-speaking areas. Taught Irish to his own pupils outside of standard school hours. In 1901, he achieved prominence by being the first MP to address the British House of Commons in Irish. Regarded as second only to the IPP leader John Redmond in committment to Britain's First World War recruitment drive in Ireland. Despite such a distinction, O'Donnell did not volunteer for service himself. Wikimedia Commons
A poster for British Army recruitment in Ireland during the First World War.By The artist is unknown[2] Printer: Hely's Limited Restoration: Adam Cuerden Please credit both of these when reusing this. [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011); Fahey (2009); Gaughan (2009)
Gerald O'Donovan
Notable writer. An ordained Jesuit until 1904 when he left the priesthood. Respected for his involvement in various facets of Ireland's cultural revival during the 20th century. In 1899, O'Donovan registered as a member of the Loughrea branch of Conradh na Gaeilge. Made speeches for the organization and also wrote for An Claidheamh Soluis. Upon emigrating to London, he stood unsuccessfully for election to the Coiste Gnó on two occasions. Joined the British army in 1915, but was forced to leave on the grounds of ill health. Later worked for the ministry of munitions and later appointed head of the Italian propaganda section in the Foreign Office.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Senate_House_UoL.jpgSenate House, University of London (where O'Donovan would have worked).By An Siarach at English Wikipedia [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons51.521, -0.1287Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011); Murphy, J. H. (2009)
Liam Ó Lubaigh
Counted amongst the last of Tipperary's native Irish speakers, and a notable collector of traditional songs. His involvement with Conradh na Gaeilge began in 1903. Around this time, his song-collecting activities began. Ó Lúbaigh also won a prize for fluency in Irish at a local feis. Won a scholarship in 1911 to the Royal College of Science in Dublin, of which he later became a fellow. He was attached to the Forage Department in Belfast with a view to supplying food for soldiers during the First World War. Ó Lúbaigh enlisted in the army in 1916, and reached the rank of lieutenant by the end of his service. In 1929, he collaborated with Murchadh Ó Síthigh on an Irish language science book for An Gúm. Died in 1948.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e6/Great_War_Memorial_Windows%2C_Guildhall%2C_Derry.jpgThe Derry Guildhall stained-glass window which commemorates the Three Irish Divisions, left the 36th, right the 10th and 16th.By Osioni (Own work) [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011)
Liam Price
Scion of a middle-class Dublin Church of Ireland family. Studied law at Trinity College Dublin. Intended to serve in the British Army in France during the First World War, but spent most of the conflict in Cork with the section of the army in charge of administering pay. Opposed to the Easter Rising at first, but changed his mind upon becoming a nationalist. Developed an interest in Ireland's history, folklore, archaeology and overall culture. Appointed a district judge by the Free State government following independence. Price visited the Aran Islands and the Blaskets. His connection to Irish stemmed from his interest in placenames, and was assisted in this matter by Gaelic scholars such as Gearóid Ó Murchadha. Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d2/Royal_Army_Pay_Corps_cap_badge.jpgThe Royal Army Pay Corps cap badgeBy UK Government [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011)
Donal Joseph O'Sullivan
A Liverpudlian of Kerry parentage. Employment in the civil service enabled him to attend Conradh na Gaeilge meetings in London. Served as a signalman on vessels escorted by the Royal Navy. After the war, he was transerred - by his own request - to Ireland where he was called to the bar and later appointed a clerk with Seanad Éireann. Edited the Journal of the Irish Folk Music Society. Involved ina an Irish speakers' club on Leinster Street. O'Sullivan was connected to the folk music scene for the rest of his life.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3f/2nd_Battle_Squadron.jpgShips of the 2nd Battle Squadron of the Royal Navy's Grand Fleet in World War I. From left to right, King George V, Thunderer, Monarch, ConquerorSee page for author [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons53.4, -3Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011)
Liam Ó Flaithearta
Native of Gort na gCapall, Inis Mór (the largest of the Aran Islands). Although most likely bilingual from an early age, he learned to read and write Irish from a Limerick-born schoolteacher. A good student, Ó Flaithearta was thus able to qualify for a secondary education at various prestigious schools. During his time in one of them, he became active in the National Volunteers (an armed force loyal to the IPP leader John Redmond), and enlisted in the 2nd Battalion of the Irish Guards upon the outbreak of the First World War. His experiences during the conflict caused him lifelong psychological trauma. Later, he became an enormously successful writer of English-language novels and short stories (some of which were made into films). However, he also published short stories in Irish (which were later republished in one volume under the name "Dúil", and also was responsible for a play called "Dorchadas" which was not published in its original form until 2011.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/87/Liam_O%27Flaherty.jpegA photograph of Liam Ó FlaitheartaBy Henry W. and Albert A. Berg Collection of English and American Literature (NYPL Digital Gallery) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons50.85, 2.883333
Breathnach & Ní Mhurchú (2011); Costello (2009); O'Flaherty & Ó Conchubhair (2011)
Event: Douglas Hyde's visit to Cork
On the 15th of December of this year Douglas Hyde, in his capacity as President of Conradh na Gaeilge, paid a visit to Cork City Hall in 1914. He was given a guard of honour by contingents of both the Republican Irish Volunteers, who favoured complete Irish separation from the British Empire, and the Home Rule-supporting National Volunteers, who believed that Ireland should be a self-governing part of the Empire. The former are more popularly associated with the Irish language community, but the presence of the latter - which contributed some 27,000 personnel to the British armed forces - indicates that there were supporters of the language amongst other political groupings as well. Hyde stated that he hoped gatherings such as this would help to heal the divisions between the two factions.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bf/Douglas_Hyde_St_Patrick%27s_Cathedral_Dublin_2006.jpgMemorial to Douglas Hyde in St. Patrick's Cathedral, DublinBy Kaihsu Tai (Kaihsu Tai) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) or CC BY-SA 2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5-2.0-1.0)], via Wikimedia Commons51.897222, -8.47Ó Murchadha (2006)
David O'Morchoe
Commissioned into the Royal Irish Fusiliers in 1948. This regiment, along with the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers and the Royal Ulster Rifles, was amalgated into the Royal Irish Rangers in 1968. O'Morchoe commanded the 1st Battalion of the Rangers, saw service in the Middle East, north-west Europe, Kenya and Oman. 1969: Director of Staff of Camberley Staff College. 1972: similar rank at the Royal College of Defence Studies. Later commanded the Sultan of Oman's Land Forces. Retired as a Major-General in 1979. Served as President of the Royal British Legion until 2014. Is the current hereditary chief of the Ó Murchadha dynasty (a title associated with the kings of Leinster), as well as its chief. Supports efforts to raise greater awareness of Gaelic heritage, including the language and all cultural activities.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/01/Wreath_IUNVA_%288756308055%29.jpgMajor General (Retd) David the O' Morchoe, Royal British Legion lays a wreathBy Irish Defence Forces from Ireland (Wreath IUNVA) [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons21, 57Beresford Ellis (1999)
Aralt Mac Giolla Chainnigh
Joined the Canadian Armed Forces Reserves in 1975, and the Regular Army in 1978. Served as an officer in both battalions of the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry. Lectured at the Royal Military College in Kingston, Ontario for a number of years beginning in 1992. 2009: was an operation analyst responsible for campaign evaluation in the southern region of Afghanistan, serving with Regional Command (South) Headquarters. Started to study Irish, in which he had developed an interest, in 1989, and began to teach the language in 1994. Played a key role in the creation of the Permanent North American Gaeltacht (officially opened in 2007). Has been an active members of the North American Association of Celtic Language Teachers since 2005.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f9/Tamworth_Canada_Gaeltacht_sign.JPGA signpost for the Permanent North American Gaeltacht in Tamworth, Ontario.By Danjdoyle (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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Barnes (2008); Ireland Canada Monument (2011)
Robin Stewart
Served in the Royal Irish Rangers and the UDR between the years 1976 and 1988. Developed a strong sense of Irish identity during military service and began to learn Irish c. September 2013, as part of an initiative to promote the language within the loyalist/unionist community.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bf/Irish_Ranger.jpgSoldiers from the Royal Irish Rangers in various uniforms.By Maxburgoyne at English Wikipedia [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons54.597, -5.93Ó Máirtín, et al (2014); Stewart (2016)
Maidhc Newell
Originally from Rosmuc, Co. Galway. Served in the USMC from May 1981 to May 1985. Reached the rank of Sergeant (E-5). Spent 6 months on board a ship which visited a variety of places, including Hawaii, Thailand, the Phillipines, Japan and Australia. Connected with Irish language activities in Boston. Won a prize for sean-nós singing at Oireachtas Gaeilge Cheanada 2013.Wikimedia Commonshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e1/USMC_uniforms.jpgBy Bahamut0013 [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia CommonsBy U.S. Government [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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Newell (2013); Nuacht24 (2013)
Séamus Ó Fianghusa
Served in the United States Army from 1994-2003. Enlisted in the 69th Infantry Regiment of the New York Army National Guard in 2007. Reached the rank of staff sergeant. Served in Logar Province, Afghanistan. Began learning Irish with Oideas Gael in Donegal in 2008 due to interest in his Irish roots. Has participated in sean-nós singing competitions competitions such as the Oireachtas. Has been the subject of a TG4 documentary about his military service.Wikimedia Commons
U.S. Army Soldiers of the New York Army National Guard's 1st Battalion, 69th Infantry Regiment, marches down Lexington Avenue as they return from the 250th New York City St. Patrick's Day Parade in New York, March 17, 2011.By Sgt. Jeremy Bratt [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons34,69.2Donegal Daily (2011); Hilliard (2012); Jordan (2012); Ó Fianghusa (2016)
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