NYCDOE RubeGoldberg Crosswalk Document
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Rube Goldberg Machines (RGM) Aligned with P-12 New York State Science Learning Standards
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Click HERE to see RG's Simple Normal Humdrum Day Lesson Plans (RGSNHD)
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PPhysical SciencesDisciplinary Core IdeasCrosscutting Concepts
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StandardP-PSP-1. Use tools and materials to design and build a device that causes an object to move faster with a push or pull.PS2.A. Forces and Motion: Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions. (PPS2-1). Pushing or pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it. (P-PS2-1)
PS3.C. Relationship Between Energy and Forces (NYSED) A push or a pull may cause stationary objects to move,
and a stronger push or pull in the same or opposite direction makes an object in motion speed up or slow down more quickly.
(secondary to P-PS2-1)
ETS1.A. Defining Engineering Problems: A situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be solved through engineering. Such problems may have many acceptable solutions. (P-PS2-1)
Cause and Effect: Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute student ideas about causes. (P-PS2-1),(P-PS4-1)
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ConnectionsRGM Lesson Plans: Lesson 3 Experiment with Simple Machines, Lesson 7 Build a 3-step Rube Goldberg Machine RGM Resources: Lever, Wheel and Axel, Inclined Plane, Screw, Wedge and Pulleys RGSNHD: Lesson 2 Make a Pinwheel featuring a Wheel and Axel, Lesson 3 Open a Door using a Lever
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KForces and Interactions: Pushes and PullsDisciplinary Core IdeasCrosscutting Concepts
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StandardK-PS2-1. Plan and conduct an investigation to compare the effects of different strengths or different directions of pushes and pulls on the motion of an object. PS2.A. Forces and Motion: Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions. (KPS2-1),(K-PS2-2). Pushing or pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it. (K-PS2-1),(K-PS2-2)
PS2.B. Types of Interactions: When objects touch or collide, they push on one another and can change motion. (K-PS2-1)
PS3.C. Relationship Between Energy and Forces: (NYSED) A push or a pull may cause stationary objects to move,
and a stronger push or pull in the same or opposite direction makes an object in motion speed up or slow down more quickly.
(secondary to K-PS2-1)
ETS1.A. Defining Engineering Problems: A situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be solved through engineering. Such problems may have many acceptable solutions. (secondary to KPS2-2)
Cause and Effect: Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute student ideas about causes. (K-PS2­1),(K-PS2-2)
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ConnectionsRGM Lesson Plans: Lesson 3 Experiment with Simple Machines,Lesson 6 Energy Transfers, Lesson 7 Build a 3-step Rube Goldberg Machine RGM Resources: Worksheets for Lever, Wheel and Axel, Inclined Plane, Screw, Wedge, Pulleys and Energy Worksheet RGSNHD: Lesson 2 Make a Pinwheel featuring a Wheel and Axel, Lesson 3 Open a Door using a Lever, Lesson 5 Test Your Strength with Pulleys
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2Structure and Properties of MatterDisciplinary Core IdeasCrosscutting ConceptsConnections to Engineering, Technology, and Appications of Science
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Standard2-PS1-3. Make observations to construct an evidence-based account of how an object made of a small set of pieces can be
disassembled and made into a new object.
PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter: Different properties are suited to different purposes. (2­PS1-2),(2-PS1-3). A great variety of objects can be built up from a small set of pieces. (2-PS1-3) Cause and Effect: Events have causes that generate observable patterns. Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute student ideas about causes.
Energy and Matter: Objects may break into smaller pieces and be put together into larger pieces, orchange shapes.
Influence of Engineering, Technology, and Science on Society and the Natural World: Every human-made product is designed by applying some knowledge of the natural world and is built using materials derived from the natural world.
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ConnectionsRGM Lesson Plans: Lesson 7 (8, 9) Build a 3-step (7-step, 15-step) Rube Goldberg Machine RGM Resources: Worksheets for Circle and Label the Simple Machines in Rube Goldberg's Cartoons and Draw a Rube Goldberg Machine RGSNHD: Lesson 6 Draw Your Own Rube Goldberg Machine using a Wedge, Lesson 7 Use a Screw to Move Water Uphill, Lesson 8 Build Your Own Rube Goldberg Machine
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K-2Engineering DesignDisciplinary Core IdeasCrosscutting Concepts
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StandardK-2-ETS1-1. Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change to define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool. K-2-ETS1-2. Develop a simple sketch, drawing, or physical model to illustrate how the shape of an object helps it function as needed to solve a given problem. K-2-ETS1-3. Analyze data from tests of two objects designed to solve the same problem to compare the strengths and weaknesses of how each performs. The performance expectations above were developed using the followinETS1.A. Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems: A situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be solved through engineering. (K-2­ ETS1-1). Asking questions, making observations, and gathering information
are helpful in thinking about problems. (K-2-ETS1-1. Before beginning to design a solution, it is important to clearly understand the problem. (K-2-ETS1-1)
ETS1.B. Developing Possible Solutions: Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem’s solutions to other people. (K-2-ETS1-2)
ETS1.C. Optimizing the Design Solution: Because there is always more than one possible solution to a problem, it is useful to compare and test designs. (K-2-ETS1-3)
Structure and Function: The shape and stability of structures of natural and designed objects are related to their function(s). (K-2­ETS1-2)
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ConnectionsRGM Lesson Plans: Lesson 1 Draw a Simple Machine Cartoon, Lesson 2 Human Rube Goldberg Machine, Lesson 3 Experiment with Simple Machines, Lesson 6 Energy Transfers, Lesson 7 (8, 9) Build a 3-step (7-step, 15-step) Rube Goldberg Machine RGM Resources: Worksheets for Lever, Wheel and Axel, Inclined Plane, Screw, Wedge, Pulleys. Plus Energy Worksheet, Circle and Label the Simple Machines in Rube Goldberg's Cartoons and Draw a Rube Goldberg Machine Worksheets RGSNHD: Lesson 6 Draw Your Own Rube Goldberg Machine using a Wedge, Lesson 7 Use a Screw to Move Water Uphill, Lesson 8 Build Your Own Rube Goldberg Machine
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3Forces and InteractionsDisciplinary Core IdeasCrosscutting ConceptsConnections to Engineering, Technology, and Appications of Science
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Standard3-PS2-1. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence of the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the
motion of an object.
PS2.A. Forces and Motion: Each force acts on one particular object and has both strength and a direction. An object at rest typically has multiple forces acting on it, but they add to give zero net force on the object. Forces that do not sum to zero can cause changes in the object’s speed or direction of motion. (Boundary: Qualitative and conceptual, but not quantitative addition of forces are used at this level.) (3-PS2-1) The patterns of an object’s motion in various situations can be observed and measured; when that past motion exhibits a regular pattern, future motion can be predicted from it. (Boundary: Technical terms, such as magnitude, velocity, momentum, and vector quantity, are not introduced at this level, but the concept that some quantities need both size and direction to be described is developed.) (3-PS2-2)
PS2.B: Types of InteractionsObjects in contact exert forces on each other. (3-PS2-1)
Cause and Effect: Cause and effect relationships are routinely identified. (3-PS2-1) Cause and effect relationships are routinely identified, tested, and used to explain change. (3-PS2-3)Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology:
Scientific discoveries about the natural world can often lead to new and improved technologies, which are developed through the engineering design process. (3-PS2-4)
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ConnectionsRGM Lesson Plans: Lesson 3 Experiment with Simple Machines,Lesson 6 Energy Transfers, Lesson 7 Build a 3-step Rube Goldberg Machine RGM Resources: Worksheets for Lever, Wheel and Axel, Inclined Plane, Screw, Wedge, Pulleys and Energy Worksheet RGSNHD: Lesson 2 Make a Pinwheel featuring a Wheel and Axel, Lesson 3 Open a Door using a Lever, Lesson 5 Test Your Strength with Pulleys
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4EnergyDisciplinary Core IdeasCrosscutting ConceptsConnections to Engineering, Technology, and Appications of Science
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Standard4-PS3-1.Use evidence to construct an explanation relating the speed of an object to the energy of that object. 4-PS3-2. Ask questions and predict outcomes about the changes in energy that occur when objects collide.
4-PS3-3.
Ask questions and predict outcomes about the changes in energy that occur when objects collide. 4-PS3-4. Apply scientific ideas to design, test, and refine a device that converts energy from one form to another.
PS3.A. Definitions of Energy: (NYSED) A given object possesses more energy of motion when it is moving faster. (4-PS3-1). (NYSED) Energy can be transferred by moving objects or by sound, light, heat, or electric currents. (4-PS3-2), (4-PS3-3)
PS3.B. Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer: Energy is present whenever there are moving objects, sound, light, or heat. When objects collide, energy can be transferred from one object to another, thereby changing their motion. In such collisions, some energy is typically also transferred to the surrounding air; as a result, the air gets heated and sound is produced. (4-PS3-2),(4-PS3-3). (NYSED) Energy can also be transferred by electric currents, which can then be used locally to produce motion, sound, heat, or light. The currents may have been produced to begin with by transforming the energy of motion into electrical energy. (4-PS3-2),(4-PS3-4)
PS3.C. Relationship Between Energy and Forces: When objects collide, the contact forces transfer energy so as to change the objects’ motions. (4-PS3-3)
ETS1.A. Defining Engineering Problems: Possible solutions to a problem are limited by available materials and resources (constraints). The success of a designed solution is determined by considering the desired features of a solution (criteria). Different proposals for solutions can be compared on the basis of how well each one meets the specified criteria for success or how well each takes the constraints into account. (secondary to 4-PS3-4)
Cause and Effect: Cause and effect relationships are routinely identified and used to explain change. (4-ESS3-1)
Energy and Matter: Energy can be transferred in various ways and between objects. (4-PS3-1), (4­ PS3-2),(4-PS3-3),(4-PS3-4)
Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology: Knowledge of relevant scientific concepts and research findings is important in engineering. (4-ESS3-1)
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nfluence of Engineering, Technology, and Science on Society and the Natural World: Over time, people’s needs and wants change, as do their demands for new and improved technologies. (4-ESS3-1). Engineers improve existing technologies or develop new ones. (4-PS3-4)
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ConnectionsRGM Lesson Plans: Lesson 3 Experiment with Simple Machines,Lesson 6 Energy Transfers, Lesson 7 (8, 9) Build a 3-step (7-step, 15-step) Rube Goldberg Machine RGM Resources: Worksheets for Lever, Wheel and Axel, Inclined Plane, Screw, Wedge, Pulleys and Energy Worksheet. Plus Energy Worksheet, Circle and Label the Simple Machines in Rube Goldberg's Cartoons and Draw a Rube Goldberg Machine Worksheets RGSNHD: Lesson 2 Make a Pinwheel featuring a Wheel and Axel, Lesson 3 Open a Door using a Lever, Lesson 5 Test Your Strength with Pulleys
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3-5Engineering DesignDisciplinary Core IdeasCrosscutting Concepts
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Standard3-5-ETS1-1. Define a simple design problem reflecting a need or a want that includes specified criteria for success and constraints on materials, time, or cost. 3-5-ETS1-2. Generate and compare multiple possible solutions to a problem based on how well each is likely to meet the criteria and constraints of the problem. 3-5-ETS1-3.Plan and carry out fair tests in which variables are controlled and failure points are considered to identify aspects of a model or prototype that can be improved. ETS1.A. Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems: Possible solutions to a problem are limited by available materials and resources (constraints). The success of a designed solution is determined by considering the desired features of a solution (criteria). Different proposals for solutions can be compared on the basis of how well each one meets the specified criteria for success or how well each takes the constraints into account. (3-5-ETS1-1)
ETS1.B. Developing Possible Solutions: Research on a problem should be carried out before beginning to design a solution. Testing a solution involves investigating how well it performs under a range of likely conditions. (3-5-ETS1-2). At whatever stage, communicating with peers about proposed solutions is an important part of the design process, and shared ideas can lead to improved designs. (3-5-ETS1-2). Tests are often designed to identify failure points or difficulties, which suggest the elements of the design that need to be improved. (3-5-ETS1-3)
ETS1.C. Optimizing the Design Solution: Different solutions need to be tested in order to determine which of them best solves the problem, given the criteria and the constraints. (3-5-ETS1-3)
Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on Society and the Natural World: People’s needs and wants change over time, as do their demands for new and improved technologies. (3­ 5-ETS1-1). Engineers improve existing technologies or develop new ones to increase their benefits, decrease known risks, and meet societal demands. (3-5-ETS1-2)
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ConnectionsRGM Lesson Plans: Lesson 1 Draw a Simple Machine Cartoon, Lesson 2 Human Rube Goldberg Machine, Lesson 3 Experiment with Simple Machines, Lesson 6 Energy Transfers, Lesson 7 (8, 9) Build a 3-step (7-step, 15-step) Rube Goldberg Machine RGM Resources: Worksheets for Lever, Wheel and Axel, Inclined Plane, Screw, Wedge, Pulleys. Plus Energy Worksheet, Circle and Label the Simple Machines in Rube Goldberg's Cartoons and Draw a Rube Goldberg Machine Worksheets RGSNHD: Lesson 6 Draw Your Own Rube Goldberg Machine using a Wedge, Lesson 7 Use a Screw to Move Water Uphill, Lesson 8 Build Your Own Rube Goldberg Machine
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MSForces and InteractionsDisciplinary Core IdeasCrosscutting ConceptsConnections to Engineering, Technology, and Appications of Science
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StandardMS-PS2-1. Apply Newton’s Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects.
MS-PS2-2. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum
of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.
PS2.A. Forces and Motion: For any pair of interacting objects, the force exerted by the first object on the second object is equal in strength to the force that the second object exerts on the first, but in the opposite direction (Newton’s third law). (MS-PS2-1). The motion of an object is determined by the sum of the forces acting on it; if the total force on the object is not zero, its motion will change. The greater the mass of the object, the greater the force needed to achieve the same change in motion. For any given object, a larger force causes a larger change in motion. (MS-PS2-2). All positions of objects and the directions of forces and motions must be described in an arbitrarily chosen reference frame and arbitrarily chosen units of size. In order to share information with other people, these choices must also be shared. (MS-PS2-2)
PS2.B:.Types of Interactions: Gravitational forces are always attractive. There is a gravitational force between any two masses, but it is very small except when one or both of the objects have large mass—e.g., Earth and the sun. (MS-PS2-4)
Cause and Effect: Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems. (MS-PS2-3),(MS-PS2­ 5)
Systems and System Models: Models can be used to represent systems and their interactions—such as inputs, processes and outputs—and energy and matter flows within systems. (MS-PS2­ 1),(MS-PS2-4),
Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on Society and the Natural World: The uses of technologies and any limitations on their use are driven by individual or societal needs, desires, and values; by the findings of scientific research; and by differences in such factors as climate, natural resources, and economic conditions. (MS-PS2-1)
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ConnectionsRGM Lesson Plans: Lesson 3 Experiment with Simple Machines,Lesson 6 Energy Transfers, Lesson 7 Build a 3-step Rube Goldberg Machine RGM Resources: Worksheets for Lever, Wheel and Axel, Inclined Plane, Screw, Wedge, Pulleys and Energy Worksheet RGSNHD: Lesson 2 Make a Pinwheel featuring a Wheel and Axel, Lesson 3 Open a Door using a Lever, Lesson 5 Test Your Strength with Pulleys
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MSEnergyDisciplinary Core IdeasCrosscutting Concepts
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StandardMS-PS3-2. Develop a model to describe that when the arrangement of objects interacting at a distance changes, different
amounts of potential energy are stored in the system.
MS-PS3-4. Plan and conduct an investigation to determine the relationships among the energy transferred, the type of matter, the mass, and the change in the temperature of the sample of matter.
PS3.A. Definitions of Energy: Motion energy is properly called kinetic energy; it is proportional to the mass of the moving object and grows with the square of its speed. (MS-PS3-1). A system of objects may also contain stored (potential) energy, depending on their relative positions. (MS-PS3-2)
PS3.B. Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer: When the motion energy of an object changes, there is inevitably some other change in energy at the same time. (MS-PS3-5). (NYSED) The amount of energy transfer needed to change the temperature of a matter sample by a given amount depends on the nature of the matter, the mass of the sample, and the environment. (MS-PS3-4)
PS3.C. Relationship Between Energy and Forces: When two objects interact, each one exerts a force on the other that can cause energy to be transferred to or from the object. (MS-PS3-2)
ETS1.A. Defining and Delimiting an Engineering Problem: The more precisely a design task’s criteria and constraints can be defined, the more likely it is that the designed solution will be successful. Specification of constraints includes consideration of scientific principles and other relevant knowledge that is likely to limit possible solutions. (secondary to MS-PS3-3)
ETS1.B. Developing Possible Solutions: A solution needs to be tested, and then modified on the basis of the test results in order to improve it. There are systematic processes for evaluating solutions with respect to how well they meet criteria and constraints of a problem. (secondary to MS-PS3-3)
Systems and System Models: Models can be used to represent systems and their interactions – such as inputs, processes, and outputs – and energy and matter flows within systems. (MS-PS3-2)
Energy and Matter: Energy may take different forms (e.g. energy in fields, thermal energy, energy of motion). (MS-PS3­ 5). The transfer of energy can be tracked as energy flows through a designed or natural system. (MS­ PS3-3),(MS-PS3-6)
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ConnectionsRGM Lesson Plans: Lesson 3 Experiment with Simple Machines,Lesson 6 Energy Transfers, Lesson 7 (8, 9) Build a 3-step (7-step, 15-step) Rube Goldberg Machine RGM Resources: Worksheets for Lever, Wheel and Axel, Inclined Plane, Screw, Wedge, Pulleys and Energy Worksheet. Plus Energy Worksheet, Circle and Label the Simple Machines in Rube Goldberg's Cartoons and Draw a Rube Goldberg Machine Worksheets RGSNHD: Lesson 2 Make a Pinwheel featuring a Wheel and Axel, Lesson 3 Open a Door using a Lever, Lesson 5 Test Your Strength with Pulleys
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MSEngineering DesignDisciplinary Core IdeasCrosscutting Concepts
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StandardMS-ETS1-1. Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions.
MS-ETS1-2. Evaluate competing design solutions using a systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem. MS-ETS1-3. Analyze data from tests to determine similarities and differences among several design solutions to identify the best characteristics of each that can be combined into a new solution to better meet the criteria for success.
MS-ETS1-4.Develop a model to generate data for iterative testing and modification of a proposed object, tool, or process such that an optimal design can be achieved.
ETS1.A. Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems: The more precisely a design task’s criteria and constraints can be defined, the more likely it is that the designed solution will be successful. Specification of constraints includes consideration of scientific principles and other relevant knowledge that are likely to limit possible solutions. (MS-ETS1­ 1)
ETS1.B. Developing Possible Solutions: A solution needs to be tested, and then modified on the basis of the test results, in order to improve it. (MS-ETS1-4). There are systematic processes for evaluating solutions with respect to how well they meet the criteria and constraints of a problem. (MS-ETS1-2), (MS-ETS1-3). Sometimes parts of different solutions can be combined to create a solution that is better than any of its predecessors. (MS-ETS1-3). Models of all kinds are important for testing solutions. (MS­ ETS1-4)
ETS1.C. Optimizing the Design Solution: Although one design may not perform the best across all tests, identifying the characteristics of the design that performed the best in each test can provide useful information for the redesign process—that is, some of those characteristics may be incorporated into the new design. (MS-ETS1-3). The iterative process of testing the most promising solutions and modifying what is proposed on the basis of the test results leads to greater refinement and ultimately to an optimal solution. (MS-ETS1-4)
Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on Society and the Natural World: All human activity draws on natural resources and has both short and long-term consequences, positive as well as negative, for the health of people and the natural environment. (MS­ ETS1-1). The uses of technologies and limitations on their use are driven by individual or societal needs, desires, and values; by the findings of scientific research; and by differences in such factors as climate, natural resources, and economic conditions. (MS-ETS1-1)
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ConnectionsRGM Lesson Plans: Lesson 1 Draw a Simple Machine Cartoon, Lesson 2 Human Rube Goldberg Machine, Lesson 3 Experiment with Simple Machines, Lesson 6 Energy Transfers, Lesson 7 (8, 9) Build a 3-step (7-step, 15-step) Rube Goldberg Machine RGM Resources: Worksheets for Lever, Wheel and Axel, Inclined Plane, Screw, Wedge, Pulleys. Plus Energy Worksheet, Circle and Label the Simple Machines in Rube Goldberg's Cartoons and Draw a Rube Goldberg Machine Worksheets RGSNHD: Lesson 6 Draw Your Own Rube Goldberg Machine using a Wedge, Lesson 7 Use a Screw to Move Water Uphill, Lesson 8 Build Your Own Rube Goldberg Machine
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HSEnergyDisciplinary Core IdeasCrosscutting ConceptsConnections to Engineering, Technology, and Appications of Science
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StandardHS-PS3-3. Design, build, and refine a device that works within given constraints to convert one form of energy into another
form of energy.
PS3.A: Definitions of Energy: Energy is a quantitative property of a system that depends on the motion and interactions of matter and radiation within that system. That there is a single quantity called energy is due to the fact that a system’s total energy is conserved, even as, within the system, energy is continually transferred from one object to another and between its various possible forms. (HS­ PS3-1),(HS-PS3-2)
PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer: Conservation of energy means that the total change of energy in any system is always equal to the total energy transferred into or out of the system. (HS-PS3-1) (NYSED) Energy exists in many forms, and when these forms change, energy is conserved. (HS-PS3-1),(HS-PS3-3),(HS- PS3-4)
PS3.C: Relationship Between Energy and Forces: When two objects interacting through a field change relative position, the energy stored in the field is changed. (HS-PS3-5) ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems: Criteria and constraints also include satisfying any requirements set by society, such as taking issues of risk mitigation into account, and they should be quantified to the extent possible and stated in such a way that one can tell if a given design meets them. (secondary to HS-PS3-3)
Cause and Effect: Cause and effect relationships can be suggested and predicted for complex natural and human designed systems by examining what is known about smaller scale mechanisms within the system. (HS-PS3-5) Energy and Matter: Changes of energy and matter in a system can be described in terms of energy and matter flows into, out of, and within that system. (HS­ PS3-3) Energy can be transferred between one place and another place, between objects and/or fields, or between systems. (HS-PS3-2),(HS­ PS3-6)Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on Society and the Natural World: Modern civilization depends on major technological systems. Engineers continuously modify these technological systems by applying scientific knowledge and engineering design practices to increase benefits while decreasing costs and risks. (HS-PS3-3)
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ConnectionsRGM Lesson Plans: Lesson 3 Experiment with Simple Machines,Lesson 6 Energy Transfers, Lesson 7 (8, 9) Build a 3-step (7-step, 15-step) Rube Goldberg Machine RGM Resources: Worksheets for Lever, Wheel and Axel, Inclined Plane, Screw, Wedge, Pulleys and Energy Worksheet. Plus Energy Worksheet, Circle and Label the Simple Machines in Rube Goldberg's Cartoons and Draw a Rube Goldberg Machine Worksheets RGSNHD: Lesson 2 Make a Pinwheel featuring a Wheel and Axel, Lesson 3 Open a Door using a Lever, Lesson 5 Test Your Strength with Pulleys
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