Mainland Southeast Asia Area Test for Conlangs
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Mainland Southeast Asia Areal Features Test Questions
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1. Large vowel inventory (7 or more contrastive vowel qualities). (0.5 for 5 or more vowel qualities plus 5 or more phonemic diphthongs)0
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2. Presence of a high unrounded central or back vowel.1
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3. Highly constrained coda consonants, with no syllable-final clusters allowed.1
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4. Morphemes primarily monosyllabic, or containing two syllables with vowel distinctions reduced and no coda consonant in the first syllable. (i.e. most morphemes are monosyllabic or of form Cǝ + monosyllable)1
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5. Contrastive contour tones. (0.5 for contrastive level tones)0.5
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6. Contrastive phonation or register on vowels.0
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7. Predominantly isolating and analytic morphological type.1
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8. Lack of case-marking.1
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9. Lack of verbal agreement with subjects or objects.1
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10. No inflection for tense.1
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11. No inflection for number.1
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12. No inflection for gender. (0.5 for a purely syntactic gender distinction without morphological marking)1
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13. Particles and/or auxiliary verbs used to mark aspect distinctions.1
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14. Nouns and verbs reused as particles or adpositions. (e.g. Cham likuuʔ thaaŋ lit. back house "at the back of the house", MəHləʔ mɨʔ hu rilo lit. Hlok get have many "Hlok caught a lot (of fish)")1
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15. No morphological distinction between finite and non-finite verb forms.1
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16. Prefixing or infixing derivational morphology (not necessarily productive). (e.g. Khmer sʔaat "to be clean" -> sɑmʔaat "to clean something")1
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17. Class of expressive or ideophonic words with rhyming/alliterative sound symbolism (e.g. Lao qeek5-leek4 “lying askew like someone asleep in an awkward position,” quj1-luj1 “chubby like a fat baby,” qung1-lung1 “swollen up, of noodles left too long in soup before being eaten”)1
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18. Productive associative expressions formed by reduplicating and modifying the tone or vowel of a word. (e.g. Lao patuu "door" -> patuu patii "doors and such", cook5 "cup/glass" -> cook5 ceek5 "cups and glasses and stuff like that")1
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19. Ellipsis of definite nominal verb arguments, regardless of role.1
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20. Numeral classifier system.1
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21. Topic-prominent sentence structure. (e.g. Thai talaat nii, plaa maj pheeng lit. market this, fish not expensive "At this market, fish is not expensive.")1
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22. Use of monosyllabic sentence-final particles for pragmatic functions. (e.g. Lao man2 kin3 nam4 "he drinks water" -> man2 kin3 nam4 boo3 "Will he drink water?")1
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23. SVO word order.1
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TOTAL20.5000000
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COMPLETION100.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%
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Comparison Data
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Mandarin: 16
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Cantonese: 18
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Khmer, Thai, White Hmong: 19
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Lao, Cham: 20
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Vietnamese: 21
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English: 3
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