Development of modern Western Civilisation
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01/01/-032301/01/-0146Hellenistic GreeceThe Hellenistic periods was characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization (as distinguished from that occurring in the 8th-6th centuries BC) which established Greek cities and kingdoms in Asia and Africa. Those new cities were composed of Greek colonists who came from different parts of the Greek world, and not, as before, from a specific "mother city". The main cultural centers expanded from mainland Greece to Pergamon, Rhodes, and new Greek colonies such as Seleucia, Antioch and Alexandria. This mixture of Greek-speakers gave birth to a common Attic-based dialect, known as Hellenistic Greek, which became the lingua franca through the Hellenistic world. empire left behind by Alexander the great<a href="" target="_blank" title="Hellenistic Greece in wikipedia">Hellenistic Greece in wikipedia</a>
01/01/-046901/01/-0399SocratesSocrates c. 469 BC – 399 BC) was a classical Greek Athenian philosopher. Credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, he is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of later classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon, and the plays of his contemporary Aristophanes. Many would claim that Plato's dialogues are the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity.<a href="" target="_blank" title="Socrates in wikipedia">Socrates in wikipedia</a>
01/01/-048001/01/-0323Classical GreeceClassical Greece was a 200 year period in Greek culture lasting from the 5th through 4th centuries BC. Classical Greece began with the repelling of a Persian invasion by Athenian leadership. The most common dates being with the fall of the last Athenian tyrant in 510 BC, to the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC. This classical period had a powerful influence on the Roman Empire and classical Greece is generally considered to be the seminal culture which provided the foundation of modern Western culture. Much of modern Western politics, artistic thought, such as architecture, scientific thought, literature, and philosophy derives from this period of Greek history.
The Classical period in this sense follows the Archaic period and is in turn succeeded by the Hellenistic period. parthenon completed in 432 BC<a href="" target="_blank" title="Classical Greece in wikipedia">Classical Greece in wikipedia</a>
01/01/-050901/01/-0027Roman RepublicThe Roman Republic (Latin: Res-publica Romanorum) was the period of the ancient Roman civilization when the government operated as a republic. It began with the overthrow of the Roman monarchy, traditionally dated around 509 BC, and its replacement by a government headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate. A complex constitution gradually developed, centered on the principles of a separation of powers and checks and balances. Except in times of dire national emergency, public offices were limited to one year, so in theory at least, no single individual could dominate his fellow citizens. provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, <a href="" target="_blank" title="Roman Republic in wikipedia">Roman Republic in wikipedia</a>
01/01/-075301/01/-0509Roman KingdomLittle is certain about the history of the Roman Kingdom, as nearly no written records from that time survive, and the histories about it were written during the Republic and Empire and are largely based on legend. However, the history of the Roman Kingdom began with the city's founding, traditionally dated to 753 BC with settlements around the Palatine Hill along the river Tiber in Central Italy, and ended with the overthrow of the kings and the establishment of the Republic in about 509 BC. The kings, excluding Romulus, who according to legend held office by virtue of being the city's founder, were all elected by the people of Rome to serve for life, with none of the kings relying on military force to gain or keep the throne. twins Romulus and Remus.<a href="" target="_blank" title="Roman Kingdom in wikipedia">Roman Kingdom in wikipedia</a>
01/01/-38012/12/-380Plato's Republic was writtenThe Republic (Greek: Politeia) is a Socratic dialogue written by Plato around 380 BC concerning the definition of justice and the order and character of the just city-state and the just man.[1] The dramatic date of the dialogue has been much debated and though it must take place some time during the Peloponnesian War, "there would be jarring anachronisms if any of the candidate specific dates between 432 and 404 were assigned".[2] It is Plato's best-known work and has proven to be one of the most intellectually and historically influential works of philosophy and political theory.[3][4] In it, Socrates along with various Athenians and foreigners discuss the meaning of justice and examine whether or not the just man is happier than the unjust man by considering a series of different cities coming into existence "in speech", culminating in a city (Kallipolis) ruled by philosopher-kings; and by examining the nature of existing regimes. of P.Oxy. LII 3679, 3rd century, containing fragments of Plato's Republic.<a href="" target="_blank" title="Plato's Republic in wikipedia">Plato's Republic in wikipedia</a>
1/1/02859/4/0467Decline of the Roman EmpireIn 285, Emperor Diocletian (r. 284–305) divided the Roman Empire's administration into eastern and western halves.[3] In 324, Emperor Constantine I (r. 306–337) transferred the eastern capital from Nicomedia in Asia Minor to Byzantium in Europe on the Bosphorus, which became Constantinople, the "City of Constantine" or alternatively "New Rome".[n 1] Western and Eastern Roman Empires by 476 AD<a href="" target="_blank" title="Decline of the Roman Empire in wikipedia">Decline of the Roman Empire in wikipedia</a>
1/1/03305/19/1453The Byzantine Empire and the founding of ConstantinopleThe Byzantine Empire (or Byzantium) was the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, centred on the capital of Constantinople. The state is also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, primarily in the context of Late Antiquity, and especially while the Western Roman Empire was still maintained in Italy. Both "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms applied in later centuries: throughout its existence the state was known simply as the Roman Empire and was the direct continuation of the Roman State, maintaining Roman state traditions<a href="" target="_blank" title="The Byzantine Empire in wikipedia">The Byzantine Empire in wikipedia</a>
1/1/03761/1/0711Visigothic kingdomThe Visigoths (Latin: Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi) were one of two main branches of the later Goths, the Ostrogoths being the other. These nomadic tribes were among the Germanic peoples who spread through the late Roman Empire during Late Antiquity or the Migration Period. The Visigoths emerged out of the Gothic groups who entered the Roman Empire in and after 376 and defeated the Romans at the Battle of Adrianople in 378. The Visigoths invaded Italy under Alaric I and famously sacked Rome in 410 AD, eventually settling in Spain and Portugal, where they founded a powerful Kingdom. Most of the Visigothic Kingdom was conquered by Islamic troops from Morocco in 711 AD, with only the northern reaches of Spain remaining in Christian hands. extent of the Visigothic Kingdom of Toulouse, c. 500 (shown in orange),<a href="" target="_blank" title="Visigothic kingdom in wikipedia">Visigothic kingdom in wikipedia</a>
1/1/0383Rise of the Church in the Roman Empirein 380 Emperor Theodosius established a single Christian doctrine as the state's official religion. The Christian religion, which emerged in the 1st century, had become a target of persecution in the Roman Empire during Christianity's early history, mostly in the 2nd and 3rd centuries. Emperors Galerius and Constantine permanently ended the general persecution in the early 4th century with the Edict of Milan. As a result of the Donatist controversy Constantine convened councils of Christian bishops to define an orthodox, or correct, Christian faith, expanding on earlier Christian councils. Numerous councils were held during the 4th and 5th centuries leading to rifts and schisms including the Arian schism, the Nestorian schism, and the Miaphysite schism. Throughout this process emperors became increasingly involved in the church, funding construction of church buildings, presiding over church councils, and even becoming involved in the appointment of bishops, notably during the Byzantine Papacy. In 380, Emperor Theodosius issued the Edict of Thessalonica, which formally established the Christian doctrine established at the First Council of Nicaea as the Empire's sole recognized religion. The church hierarchy in the Empire would continue to evolve throughout its history. In the 6th century Emperor Justinian established the bishops of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem as the leadership of the Imperial church, referred to as the Pentarchy. apostles Peter & Paul strong advocates of the rise of the church in the Roman empire<a href="" target="_blank" title="State church of the Roman Empire in wikipedia">State church of the Roman Empire in wikipedia</a>
1/1/04861/1/0751The Merovingian dynastyThe Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that came to rule the Franks in a region known as Francia in Latin, largely corresponding to ancient Gaul, for 300 years from the middle of the 5th century. The Merovingian dynasty was founded by Childeric I (c.457 – 481) the son of Merovech, leader of the Salian Franks, but it was his famous son Clovis I (481 – 511) who united all of Gaul under Merovingian rule. After the death of Clovis there were frequent clashes between different branches of the family, but when threatened by its neighbours the Merovingians presented a strong united front. During the final century of the Merovingian rule, the dynasty was increasingly pushed into a ceremonial role. The Merovingian rule ended in March 752 when Pope Zachary formally deposed Childeric III.[1][2] Zachary's successor, Pope Stephen II, confirmed and anointed Pepin the Short, in 754 beginning the Carolingian monarchy.<a href="" target="_blank" title="Merovingian dynasty in wikipedia">Merovingian dynasty in wikipedia</a>
1/1/05001/1/1000Early Middle Ages (the dark ages)The Early Middle Ages was the period of European history lasting from the 5th century to the 10th century. The Early Middle Ages followed the decline of the Western Roman Empire and preceded the High Middle Ages (c. 1001–1300). The period saw a continuation of trends begun during late classical antiquity, including population decline, especially in urban centres, a decline of trade, and increased immigration. The period has been labelled the "Dark Ages", a characterization highlighting the relative paucity of literary and cultural output from this time, especially in Western Europe. However, the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantine Empire, continued to survive, and in the 7th century the Islamic caliphates conquered swaths of formerly Roman territory.
Many of these trends were reversed later in the period. In 800 the title of emperor was revived in Western Europe by Charlemagne, whose Carolingian Empire greatly affected later European social structure and history. Europe experienced a return to systematic agriculture in the form of the feudal system, which introduced such innovations as three-field planting and the heavy plow. Barbarian migration stabilized in much of Europe, though the north was greatly affected by the Viking expansion.<a href="" target="_blank" title="Early Middle Ages in wikipedia">Early Middle Ages in wikipedia</a>
1/1/07151/1/1492Islamic occupation of southern SpainAl-Andalus also known as the Moorish Iberia, was a medieval Muslim state in parts of what are today Spain, Portugal, Gibraltar, and France. The name more generally describes parts of the Iberian Peninsula and Septimania governed by Muslims (given the generic name of Moors), at various times between 711 and 1492, though the boundaries changed constantly in wars with Christian kingdoms. The society of Al-Andalus was made up of three main religious groups: Christians, Muslims and Jews. The Muslims, though united on the religious level, had several ethnic divisions, the main being the distinction between the Berbers and the Arabs. Combining the best of what Muslim, Jewish, and Christian cultures had to offer, al-Andalus and its successors influenced the rest of Europe in dramatic ways, from the death of liturgical Latin and the spread of secular poetry, to remarkable feats in architecture, science, and technology. The glory of the Andalusian kingdoms endured until the Renaissance, when Christian monarchs forcibly converted, executed, or expelled non-Catholics from Spain. Mosque of Cordoba<a href="" target="_blank" title="Al Andulus in wikipedia">Al Andulus in wikipedia</a>
1/1/07511/1/0888Carolingian dynastyThe Carolingian dynasty was a Frankish noble family with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD. The family consolidated its power in the late 7th century, eventually making the offices of mayor of the palace and 'dux et princeps Francorum' hereditary and becoming the de facto rulers of the Franks as the real powers behind the throne. By 751, the Merovingian dynasty which until then had ruled the Franks by right was deprived of this right with the consent of the Papacy and the aristocracy and a Carolingian, Pepin the Short, was crowned King of the Franks. The greatest Carolingian monarch was Charlemagne, who was crowned Emperor by Pope Leo III at Rome in 800. His empire, ostensibly a continuation of the Roman Empire, is referred to historiographically as the Carolingian Empire. of Charlemagne<a href="" target="_blank" title="Carolingian dynasty in wikipedia">Carolingian dynasty in wikipedia</a>
1/1/10011/1/1300High Middle AgesThe High Middle Ages was the period of European history around the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries (c. 1000–1300). The High Middle Ages were preceded by the Early Middle Ages and followed by the Late Middle Ages, which by convention end around 1500.
The key historical trend of the High Middle Ages was the rapidly increasing population of Europe, which brought about great social and political change from the preceding era. By 1250 the robust population increase greatly benefited the economy, reaching levels it would not see again in some areas until the 19th century. This trend was checked in the Late Middle Ages by a series of calamities, notably the Black Death but also including numerous wars and economic stagnation.
From about the year 780 onwards, Europe saw the last of the barbarian invasions and became more socially and politically organized
1/1/13001/1/1500The Late Middle AgesThe Late Middle Ages was the period of European history generally comprising the 14th to the 16th century (c. 1300–1500). The Late Middle Ages followed the High Middle Ages and preceded the onset of the early modern era (and, in much of Europe, the Renaissance).
Around 1300, centuries of prosperity and growth in Europe came to a halt. A series of famines and plagues, such as the Great Famine of 1315–1317 and the Black Death, reduced the population to around half of what it was before the calamities. Along with depopulation came social unrest and endemic warfare. France and England experienced serious peasant uprisings: the Jacquerie, the Peasants' Revolt, as well as over a century of intermittent conflict in the Hundred Years' War. To add to the many problems of the period, the unity of the Catholic Church was shattered by the Western Schism. Collectively these events are sometimes called the Crisis of the Late Middle Ages.[2]
Despite these crises, the 14th century was also a time of great progress within the arts and sciences. Following a renewed interest in ancient Greek and Roman texts that took root in the High Middle Ages, the Italian Renaissance began.
1/1/13501/1/1650The RenaissanceThe Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned the period roughly from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. Though availability of paper and the invention of metal movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the later 15th century, the changes of the Renaissance were not uniformly experienced across Europe. As a cultural movement, it encompassed innovative flowering of Latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century resurgence of learning based on classical sources, which contemporaries credited to Petrarch, the development of linear perspective and other techniques of rendering a more natural reality in painting, and gradual but widespread educational reform. In politics the Renaissance contributed the development of the conventions of diplomacy, and in science an increased reliance on observation. Historians often argue this intellectual transformation was a bridge between the Middle Ages and the Modern era. Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is perhaps best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term "Renaissance man".
1/1/14501/1/1650Age of Conquest/ ColonizationIn mainstream literature referred to as The Age of Discovery, also known as the Age of Exploration , was a period starting in the early 15th century and continuing to the 17th century during which Europeans explored Africa, the Americas, Asia and Oceania. The Age of Discovery can be seen as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the Modern era, along with its contemporary Renaissance movement, triggering the early modern period and the rise of European nation-states. Accounts from distant lands and maps spread with the help of the new printing press fed the rise of humanism and worldly curiosity, ushering in a new age of scientific and intellectual inquiry. European overseas expansion led to the rise of colonial empires, with the contact between the Old and New Worlds producing the Columbian Exchange: a wide transfer of plants, animals, foods, human populations (including slaves), communicable diseases, and culture between the Eastern and Western hemispheres, in one of the most significant global events concerning ecology, agriculture, and culture in history. European exploration allowed the global mapping of the world, resulting in a new world-view and distant civilizations acknowledging each other, reaching the most remote boundaries much later.
1/1/14921/2/1492Discovery of the Americas by Colombus
1/1/17001/1/1800Age of Enlightenment/ Reason
1/1/17121/1/1830The 1st. Industrial RevolutionThe Industrial Revolution was a period from 1750 to 1905 where changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times. It began in the United Kingdom, then subsequently spread throughout Western Europe, North America, Japan, and eventually the rest of the world. The first industrial revolution got kickstarted with the invention of the steam engine and new inventions in the manufacturing of textiles (eg. "spinning Jenny" & the cotton Gin.)
1/1/17631/1/1783The American revolutionThe American Revolution was the political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break free from the British Empire, combining to become the United States of America. They first rejected the authority of the Parliament of Great Britain to govern them from overseas without representation, and then expelled all royal officials. By 1774, each colony had established a Provincial Congress, or an equivalent governmental institution, to govern itself, but still within the empire. The British responded by sending combat troops to re-impose direct rule. Through the Second Continental Congress, the Americans managed the armed conflict against the British known as the American Revolutionary War (also: American War of Independence, 1775–83).!/ArjunaSoriano/status/164181156147900416
1/1/17751/1/1848Age of Revolutions
1/1/17991/1/1815Napoleonic EuropeIn 1799, Napoleon staged a coup d'état and installed himself as First Consul; five years later the French Senate proclaimed him emperor. In the first decade of the 19th century, the French Empire under Napoleon engaged in a series of conflicts—the Napoleonic Wars—that involved every major European power.[1] After a streak of victories, France secured a dominant position in continental Europe, and Napoleon maintained the French sphere of influence through the formation of extensive alliances and the appointment of friends and family members to rule other European countries as French client states.
The Peninsular War and 1812 French invasion of Russia marked turning points in Napoleon's fortunes. His Grande Armée was badly damaged in the campaign and never fully recovered. In 1813, the Sixth Coalition defeated his forces at Leipzig; the following year the Coalition invaded France, forced Napoleon to abdicate and exiled him to the island of Elba. Less than a year later, he escaped Elba and returned to power, but was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815.
1/1/18751/1/1905The 2nd. Industrial RevolutionThe Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the Technological Revolution, was a phase of the larger Industrial Revolution corresponding to the latter half of the 19th century until World War I. It is considered to have begun with Bessemer steel in the 1860s and culminated in mass production and the production line.
The Second Industrial Revolution saw rapid industrial development in Western Europe (Britain, Germany, France, the Low Countries) as well as the United States and Japan. It followed on from the First Industrial Revolution that began in Britain in the late 18th century that then spread throughout Western Europe and North America. Landes (2003) stresses the importance of new technologies, especially electricity, the internal combustion engine, new materials and substances, including alloys and chemicals, and communication technologies such as the telegraph and radio. While the first industrial revolution was centered on iron, steam technologies and textile production, the second industrial revolution revolved around steel, railroads, electricity, and chemicals.
2/27/02725/22/0337Constantine the GreatConstantine the Great also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was Roman Emperor from 306 to 337. Well known for being the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity. Constantine and co-Emperor Licinius issued the Edict of Milan in 313, which proclaimed tolerance of all religions throughout the empire. Constantine defeated the emperors Maxentius and Licinius during civil wars. He also fought successfully against the Franks, Alamanni, Visigoths, and Sarmatians during his reign—even resettling parts of Dacia which had been abandoned during the previous century. Constantine built a new imperial residence at Byzantium, naming it New Rome. However, in Constantine's honor, people called it Constantinople, which would later be the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire for over one thousand years. Because of this, he is thought of as the founder of the Eastern Roman Empire. Constantine founder of the (Eastern Roman) Byzantine Empire.<a href="" target="_blank" title="Constantine the Great in wikipedia">Constantine the Great in wikipedia</a>
07/12/-010003/15/-0044Gaius Julius CaesarGaius Julius Caesar was a Roman general and statesman and a distinguished writer of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the gradual transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. Caesar<a href="" target="_blank" title="Julius Caesar in wikipedia">Julius Caesar in wikipedia</a>
7/14/17891/1/1799The French RevolutionThe French Revolution was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France that had a major impact on France and throughout the rest of Europe. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years. French society underwent an epic transformation, as feudal, aristocratic and religious privileges evaporated under a sustained assault from radical left-wing political groups, masses on the streets, and peasants in the countryside. Old ideas about tradition and hierarchy – of monarchy, aristocracy, and religious authority – were abruptly overthrown by new Enlightenment principles of equality, citizenship and inalienable rights.
07/22/-035606/11/-0323Alexander the GreatAlexander succeeded his father, Philip II of Macedon, to the throne in 336 BC. Upon Philip's death, Alexander inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army. He was awarded the generalship of Greece and used this authority to launch his father's military expansion plans. In 334 BC, he invaded Persian-ruled Asia Minor and began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years. He overthrew the Persian King Darius III and conquered the entirety of the Persian Empire. At that point, his empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River.<a href="" target="_blank" title="Alexander in wikipedia">Alexander in wikipedia</a>
9/4/0467Fall of the Western Roman Empire<a href="" target="_blank" title="Fall of the Western Roman Empire in wikipedia">Fall of the Western Roman Empire in wikipedia</a>
9/15/04009/15/0800The Migration AgeThe Migration Period was a period of intensified human migration in Europe from about 400 to 800 AD. This period marked the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages. Migrations were catalyzed by profound changes within the Roman Empire and on its "barbarian frontier".<a href="" target="_blank" title="Migration Age in wikipedia">Migration Age in wikipedia</a>
10/1/05007/4/2012Western cultureWestern culture is neither homogeneous
nor unchanging. As with all other cultures it has evolved and gradually
changed over time. All generalities about it have their exceptions at
some time and place.<a href="" target="_blank" title="Western Culture in wikipedia">Western Culture in wikipedia</a>start
11/01/-080009/15/-0480Ancient Greece The Archaic period in Greece (800 BC – 480 BC) was a period of ancient Greek history that followed the Greek Dark Ages. This period saw the rise of the polis and the founding of colonies, as well as the first inklings of classical philosophy, theatre in the form of tragedies performed during Dionysia, and written poetry, which appeared with the reintroduction of the written language, lost during the Greek Dark Ages. The term archaic covers these cultural aspects as well. The Archaic period in Greece (800 BC – 480 BC) was a period of ancient Greek history that followed the Greek Dark Ages. This period saw the rise of the polis and the founding of colonies, as well as the first inklings of classical philosophy, theatre in the form of tragedies performed during Dionysia, and written poetry, which appeared with the reintroduction of the written language, lost during the Greek Dark Ages. The sharp rise in population at the start of the Archaic period brought with it the settlement of new towns and the expansion of the older population centres. The Archaic period is also characterized by the spread of colonization along the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts that began about 800 B.C. The reason for this phenomenon is described by Greek authors as stenochoria, or "the lack of land", but in practice it was caused by a great number of reasons, such as rivalry between political groups, a desire for adventure, expatriation, the search for trade opportunities, etc. european taking a bath...<a href="" target="_blank" title="Ancient Greece in wikipedia">Ancient Greece in wikipedia</a>
11/16/-002711/17/0476Roman EmpireThe Roman Empire (Latin: IMPERIVM ROMANVM) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean. Caesar Divi F. Augustus, was the founder of the Roman Empire and its first Emperor, ruling from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD<a href="" target="_blank" title="Roman Empire in wikipedia">Roman Empire in wikipedia</a>
12/25/-000201/01/-0007Jesus ChristJesus also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth is the central figure of the Christianity, whom a majority of Christian denominations worship as God the Son incarnated.
Virtually all scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus existed. Most scholars hold that Jesus was a Jewish teacher from Galilee in Roman Judaea, was baptized by John the Baptist, and was crucified in Jerusalem on the orders of the Roman Prefect, Pontius Pilate. of Nazareth expulses money changers (Caravaggio)
1/1/08001/1/0888Carolingian EmpireCarolingian Empire (800–888) is a historiographical term which has been used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the Carolingian dynasty in the Early Middle Ages. This dynasty is seen as the founders of France and Germany, and its beginning date is based on the crowning of Charlemagne, or Charles the Great, and ends with the death of Charles the Fat. Depending on one's perspective, this Empire can be seen as the later history of the Frankish Realm or the early history of France and of the Holy Roman Empire.<a href="" target="_blank" title="Carolingian Empire in wikipedia">Carolingian Empire in wikipedia</a>
1/1/09551/1/1806Holy Roman EmpireThe Holy Roman Empire explicitly proclaimed itself to be the successor of the Western Roman Empire under the doctrine of translatio imperii. In 962 Otto I was crowned Holy Roman Emperor (German: Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser), although the Roman imperial title was first restored to Charlemagne by the Pope in 800. Otto was the first emperor of the realm who was not a member of the earlier Carolingian dynasty. The last Holy Roman Emperor was Francis II, who abdicated and dissolved the Empire in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. Holy Roman Empire from 962 to 1806<a href="" target="_blank" title="Holy Roman Empire in wikipedia">Holy Roman Empire in wikipedia</a>
1/1/07501/1/1050The Viking AgeThe Vikings who invaded western and eastern Europe were chiefly pagans from Denmark, Norway and Sweden. It is unknown what triggered the Norse expansion and conquests. The start of the Viking Age, with the sack of Lindisfarne, also coincided with Charlemagne's Saxon Wars, or Christian wars with pagans in Saxony. Historians Rudolf Simek and Bruno Dumézil theorise that the Viking attacks may have been in response to the spread of Christianity among pagan peoples.
It has been suggested that the Scandinavians suffered from unequal trade practices imposed by Christian advocates and that this eventually led to the breakdown in trade relations and raiding. A two-tiered system of pricing existed with both declared and undeclared merchants trading secretly with banned parties.
Historians also suggest that the Scandinavian population was too large for the peninsula and there was not enough good farmland for everyone. This led to a hunt for more land. Particularly for the settlement and conquest period that followed the early raids, internal strife in Scandinavia resulted in the progressive centralisation of power into fewer hands. Formerly empowered local lords who did not want to be oppressed by greedy kings emigrated overseas. Iceland became Europe's first modern republic, with an annual assembly of elected officials called the Althing, though only goði (wealthy landowners) had the right to vote there. and voyages of the Vikings<a href="" target="_blank" title="The Viking Age in wikipedia">The Viking Age in wikipedia</a>
1/1/09501/1/1250The Medieval warm periodThe Medieval Warm Period (MWP), Medieval Climate Optimum, or Medieval Climatic Anomaly was a time of warm climate in the North Atlantic region, that may also have been related to other climate events around the world during that time, including in China,[1] and other countries lasting from about AD 950 to 1250.[8] It was followed by a cooler period in the North Atlantic termed the Little Ice Age. Some refer to the event as the Medieval Climatic Anomaly as this term emphasizes that effects other than temperature were important. Warmth in some regions appears to have matched or exceeded recent levels of warmth in these regions, but globally the Medieval Warm Period was cooler than recent global temperatures.<a href="" target="_blank" title="The Medieval warm period in wikipedia">The Medieval warm period in wikipedia</a>
1/1/15501/1/1850Little Ice AgeThe Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period (Medieval Climate Optimum). While it was not a true ice age, the term was introduced into the scientific literature by François E. Matthes in 1939. It may be conventionally defined as a period extending from the 16th to the 19th centuries, or about 1350 to about 1850 though climatologists and historians working with local records no longer expect to agree on either the start or end dates of this period, which varied according to local conditions. NASA defines the term as a cold period between AD 1550 and AD 1850 and notes three particularly cold intervals: one beginning about 1650, another about 1770, and the last in 1850, each separated by intervals of slight warming Winterlandscape with skaters and bird trap<a href="" target="_blank" title="Little Ice Age in wikipedia">Little Ice Age in wikipedia</a>
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