Metadata: 15N tracer incubations for N2 fixation rate measurements (Responses)
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TimestampLocation/Cruise IDDate (enter range as text, e.g. 1989-2013; 18 June - 3 July 2016; November - December 2006)LatitudeLongitudeDepth range (m)Temperature Range (C)Salinity RangeSample TypeSampling method (CTD/GOFLO/Underway)Applicable data linksCollection notesMethod used (bubble, modified bubble, enrichment, other)Method reference(s)Incubation type (on deck or in-situ)Incubation duration (hours)Local start timeLocal end time Bottle type (PP, PC, or other)Incubation volumeLight levels15N injection volume15N brand15N lot numberShaking? If yes, describe method15N2 enrichmentSampling procedure for 15N215N2 sample storageMass spectrometric method usedStandardizationFilter type (GFF, pore size, combusted/uncombusted) Filters acid fumed Trace metal cleanBrand of Mass spec used Range of Limit of Detection (give units)Range of Minimum Quantifiable Rate (give units)Range of PN massRange of Atom Percent (A%) of PN samples Range of mass and A% of standards 13C productivity incubations13C productivity incubations notesReference (Author, journal, year)Form data entry by (name and email)Email Address
2
Western tropical South Pacific (OUTPACE cruise)
18 February - 3 April 201522° S to 17° 30'S166°E to 149° 30'W0 to 150
Water-column samples
Niskin on CTD rosette15N incubationMontoya et al., 1996
in-situ and on-deck
24polycarbonate
4.5 (in-situ); 2.3 (on-deck)
in-situ levels; 75, 54, 36, 10, 1 and 0.1% surface irradiance level
5 mL of 15N2 gas (99 atom% 15N) (in-situ); 2.5 mL of 15N2 gas (on-deck)
Eurisotop 99 atom%
Y. Shaken 20 times
12 mL of each 4.5 bottle subsampled in Exetainers
fixed with HgCl2 and stored upside down at 4oC in the dark, analyzed within 6 months after the cruise
MIMS
25 mm, 0.7 um porosity, Whatman GF/F filters, pre-combusted (450oC, 4 h), stored frozen at -20oC, then dried at 60oC for 24h before analysis
EA-IRMS Integra2 Sercon Ltd
0.035 nmol N L-1 d-1
Yes
(used 14C tracer method of Moutin and Raimbault, 2002)
Caffin et al., Biogeosciences, 2018
3
HOT program time-series cruise to Station ALOHA
1989-201322° 45'N158° 00'W0 to 125
Water-column samples
Niskin on CTD rosette
15N incubation (bubble method and 15N enriched water)
Montoya et al., 1996 and Wilson et al., 2012
In-situ and on-deck
24
acid-washed polycarbonate bottles/caps fitted with silicone septa
4.3
in-situ levels and in the shade
3 mL of 15N2 (bubble method); 100 mL of 15N2-enriched water
Cambridge Isotope Laboratories between June 2005 and September 2009; Sigma-Aldrich between November 2009 and May 2012; Sigma-Aldrich between June 2012 and September 2013; and Cambridge Isotope Laboratories between October and December 2013.
Sigma-Aldrich lots SZ1670V, EB1169, and CX0937 and Cambridge Isotope Laboratories Lot I-16727
2.8 and 3 atom% at beginning of incubations with enriched water
MIMS
25 mm GF/F filters, stored frozen at -20oC
Yes
Carlo-Erba EA NC2500 coupled with ThermoFinnigan Delta S
NoBottjer et al., Limnology and Oceanography, 2017
4
1) Eastern South Pacific, BIG RAPA (R/V Melville), 2) Pacific North-west California Current system (Fairweather and R/V Point Sur), 3) Station ALOHA (R/V Kilo Moana)
November to December 2010 (Eastern South Pacific); August 2012 (Pacific North-West California Current system; March 2014 (Station ALOHA)
5 to 420
Water-column samples
Niskin on CTD rosette
15N incubation (15N enriched water)
Mohr et al., 2010; Wilson et al., 2012; Montoya et al., 1996
on-deck24
acid-washed and milli-Q rinsed polycarbonate bottles (1.1 or 2.2 L for PNW incubations, and 4.4 L for ESP incubations)
1.1 to 4.5
either in the dark of with screening to mimic approximate in situ light conditions
350 mL (ESP incubations) or 200 mL (PNW incubations) of 15N2-enriched seawater (5 mL 99 atom% in 500 mL)
99.0 atom% Cambridge Isotopes
2-10% by volumeMIMS
25 mm GF/F filter, pre-combusted, frozen at -80oC
0.00146 atom % (Montoya et al., 1996)
0.15 to 0.77 nmol N L-1 d-1 (ESP), 0.04 to 1.08 nmol N L-1 d-1 (NPSG), 0.06 to 0.69 nmol N L-1 d-1 (PNW)
0.369 to 0.389 (T = final, average)
NoGradoville et al., Limnology and Oceanography, 2017
5
tropical coral Stylophora pistillata22.328° S166.410° E
26 ± 0.1oC, and 27oC
35.69 ± 0.02
Stylophora pistillata samples
15N incubation (15N enriched water addition)
Mohr et al., 2010; Grobkopf et al., 2012
on-deck4, and 24
glass containers, polycarbonate
1 and 4.3
20% volume with 15N-enriched seawater
pre-combusted (450oC, 5 h) GF/F filter
EA-IRMS, Integra CN, SerCon Ltd, Cheshire, UK
0.012-0.219%No
Benavides et al., Journal of Experimental Biology, 2016
6
VAHINE (Variability of vertical and trophic transfer of diazotroph derived N in the souh west Pacific), oligotrophic New Caledonian lagoon
13 January to 6 February 2013
22° 28.855'N166° 26.724'E1, 6 and 12
Water-column samples
Niskin on CTD rosette
15N incubation (15N enriched water)
Mohr et al., 2010; Wilson et al., 2012
in-situ (mesocosm experiments)
24
polycarbonate bottles
4.5in-situ levels
5% vol/vol of 15N2-enriched seawater (1 mL of 15N2 98.9 atom% per 100 mL of seawater)
98.9 atom%, Cambridge Isotope Laboratories
2.4 ± 0.2 at % (n = 10)
12 mL subsampled in exetainers
preserved upside down in the dark at 4oC and analyzed less than 6 months after the experiment
MIMS
25 mm GF/F filter, pre-combusted (4 h at 450oC), 0.7 um nominal porosity, frozen at -20oC
Delta Pkus Thermo Fisher Scientific IRMS coupled with a Flash EA, Thermo Fisher Scientific
15N enrichment of the PON higher than 3 times the standard deviation obtained from T0 samples
NoBonnet et al., Biogeosciences, 2016
7
Baltic Sea
26/27 June, 17/18 July, 06/07 Aug 2012; 18/19 June, 17/18 July, 14/15 Aug 2013
58° 48' and 58° 35' N
17°38 and 18°14 E0 to 1214 to 18.4
Water-column samples
Niskin on CTD rosette
15N incubation (15N enriched in-situ water)
Montoya et al., 1996; Mohr et al., 2010
129 AM, 9 PM9 PM, 9 AMDuran bottle1in-situ levels
2012: 50 mL of 15N-enriched water (1 mL 15N2 per 100 mL water); 2013: 50 mL 15M-enriched water (2.4 mL 15N2 per 100 mL)
Aldrich, 98 atom%372382
yes, gently inverted 20-times by hand
1-1.5% in 2012 and 10-11% in 2013
headspace-free 12 mL exetainer vials
preserved with 100 uL saturated ZnCl2 solution
MIMS or GC-IRMS
25 mm GF/F Whatman filter, pre-combusted, frozen at -80oC, and freeze-dried
YesEA-IRMSYesKlawoon et al., Environmental Microbiology, 2016
8
Eastern tropical South Pacific
January to February 2010; March to April 2011
20°S80°W and 100°Wupper 400
Water-column samples
Niskin on CTD rosette
15N incubation (bubble method)
on-deck0, 12, 24, and 48
acid-washed, sample-rinsed, light transparent polycarbonate
4
simulated in-situ levels
1.5 mL of 99 atom% 15N2
Sigma Aldrich
SZ1670V and MBBB0968V
25 mm Whatman glass fiber filter, precombusted
YesKnapp et al., PNAS, 2016
9
VAHINE (Variability of vertical and trophic transfer of diazotroph derived N in the souh west Pacific), oligotrophic New Caledonian lagoon
13 January 2013 to 4 February 2013
22° 28.855'N166° 26.724'E1, 6 and 12
Water-column samples
Niskin on CTD rosette
15N incubation (15N enriched in-situ water)
Mohr et al., 2010
in-situ (mesocosm experiments)
polycarbonate bottles
4.5in-situ levels
1:20 (vol:vol) of 15N2-enriched seawater (1 mL of 98.9% per 100 mL)
98.9% Cambridge Isotopes
2.4 ± 0.2 atom% (n=10)
12 mL of incubated water sampled on Exetainers
MIMS
GF/F filter, combusted, stored at -20oC, dried at 60oC for 24 hr prior to analysis
Delta Plus coupled to a Flash EA (Thermo Fisher Scientific)
YesBerthelot et al., Biogeosciences, 2015
10
transect crossing North Atlantic to the Bahamas onboard R/V Sarmiento de Gamboa
27 January to 15 March 2011>24° 30'N75 to 15°W5
Water-column samples
Niskin on CTD rosette
15N incubation (bubble method and 15N enriched water)
Montoya et al., 1996 and Mohr et al., 2010
on-deck3 to 4
transparent polycarbonate (Nalgene)
2.4
covered with neutral density screens (Lee Filters)
200 mL of 15N2-enriched seawater (5 mL 99 atom% in 500 mL)
99 at % 15N, Cambridge Isotope Laboratories
MIMS
25 mm GF/F filters, precombusted, stored in cryovials and frozen.
No
Benavides et al., Journal of Geophysical Research, 2013
11
Gulf of California and Eastern Tropical North Pacific
summers of 2004, 2005 and 2008
105°W to 120°W
between surface and 40-60
Water-column samples
free-floating array, Niskin on CTD rosette
15N incubation (bubble method)
Montoya et al., 1996
in-situ and on-deck
24dawndawn
see White et al. (2007)
see White et al. (2007)
in situ levels
see White et al. (2007)
see White et al. (2007)
see White et al. (2007)
see White et al. (2007)
25 mm diameter, precombusted (450oC for 12 h) glass fiber filters (GF/F), stored at -20oC, dried overnight at 60oC, acidified before analysis
Yes
see Prahl et al. (2005)
YesWhite et al., Progress in Oceanography, 2013
12
North American coastal waters between Cape Hatteras and Georges Bank/R/V Hugh Sharp (summe and automn 2006) and R/V Delaware II (August 2009)
summer and fall 2006 and August 2009
36.5°N and 39°N; 35°N and 43°N
(-76°W and -74°W; -76°W and -65°W)
upper 6 m, between and near the bottom
Water-column samples
Niskin on CTD rosette
15N incubation (bubble method)
Montoya et al., 1996; Mulholland et al., 2006
24
incubation bottles and clean carboys
10 L carboys
<10% of 99% 15N gas
GF/F filter, pre-combusted (450oC for 2 h), stored frozen and dried before analysis
Europa 20-20NoMulholland et al., Limnology and Oceanography, 2012
13
HOT cruises
October 2010 and December 2011
22° 45'N158° 00'W5 to 45
Water-column samples, Oligotrophic North Pacific Ocean
Niskin on CTD rosette
C2H2 and 15N incubation (15N enriched water addition and bubble addition)
Montoya et al., 1996 and Mohr et al., 2010
in-situ and on-deck
3 to 4
polycarbonate bottle
4.3
in-situ levels and 50, 25 and 10% of full sunlight
50 mL of 15N-enriched seawater from 70 ml crimp sealead vials with enriched seawater from surface waters at station ALOHA prepared on land added to , no headspace. Samples for bubble method were injected with 3 mL of 15N2 gas (98 atom%).
98 atom%, Sigma-Aldrich)
Y. Inverted 20 times (enriched 15N water) and gently shaken (bubble method)
1.5 atom% at beginning of incubations with enriched water.
15N2 was NOT measured after incubation. Replicate samples of prepared 15N2-enriched seawater were analyzed for the loss of 15N2 at weekly intervals over a 1-month period.
MIMS
Compare the ratio of mass 30 in 15N2 enriched seawater/reference seawater at 25oC.
25 mm glass fiter filters combusted (450oC for 5h), stored frozen at -20oC
EA-IRMS Carlo Erba NC2500 coupled to Thermo-Finnigan Delta S
No
Wilson et al., Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2012
14
Subtropical northeast Atlantic/project 'Shelf-Ocean Exchanges in the Canaries - Iberian Large Marine Ecosystem' (CAIBEX), R/V 'Sarmiento de Gamboa
summer 200928°N to 42°N10°W to 23°Wsurface
Water-column samples
Niskin on CTD rosette
15N incubation (bubble method) and C2H2 reduction experiments
Stal, 1988 and Montoya et al., 1996
on-deck24
Polycarbonate (Nalgene)
1.24
incident PAR light at 5 m depth (Neutral density screens - Lee Filters)
2 ml 99 atom %Tracer Tec9.8 to 11.2%
precombusted GF/F filters, wrapped in aluminium foil, and storel at -20oC until analysis
Thermo Flash EA 1112 elemental analyser interfaced by a Conflo III with a Thermo Delta V Advantage IRMS
0.001 nmol N l-1 d-1 (considering a minimum acceptable change of d15N between the initial and the final PON sample of 4 ‰, the incubation time and the detection limit of the elemental analyser used (0.75 ug N))
NoBenavides et al., Aquatic Microbial Ecology, 2011
15
Mediterranean Sea/BOUM cruise onboard the R/V Atalante
16 June 2008 to 20 July 200842°50N to 43°07N5°52E to 38°50Esubsurface down to 160
Water-column samples
Niskin on CTD rosette
15N incubation (bubble method)
Montoya et al., 1996
in-situ and on-deck
24before dawn
acid-washed polycarbonate
4.5
75%, 50%, 35%, 20%, 10%, 3% 1%, 0.3% and 0.1% surface irradiance levels
4 mL of 99% 15N2 gas
99% EURISOTOPY. Shaken 10 times
25 mm, 0.7 um nominal porosity GF/F pre-combusted (4 h at 450oC) glass fiber filters, dried at 60oC, then stored over dessicant until analysis
Integra-CN
0.08 to 0.15 umoles (3 times the standard deviation on 10 blanks analysis)
0.10 to 0.19 umoles N (10 times the standard deviation on 10 blanks analysis)
0.45 to 3.65 umoles N
NoBonnet et al., Biogeosciences, 2011
16
Eastern Arabian Sea/cruise #SK 258 on board ORV Sagar Kanya
16 April to 1 May 200913°N to 14°N73.5°E to 74.5°Esurface, 5, 10 and 15
Water-column samples
CTD rosette fitted with Go-Flo bottles/care was taken to avoid trace metal contamination
15N incubation (bubble method)
Montoya et al., 1996on-deck410:0014:00
polycarbonate (Nalgene, USA)
1.25in-situ levels2 mL of 15N2 gas
99% Cambridge Isotope Laboratories, Massachusetts, USA
25 mm, 0.7 um nominal porosity GF/F pre-combusted (4h at 400 oC) Whatmann glass fiber filters and dried in an oven at 50oC overnight and stored until analysis
Flash EA 1112 series, CE instruments, Italy, interfaced with a Finnigan Delta Plus Continuous Flow Mass Spectrometer
YesGandhi et al., Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 2011
17
two hypoxic basins in the Southern California Bight/San Pedro Ocean Time Series (SPOTS) station (RV Sea Watch), Santa Monica Bay Observatory (SMBO) station (RV Seaworld)
July 2004 to September 2006 (SPOTS), July 2006 to July 2007 (SMBO)
33.5°N to 40°N118.7°W to 118.4°W
surface, chlorophyll maximum (range 16 to 37 m), 500 m, and 885 m (ca. 1.5 m from bottom) (SPOTS),
5oC to 23oC
Water-column samples
Niskin on CTD rosette
15N incubation (bubble method)
Montoya et al., 2004on-deck24polycarbonate
4 (SPOTS), 2.5 (SMBO)
ambient light, 1% of surface, and dark
trace additions of 98 atom% 15N2
98 atom%, Sigma-Aldrich
Nucleopore prefilters (Whatman) of poresize 10 um followed by precombusted GF/F (poresize 0.7 um, Whatman) or on some dates, through GF/F filters alone, dried for 24 h at 60oC
SerCon Integra, University of California Davis, Stable Isotope Facility
YesHamersley et al., Aquatic Microbial Ecology, 2011
18
Atlantic Ocean/TRYNITROP (Trichodesmium and N2 fixation in the Atlantic Ocean) cruise
April-May 200830°N to 30°S15°W to 35°W
surface, deep chlorophyll maximum, and an intermediate depth between both
Water-column samples
Niskin on CTD rosette
15N incubation (bubble method)
Montoya et al., 1996on-deck24
clear polycarbonate
2in-situ levels2 mL of 15N298 atom%, SerCon
25 mm GF/F filter (Whatman), dried at 40oC for 24 h, and stored until analysis
Flash EA112 + Deltaplus Thermo Finnigan
acetanilide standard
Yes
(14C method used, separate incubations)
Mourino-Carballido et al, Limnology and Oceanography, 2011
19
North Pacific subtropical and subarctic gyres (Pacific Open Ocean Bloom cruise) and near the Hawaiian islands (Ocean PERturbation Experiment cruise, OPEREX)
28°N to 32°N 22°N to 26°N
162°W to 138°Wupper 50
Water-column samples
Niskin on CTD rosette
15N incubation (bubble method)
Montoya et al., 1996on-deck24
Acid-washed polycarbonate bottles
4.4
10 and 60% irradiance
2.0 mL of 15N gas
99 atom% Cambridge Scientific
Y. Inverted several times
25 mm pre-combusted glass fiber filter, stored at -20oC, dried overnight at 60oC before analysis
YesNo
PDZ Europa ANCA-GSL elemental analyzer interfaced to a PDZ Europa 20-20 IRMS
Yes
Watkins-Brandt et al., Marine Ecology Progress Series, 2011
20
Atlantic Ocean/TRYNITROP (Trichodesmium and N2 fixation in the Atlantic Ocean) cruise, on board BIO Hesperides
November-December 2007 and April-May 2008
26°S to 33°S (2007) and 29°S to 31°S (2008)
28-29°W
surface (5), an intermediate depth (30-80), and the depth of the deep chlorophill maximum
Water-column samples
Niskin on CTD rosette
15N incubation (bubble method)
Montoya et al., 1996 with modifications described in Rees et al. (2009)
on-deck24
acid-cleaned clear polycarbonate (Nalgene)
2
in-situ levels (simulated by blue (Mist Blue, Lee filters) and neutral density screens)
2 mL of 15N2
98% atom%, SerCon
Whatman GF/F filter (25 mm in diameter), dried at 40oC during 24 h and stored at room temperature until analysis
FlashEA112 + Deltaplus Thermo Finnigan
(acetanilide standard)
NoFernandez et al., Biogeosciences, 2010
21
North Pacific subtropical gyre/Station ALOHA, instrumented physical and biogeochemical bottom-moored platforms, HALE ALOHA (Hawaii Air-sea Logging Experiment A Long-term Oligotrophic Habitat Assessment) and WHOTS (Woods Hole Hawaii Ocean Time-series Station)
August 2004 to July 2007 (HALE ALOHA), August 2004-2007 (WHOTS)
22° 45'N158° 00'W5, 25, 45, 75, 100, 125
Water-column samples
Niskin on CTD rosette
15N incubation (bubble method)
Montoya et al., 1996in-situ24before dawnpolycarbonate4.5in-situ levels3 ml of 98% 15N2
98% Isotech Laboratories, Inc.
precombusted 25 mm glass fiber filters, dried for 24 h
EA-IRMA Carlo Erba NC2500 coupled to a Thermo-Finnigan Delta S)
NoChurch et al., Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 2009
22
Tropical and subtropical western North Pacific/MR04-07 and MR05-02 cruises on board the R/V Mirai
November to December 2004 and May to June 2005
2°N to 37°N155°E and 149° 20'E
Water-column samples
HCl-rinsed bucket and Niskin-X samplers mounted on CTD-carousel
C2H2 reduction experiments
Capone and Montoya, 2001)
on-deck24
HCl-rinsed polyethylene-terephthalate
1.2
50%, 25%, 10% and 1%
NoKitajima et al., Limnology and Oceanography, 2009
23
Oligotrophic North Pacific Ocean/close proximity to stn ALOHA
July-August 200522° 45'N158° 00'W5
Water-column samples
Niskin on CTD rosette
15N incubation (bubble method)
Montoya et al., 1996on-deck24polycarbonate0.5
30% incident irradiance
3 mL of 98% 15N gas
25 mm GF/F pre-combusted glass fiber filters and dried
EA-IRMS Carlo Erba NC2500 coupled to a Thermo-Finnigan Delta S
NoFong et al., The ISME Journal, 2008
24
Stn ALOHA/HOT program (cruises 158 to 159, 161 to 165 and 167 to 168)
April to May 2004, July to November 2004, and February to March 2005
22° 45'N158° 00'Wupper 12520.6 to 26.6oC
Water-column samples
Niskin on CTD rosette
stringent trace metal clean procedures were not employed
15N incubation (bubble method)
Montoya et al., 1996; Capone & Montoya, 2001
on-deck24
acid-washed Tedlar gas sampling bags fitted with gas-tight Teflon-backed septa and polycarbonate bottles sealed with caps fitted with thick silicone septa (cruises 167 and 168)
4.7 (bags), 4.5 (bottles)
simulated in-situ levels
1 mL of 15N299% Isotech
GFF filter and 10 um Nitex mesh filtrate also filtered onto a GFF filter, stored frozen (-20oC), until analysis
Carlo-Erba Elemental Analyzer NC2500 interfaced with a Finnigan delta S ion ratio mass spectrometer
0.06 umol N m-3 d-1 (analytical capability of the instrument - calculated for the smallest PN masses sampled, using twice the conservative upper estimate of instrument precision, 0.8 ‰)
0.03 umol N m-3 d-1 (calculated from twice the average standard error of triplicate T0 values (twice 0.32‰) and the average PN mass sampled)
NoGrabowski et al., Aquatic Microbial Ecology, 2008
25
New Caledonia (Southwest Pacific) and Noumea lagoon/ 6 Diapalis cruises on the 'Institut pour la Recherche et le Developpement' (IRD) ship 'l"Alis'
January 2002 and October 2003; October 2005
20°N to 22°N166°E to 167°E
0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 80, 100; between 0 and 20 m in the lagoon
Water-column samples
Niskin on CTD rosette
15N incubation (bubble method)
Montoya et al., 1996in-situ12 ± 1sunrisesunset
Polycarbonate Nalgene Flasks
1.2in-situ levels
2 mL of 99 atomic% 15N2 gas
Eurisotop 99 atom%
Y. Carefully shaken.11 and 14%
pre-combusted (24 h at 450oC), 25 mm Whatman GF/F filter, dried in a 60oC oven for 24 h and analysed as soon as possible after the cruise
Integra-CN PDZ Europa mass spectrometer
>0.014% enrichment (2 times the standard deviation obtained with 8 time=0 samples) or 0.3 nmol l-1 12 h-1
0.3663 ± 0.007% (8 samples filtered immediately after isotope addition)
0.02 to 0.70%
0.2 to 10 umol N, 0.3672 to 0.3681 at % (glycine); 5.23 umol N, 47.3 ± 0.27 at % (Urea, IAEA 310A); 4.49 umol N, 243 ± 0.46 at % (Urea, IAEA 310B)
YesGarcia et al., Marine Ecology Progress Series, 2007
26
Oligotrophic North Pacific OceanOct-0534°N129°W10Seawater samples
Niskin on CTD rosette (trace-metal clean)
15N incubation (bubble method)
Montoya et al., 1996on-deck47 to 49duskdusk
trace-metal clean polycarbonate (Nalgene)
4
40% of surface irradiance
8 mL of 15N2
Cambridge Isotope Laboratories
14.30%
25 mm GF/F Whatman filters, precombusted at 450oC for 4.5 h, dried at 60oC and stored in a dessicator
Y (sealed in a dessicator containing an open beaker of 100% HCl for 36 h)
Yes
Europa Integra continuous flow mass spectrometer (University of California Davis, Stable isotope Facility)
0.01315-0.03179 15N atom % (range in the difference between the time-zero samples and the incubation experiment samples)
0.36773 ± 0.0016 15N atom % (mean and standard deviation of glycine standards)
YesNeedoba et al., Limnology and Oceanography, 2007
27
Tropical North Atlantic (May-June 1994 on R.V. Gyre, March-April and October-November 1996, January-February 2001, and April-May 2003 on R.V. Seward Johnson, and July-August 2001 on R.V. Knorr)
May-June 1994, March-April and October-November 1996, January-February 2001, April-May 2003, and July-August 2001.
5 to 20
Trichodesmium colonies diluted in surface seawater
net tows and Niskin on CTD rosette
C2H2 reduction experiments and 15N incubation (bubble method)
Capone, 1993; Montoya et al., 1996
on-deck2 to 12
acid-washed serum vials (C2H2 method), glass bottle with screw cap seals with rubber septa (15N-N2 bubble method)
14 mL (C2H2 method), 310 mL (15N-N2 bubble method)
100%, 55%, 28%, 10% and 1% of surface irradiance
100 uL of 99 atom%
99 atom% Cambridge Isotopes
45 mm GF/F filter, pre-combusted (2 h at 450oC), dried at 60oC and stored over dessicant
Carlo Erba elemental analyzer interfaced to a Micromass Optima mass spectrometer
NoCapone et al., Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 2005
28
Tropical North Atlantic and Tropical North Pacific Oceans/
summer 2001 and spring 2002, fall 2002
7° 10'23"N to 12° 13'78"N; 22° 75'N
45° 29'60"W to 55° 55'38"W; 158° 00'W
surface, 25, 50, 100, and 150
Cell concentrates diluted 0.2 um pore size filtered seawater (final enrichment = 130 to 160 fold)
Niskin on CTD rosette
15N incubation (bubble method) and C2H2 reduction experiments
Capone, 1993 and Capone and Montoya, 2001
on-deck2414 mL vials14 mL
100, 50, 25, and 1%
9 ul of 15N2
combusted glass fiber filter, folded and left to dry in oven at 60oC before analysis
No
Falcon et al., Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2004
29
Oligotrophic Pacific Ocean/ Hawaii Ocean Timeseries station ALOHA (cruise EW-9912) and along a transect from Hawaii to San Diego (cruise Cook-25)
surface, 25, mixed layer and pigment maximum
Water-column samples filtered through 100 um Nitex mesh to exclude large organisms, including Trichodesmium colonies and large diatoms such as Hemiaulus that might contain endosymbiotic N2 fixers
Niskin on CTD rosette
15N incubation (bubble method)
Montoya et al., 1996on-deck36 to 48
polycarbonate equipped with silicone septum caps
4
trace additions of 99 atom% 15N2
99 atom%, Cambridge Isotope
precombusted GF/F filter after passage through a 10-um prefilter to remove larger phytoplankton, dried at 60oC, then stored over dessicant until analysis
Micromass Optimas mass spectrometer interfaced to a CE Elantech NA2500 elemental analyser
NoMontoya et al., Nature, 2004
30
Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site
January 1995 to November 1997
32°N64°Wsurface to 160
Trichodesmium colonies from water-column samples
surface drift tows, Niskin and Go-Flo
15N incubation (bubble method) and C2H2 reduction experiments
on-deck6 to 8
14 mL serum vial filled with GF/F filtered seawater
in situ levels at 10 m depth; 9 to 60% of ambiant surface light intensity
0.2 mL of 98% of 99% 15N2
98% Cambridge Isotope Laboratories, Cambridge, MA; generated from 15N-labelled (99%) ammonium by treatment with alkaline hypobromite (Bremner, 1965)
7 mm precombusted Whatman GF/C filters, stored at -20oC, dried at 60oC before analysis
Europa 20-20 stable isotope analyzer equipped with ANCA-SL preparation unit, Crewe, UK
Yes
(measured in separate incubations)
Orcutt et al., Deep-Sea Research II, 2001
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