ArgumentAnalysis
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PropLinkscontentsourcerolePossible Signifiermemo on premise content
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Arg1
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P1 AUSIf … what may we conclude …Introductory, asks the question about linking consciousness to animal behaviour
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P2 ARSAs we have seen...reminds reader of previous finding about interpretation
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P3 <=P4 RABwe are obliged to acknowledge ...concludes a limitation in the study of animal psychology
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P4 EASWe do not know the meaning of...
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P5 <=P3RABWhether we will or no, we must be...concludes that animal psychology must be anthropomorphic
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P6 <=P1, P2, P5, P7AGCAccepting this...concludes that there is wide diversity in views within the field
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P7 EGSSome have gone to the extreme of declaring...
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Arg2
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P1VRSThe latter had evidently...sets context for Montaigne’s writings
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P2XQSI quote...example of swallows choosing a nestplace
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P3XQS
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P4XQSexample of spider making a web
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P5 <=P1, P2, P4, P6 AQCTo ascribe such …concludes it is unreasonable to assign all this to mere instinct
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P6XQSexample of fox testing the ice
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Arg3
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P1AQSAs for … I cannot hold their opinion …disagrees with Montaigne
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P2AQSanimals act by force of nature
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P3XQSAnd doubtless...swallows act like clocks
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P4 <=P1, P2, P5ARC… does not assert … but only …automata but not unconscious
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P5 <=P1ARQ… he is willing to ascribe …sensations but not thought
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Arg4
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P1P1OQS… for instance, … animals have dreams
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P2OQS… and this is shown...movements in sleep
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P3 <=P1RQBwe must admit …animals have imagination
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P4OQSOnly a few persons now dispute...some power of reasoning
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P5 <=P4, P3 ERSand he states …no fundamental difference
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P6CGSNow … were not led …ulterior motive
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P7 <=P5, P6, (P8)ARCThey wished to show... intermediate stages
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P8CQQWhile this argument...unsafe guides
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(err – remove CA from diagram)
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Arg5
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P1VASOn the other hand …experiments by physiologists
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P2AGS… has given rise …opposite tendency
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P3 <=P1, P2, P4, P6CGC… the tendency to ….purely biological concepts suffice
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P4ERS… suggested …Loeb: animals responses tropisms
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P6ERS… attempted to explain …Bethe: ants & bees unconscious
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(err P6 is P5)
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Arg6
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P1 <=P2, P4AGCAt the present time ... may be dividedthree groups
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P2 <=P5AGSthose who believe...all animals conscious
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P3 <=P6AGSAll those who hold...qualify consciousness
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P4 <=P7AGSthose who hold...no evidence of mind
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P5VRSTo the first group belong...
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P6VRSIn the second group...
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P7VRSIn the third...
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Arg7
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P1 <=P2, P3RABWe cannot afford to...not abandon the psychological study
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P2EASThe danger...simplifying facts
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P3 <=P4CRBThus...bee tropism
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P4AASthe facts seem...point to memory
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P5XRSIt is always possible...tropism and consciousness
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P6XQSyouth's inclinations
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P7 <=P5RQBand if the first...how can we deny...predilection
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P9 <=P1, P3AACIf it is argued that...arg equally valid
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(err P9 is P8)
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Arg8
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P1VRS... defends...iriteractionism
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P2ORQstrongly opposes...modifiability of behaviour
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P3VRQintelligence reserved for man
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P4 <=P1, P2, P3AQCAlthough...animals only follow impulse
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Arg9
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P1 <=P3, P4, P5VRSThe third group...biologists conservative or radical
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P3ERSsuggests...replace sensation-related words
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P4 <=P5VRXFrom his argument...modification of behaviour
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P5ERX...however...consciousness improper assumption
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P6 <=P2, P3, P5VQC...cannot be...psychic qualities
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Arg10
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P1AQS...everyone knows...capacity for modification
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P2AQS...is a conclusion...from analogy not a certainty
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P3 <=P1, P2RQBIf...hence...science should deny them
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P4 <= P3, P5RQCHence...psyche in animals
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P5CQQpysche is unknowable
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(remove CA)
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Arg11
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P1AAS...will not abandon...until science abandons
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P2AAS...must be...precautions in interpreting
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P3ARQ...while holding that...actual quality of mental processes
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P4 <=P3RRBFor this reason...objects to comparative psy.
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P5 <=P1, P2, P3, P6RACThere is no doubt that...caution regarding quality of human conscious as identical
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P6XASFor example...white light in an animal
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Arg12
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P1 <=P2VRS
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P2 <=P3VQS
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P3XAS
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P4 <=P3, P5RABIt is evident...
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P5EAQ... We cannot say ...
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P6 <=P5AASThe fact is ...
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P7 <=P6AASWe must interpret ...
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P8 <=P7RAB... therefore...
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P9 <=P8RRC
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