SystemLead-Offs (Concepts ONLY)Follow-Ups (Concepts or Facts)Follow-Ups (Concepts or Facts)Follow-Ups (Concepts or Facts)
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Skeletal System
Introduction ParagraphWhat are the main parts of the Skeletal System?
Allows us to moveExplainGive an example
Provides support to our bodyBones provide a framework for the attachment of muscles and other tissues. an example
Protect organsExplainGive an example
The stuff inside of bonesWhy are there different layers of bone?
Solid Bone/Compact BoneThis dense layer supports the weight of the body and is made up of mostly calcium and minerals, so that it feels no pain. is honeycombed with thousands of tiny holes and passageways, through which run nerves and blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the bone. is shaped like a cylinder and is so hard that surgeons must use a saw to cut through it.
Spongy Bone/Cancellous BoneSpongy bone, also called cancellous or trabecular bone, is one of the two types of calcium tissue that make up bones in the human body. bone is lighter, softer, and weaker than compact or cortical bone, the other type of calcium tissue, but it has a greater surface area and is much more vascular, or supplied with blood vessels.
Bone MarrowOur bone marrow produces blood cells, called red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells. Inside the marrow, blood cells start off as young, immature cells called stem cells. marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones they develop, blood cells do not live for a long time inside our bodies. This is why our marrow continuously produces all three types of blood cells to keep us healthy.
PeriosteumThe periosteum is the fibrous membrane of connective tissue that snugly covers all bones periosteum also contains attachment sites for muscles, ligaments, and tendons. contains the blood vessels and nerves that provide nourishment and sensation to the bone.
JointsJoints allow our bodies to move in many ways. Some joints open and close like a hinge (such as knees and elbows), whereas others allow for more complicated movement — a shoulder or hip joint, for example, allows for backward, forward, sideways, and rotating movement. are classified by their range of movement. Immovable, or fibrous, joints don't move. The dome of the skull, for example, is made of bony plates, which must be immovable to protect the brain. Between the edges of these plates are links, or joints, of fibrous tissue. Fibrous joints also hold the teeth in the jawbone. movable, or cartilaginous, joints move a little. They are linked by cartilage, as in the spine. Each of the vertebrae in the spine moves in relation to the one above and below it, and together these movements give the spine its flexibility. movable, or synovial, joints move in many directions. The main joints of the body — found at the hip, shoulders, elbows, knees, wrists, and ankles — are freely movable. They are filled with synovial fluid, which acts as a lubricant to help the joints move easily.
CartilageCartilage is the tough but flexible tissue that covers the ends of your bones at a joint. also gives shape and support to other parts of your body, such as your ears, nose and windpipe. cartilage helps you move by allowing your bones to glide over each other. It also protects bones by preventing them from rubbing against each other.
LigamentsA ligament is the tissue that connects two bones to form a joint.'s tough and fibrous, which means that when it tears, a ligament can take quite a while to heal and might even require surgery.
Gliding or Sliding JointsA gliding joint, also known as a plane joint or planar joint, is a common type of synovial joint formed between bones that meet at flat or nearly flat articular surfaces. Gliding joints allow the bones to glide past one another in any direction along the plane of the joint – up and down, left and right, and diagonally. rotations can also occur at these joints, but are limited by the shape of the bones and the elasticity of the joint capsule surrounding them.
Hinge JointsA hinge joint is a common class of synovial joint that includes the ankle, elbow, and knee joints. Hinge joints are formed between two or more bones where the bones can only move along one axis to flex or extend. simplest hinge joints in the body are the interphalangeal joints found between the phalanges of the fingers and toes. In these hinge joints, the bones are able to flex to decrease the angle between them - like when making a fist or curling the toes - and extend to increase their angle to about 180 degrees when holding the foot or hand flat.
Pivot Joints A pivot joint, also known as a rotary joint, is a type of synovial joint in which a circular bone rotates upon the axis of another bone. are only three pivot joints in the human body: one in the neck at the base of the skull and one in each elbow. The pivot joint in the neck, called the atlanto-axial joint, allows the head to rotate back and forth and from side to side.
Ball and Socket JointsBall-and-socket joints are a special class of synovial joints that enjoy the highest freedom of motion in the body thanks to their unique structure. main components make up a ball-and-socket joint: a bone with a spherical head and a bone with a cup-like socket. shoulder and hip joints are the only ball-and-socket joints in the human body due to the need for great motion at the end of the body’s limbs and the vast amount of musculature needed to move and support such flexible joints.
Conclusion Paragraph
Muscular System
Introduction Paragraph
Allows us to moveMovements of your musculoskeletal system are typically under your conscious control. When you want to move your body, a portion of your brain called the motor cortex sends an electrical signal to the appropriate muscle through your spinal cord and local nerves. This muscle contracts and initiates movement.
What else?
What else?
Voluntary MusclesMost voluntary muscles are used to move bones, though some, such as the muscles in the face, are used to create movements below the skin. a part of the musculoskeletal system, each voluntary muscle is used to help a person move around. Most are connected to bones by connective tissue called tendons. The muscle is attached to a bone at a location called its origin. It then runs along the length of the entire bone and is attached to a bone on the other side of the joint at the insertion. Unlike cardiac or smooth muscle, these muscles can be controlled by the conscious mind.
Skeletal MusclesSkeletal muscle is striated muscle tissue that is attached to bones. It is composed of fibers that look like a mixture of dark and light bands bundled together that run along the bone. muscles are responsible for contracting and relaxing when a person moves. Skeletal muscles are the muscles that we can see and feel through our skin.
Work by relaxing & contractingMuscles contract when a part of the body is moved. It is not possible for a voluntary muscle to extend on its own, so muscles work in opposing pairs. each opposing pair, the muscle that contracts is known as the extensor, while the muscle that expands is known as the flexor. Switching the roles of extensor and flexor in an opposing pair of muscles causes the opposite movement to happen.
Need tendonsEach skeletal muscle is attached to a bone on one end, stretching across a joint and is attached to the end of another bone. They are held onto the bone with tendons that work and move along with the skeletal muscle and bone when we move certain areas of our body.
Examples are: biceps & tricepsThe biceps muscle is located on the front of your upper arm and is composed of two heads. The triceps makes up the back of your arm and is made up of three heads. the biceps shortens or contracts, the opposite triceps muscle elongates or relaxes, which allows the elbows to bend. This is the reason that you form a bump or a contracted biceps as you flex your elbows. On the other hand, when the triceps shorten or contact, the biceps elongates and relaxes.
Involuntary MusclesInvoluntary muscles are muscles that are not controllable consciously, and instead contract due to unconscious impulses sent by the autonomic nervous system or certain specialized cells or hormones. Both smooth muscle and cardiac muscle can be classified as involuntary muscles. muscle is comprised of spindle-shaped cells that have no striations and is found in numerous locations throughout the human body. Cardiac muscle is striated rather than smooth, and is found only within the walls of the heart.
Cardiac MusclesCardiac muscle is also sometimes considered to be involuntary muscle. However, cardiac muscle shares features of both smooth and skeletal muscle tissue. It is striated like skeletal muscle tissue, but its contractions are involuntary, like those of smooth muscle tissue. Cardiac muscle is unique in that is particularly invulnerable to fatigue. of cardiac muscles are controlled by the nerve impulses delivered by a group of cells located in the right atrium of the heart called the sinoatrial node. These contractions push blood through the four chambers of the human heart, the atria and ventricles. They also move blood throughout the veins and arteries of the circulatory system.
Are found in the heart
Smooth MusclesSmooth muscle is also sometimes known as Involuntary muscle due to our
inability to control its movements, or Unstriated as it does not have
the stripy appearance of Skeletal muscle. Smooth muscle is found in the
walls of hollow organs such as the Stomach, Oesophagus, Bronchi and in
the walls of blood vessels. muscle type is stimulated by involuntary neurogenic impulses and has slow, rhythmical contractions used in controlling internal organs, for example, moving food along the Oesophagus or contricting blood vessels during Vasoconstriction.
Are found in the Digestive System
Conclusion Paragraph
Circulatory System
Introduction Paragraph
BloodBlood is a fluid consisting of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets that is circulated by the heart through the vertebrate vascular system, carrying oxygen and nutrients to and waste materials away from all body tissues.
White Blood CellsWhite blood cells are the body’s sentries, serving as the backbone of the immune system. White cells are found throughout the body, in both the blood and the lymphatic system. These blood cells have a density of about 4-11 billion per liter of blood. The scientific name for a white blood cell is leukocyte, simply meaning “white cell.” white cells are found in the circulation, most occur outside the circulation, within tissues, where they fight infections; the few in the bloodstream are in transit from one site to another. As living cells, their survival depends on their continuous production of energy.
Red Blood CellsThe main purpose of red blood cells is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide through the circulatory system. The reason they can do this is that they contain an iron-containing protein called hemoglobin, which binds to oxygen. When the oxygen and the hemoglobin combine, they cause the cells to become bright red. blood cells have the important job of carrying oxygen. These cells, which float in your blood, begin their journey in the lungs, where they pick up oxygen from the air you breathe. Then they travel to the heart, which pumps out the blood, delivering oxygen to all parts of your body.
PlateletsPlatelets are tiny blood cells that help your body form clots to stop bleeding. If one of your blood vessels gets damaged, it sends out signals that are picked up by platelets. The platelets then rush to the site of damage and form a plug, or clot, to repair the damage. process of spreading across the surface of a damaged blood vessel to stop bleeding is called adhesion—when platelets get to the site of the injury, they grow sticky tentacles that help them adhere. They also send out chemical signals to attract more platelets to pile onto the clot in a process called aggregation.
PlasmaThe fluid portion of the blood, theplasma, is a straw-colored liquid composed primarily of water. All the important nutrients, the hormones, and the clotting proteins as well as the waste products are transported in the plasma. blood cells and white blood cells are also suspended in the plasma. Plasma from which the clotting proteins have been removed is serum.
Blood VesselsBlood vessels are intricate networks of hollow tubes that transport blood throughout the entire body. This is an essential function as blood delivers valuable nutrients to and removes wastes from our cells . vessels are constructed of layers of connective tissue and muscle .
ArteriesThe arteries are those blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. This means that, with only two exceptions, arteries are carrying highly oxygenated blood to transport oxygen to the tissue of the body. are the higher-pressure part of the circulatory system, as they are getting blood from the heart. The pressure in the arteries differs between when the heart contracts and when it expands, the systolic and diastolic pressure, respectively. It is this pressure shift that can be felt as a pulse
VeinsA vein is an elastic blood vessel that transports blood from various regions of the body to the heart . veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. Systemic veins return deoxygenated blood from the rest of the body to the right atrium of the heart. Veins are basically tubes that just collapse when not filled with blood. Within veins are flaps that keep the blood flowing towards the heart, rather than being pulled down and pooling by the effects of gravity.
CapillariesCapillaries are the smallest of the blood vessels and serve as the connection between the arterial and venal systems of the cardiac system. capillaries allow nutrients, oxygen, and fluids to pass into tissue, and they also collect carbon dioxide waste materials and fluids for return through the veins to the lungs and the lymph system. The capillaries are where the important functions of the circulation take place: the exchange of material between the circulatory system and cells.
HeartThe heart is the key organ in the circulatory system. As a hollow, muscular pump, its main function is to propel blood throughout the body. heart gets messages from the body that tell it when to pump more or less blood depending on an individual's needs. When we're sleeping, it pumps just enough to provide for the lower amounts of oxygen needed by our bodies at rest. When we're exercising or frightened, the heart pumps faster to increase the delivery of oxygen.
Four ChambersThe heart has four chambers that are enclosed by thick, muscular walls. It lies between the lungs and just to the left of the middle of the chest cavity. The bottom part of the heart is divided into two chambers called the right and left ventricles, which pump blood out of the heart. A wall called the interventricular septum divides the ventricles.
Left Atrium The upper right chamber of the heart. The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it down into the left ventricle which delivers it to the body.
Left VentricleThe left ventricle is one of four chambers of the heart. It is located in the bottom left portion of the heart below the left atrium, separated by the mitral valve thickest of all the chambers, the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to tissues all over the body. After flowing into the left atrium and through the mitral valve, blood enters the left ventricle before it is pumped out through the aortic valve into the aortic arch and onward to the rest of the body.
Right AtriumThe right upper chamber of the heart. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the body through the vena cava and pumps it into the right ventricle which then sends it to the lungs to be oxygenated.
Right VentricleThe right ventricle is a heart chamber responsible for pumping deoxygenated blood to the lungs right ventricle is one of four of the heart’s chambers and is located in the lower right portion of the heart below the right atrium and opposite the left ventricle.
Conclusion Paragraph
Respiratory System
Introduction ParagraphThe respiratory system provides oxygen to the body’s cells while removing carbon dioxide, a waste product that can be lethal if allowed to accumulate. There are 3 major parts of the respiratory system: the airway, the lungs, and the muscles of respiration.
How air enters the body
1st - Mouth or noseThe mouth, also known as the oral cavity, is the secondary external opening for the respiratory tract. Most normal breathing takes place through the nasal cavity, but the oral cavity can be used to supplement or replace the nasal cavity’s functions when needed. one advantage of breathing through the mouth is that its shorter distance and larger diameter allows more air to quickly enter the body.
2nd - Nasal PassageThe nose and nasal cavity form the main external opening for the respiratory system and are the first section of the body’s airway—the respiratory tract through which air moves. function of the nasal cavity is to warm, moisturize, and filter air entering the body before it reaches the lungs. Hairs and mucus lining the nasal cavity help to trap dust, mold, pollen and other environmental contaminants before they can reach the inner portions of the body.
3rd - EpiglottisThe epiglottis is a flexible flap at the superior end of the larynx in the throat. It acts as a switch between the larynx and the esophagus to permit air to enter the airway to the lungs and food to pass into the gastrointestinal tract. epiglottis also protects the body from choking on food that would normally obstruct the airway.
4th - LarynxThe larynx (voice box) is part of the respiratory system that holds the vocal cords. It is responsible for producing voice, helping us swallow and breathe. Air passes in and out of the larynx each time the body inhales or exhales from the lungs passes over the stretched vocal cords, and the vibrations are modified by the tongue, palate, and lips to produce speech.
Vocal CordsThe vocal cords, or vocal folds are located within the larynx or voice box. They are structures which open for breathing, come together during swallowing, and vibrate as air passes between them during speaking or singing. we talk, the vocal cords tighten up and move closer together. Air from the lungs is forced between them and makes them vibrate, producing the sound of our voice. The tongue, lips, and teeth form this sound into words.
Voice BoxThe voice box, or larynx, is the portion of the respiratory (breathing) tract containing the vocal cords which produce sound. It is located between the pharynx and the trachea. The larynx, also called the voice box, is a 2-inch-long, tube-shaped organ in the neck. is composed primarily of muscles and cartilages that are bound together by elastic tissues. It lies between the pharynx (upper part of the air passages) and the trachea (windpipe), and forms part of a tube in the throat that carries air to and from the
5th - TracheaThe trachea (or windpipe) is a wide, hollow tube that connects the larynx (or voice box) to the bronchi of the lungs. It is an integral part of the body’s airway and has the vital function of providing air flow to and from the lungs for respiration. trachea begins at the inferior end of the larynx in the base of the neck. It is located along the body’s midline, anterior to the esophagus and just deep to the skin, so that it is possible to feel the larynx through the skin of the neck.
How air moves in the lungs
LungsThe lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system. In the lungs oxygen is taken into the body and carbon dioxide is breathed out.
1st - Bronchial TubeBreathing starts at the nose and mouth. You inhale air into your nose or mouth, and it travels down the back of your throat and into your windpipe, or trachea. Your trachea then divides into air passages called bronchial tubes. a person breathes, air taken in through the nose or mouth then goes into the trachea (windpipe). From there, it passes through the bronchial tubes, into the lungs, and finally back out again. The bronchial tubes, which branch into smaller tubes called bronchioles, are sometimes referred to as bronchi or airways.
2nd - Bronchus/BronchiAt the inferior end of the trachea, the airway splits into left and right branches known as the primary bronchi. The left and right bronchi run into each lung before branching off into smaller secondary bronchi. The secondary bronchi carry air into the lobes of the lungs—2 in the left lung and 3 in the right lung. lower end of the trachea divides into two bronchi (tubes) that carry air into the lungs. One bronchus goes to the left lung, the other to the right lung.
3rd - Bronchioles The main bronchus divides into 2 bronchi (one enters each lung) which in turn go through several divisions before becoming bronchioles. The bronchioles continue the process of fanning out (going through divisions noted below) like the branches of a tree until the final place in the respiratory system is reached – the alveoli.
4th - Alveolus/AlveoliThe alveoli are the air sacs at which the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place. is inhaled and absorbed into the bloodstream through the thin walls of each alveolus, by way of the pulmonary veins. Carbon dioxide from the pulmonary artery is exhaled as a waste product of the lungs.
Exchange of GasesGas exchange in the respiratory system is an important part of respiration. It helps switch harmful gases with good gases. Carbon dioxide is harmful to the body if it accumulates, but during the gas exchange process this gas is removed and replaced with oxygen. is the beginning of gas exchanging. Oxygen comes in by breathing in while carbon dioxide is expelled by breathing out.
Conclusion Paragraph
Digestive System
Introduction Paragraph
MouthFood begins its journey through the digestive system in the mouth, also known as the oral cavity. Inside the mouth are many accessory organs that aid in the digestion of food—the tongue, teeth, and salivary glands. chop food into small pieces, which are moistened by saliva before the tongue and other muscles push the food into the pharynx.
Teeth/Mechanical Digestion The teeth are 32 small, hard organs found along the anterior and lateral edges of the mouth. Each tooth is made of a bone-like substance called dentin and covered in a layer of enamel—the hardest substance in the body. are living organs and contain blood vessels and nerves under the dentin in a soft region known as the pulp. The teeth are designed for cutting and grinding food into smaller pieces.
Saliva/Chemical DigestionSurrounding the mouth are 3 sets of salivary glands. The salivary glands are accessory organs that produce a watery secretion known as saliva. Saliva helps to moisten food and begins the digestion of carbohydrates. body also uses saliva to lubricate food as it passes through the mouth, pharynx, and esophagus.
TongueThe tongue is located on the inferior portion of the mouth just posterior and medial to the teeth. It is a small organ made up of several pairs of muscles covered in a thin, bumpy, skin-like layer. outside of the tongue contains many rough papillae for gripping food as it is moved by the tongue’s muscles. The taste buds on the surface of the tongue detect taste molecules in food and connect to nerves in the tongue to send taste information to the brain. tongue also helps to push food toward the posterior part of the mouth for swallowing.
BolusDuring mastication, salivary glands secrete saliva to soften the food into a bolus (semi-solid lump). Saliva contains the salivary amylase enzyme, which digests carbohydrates (starches), and mucus (a thick liquid), which softens food into a bolus. Ingestion starts both chemical and mechanical digestion.
EsophagusThe esophagus is a muscular tube connecting the pharynx to the stomach that is part of the upper gastrointestinal tract. It carries swallowed masses of chewed food along its length. the inferior end of the esophagus is a muscular ring called the lower Stomach, gallbladder and pancreasesophageal sphincter or cardiac sphincter. The function of this sphincter is to close of the end of the esophagus and trap food in the stomach.
PeristalsisMuscles contract in a wave-like motion to move the food along through the digestive tract. This muscle movement is called, peristalsis, or peristaltic waves. peristaltic waves contract behind the food bolus pushing it along the digestive tract. In the small intestine, peristaltic waves not only move food along the intestine, but also mix the food chyme to help in the digestive process.
StomachThe stomach is the main food storage tank of the body. If it were not for the stomach’s storage capacity, we would have to eat constantly instead of just a few times each day.
Digestive juicesThe digestive juices are the secretions of the digestive tract that break down food. They include saliva, gastric juice, pancreatic juice, bile, and intestinal juice. The digestive juices are secreted by different organs, vary widely in chemical composition, and play different roles in the digestive process. Each is constantly produced by the body in small amounts, but the presence of food as it passes through the digestive tract causes increased production and secretion.
ChymeThe inner lining of the stomach wall contains millions of tiny gastric glands that secrete gastric juice, which dissolves the food to form a thick liquid called chyme. liquid and part mass, chyme does not resemble the actual food from which it derives. This is because the stomach has long since broken the food down into its components, like proteins and fats. These components are then made use of by the body, so essentially chyme represents the left over components of food, along with watery substances that allow the leftover material to pass from the body.
Small IntestineThe small intestine is a long, highly convoluted tube in the digestive system that absorbs about 90% of the nutrients from the food we eat. It is given the name “small intestine” because it is only 1 inch in diameter, making it less than half the diameter of the large intestine. The small intestine is, however, about twice the length of the large intestine and usually measures about 10 feet in length. small intestine winds throughout the abdominal cavity inferior to the stomach. Its many folds help it to pack all 10 feet of its length into such a small body cavity, A thin membrane known as the mesentery extends from the posterior body wall of the abdominal cavity to surround the small intestine and anchor it in place. Blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels pass through the mesentery to support the tissues of the small intestine and transport nutrients from food in the intestines to the rest of the body.
VilliThe first few inches of the duodenal lining are smooth, but the rest of the lining has folds, small projections (villi), and even smaller projections (microvilli). These villi and microvilli increase the surface area of the duodenal lining, allowing for greater absorption of nutrients. food is broken down in the stomach, it forms a substance called chyme, which is a slurry of nutrients. When that slurry passes into the small intestine, it comes into contact with the villi. The carbohydrates and proteins in the chyme enter the bloodstream passively via the vein and artery. The fat is absorbed by the lacteal into the lymphatic system, which eventually empties into the bloodstream.
Absorbs food & nutrients into the bloodstream
PancreasThe pancreas is located behind the stomach and is surrounded by other organs including the small intestine, liver, and spleen. It is about six inches long and is shaped like a flat pear. pancreas secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum, the first segment of the small intestine. These enzymes break down protein, fats, and carbohydrates. The pancreas also makes insulin, secreting it directly into the bloodstream. Insulin is the chief hormone for metabolizing sugar.
Pancreatic EnzymesPancreatic enzymes help break down fats, proteins and carbohydrates. A normally functioning pancreas secretes about 8 cups of pancreatic juice into the duodenum, daily. This fluid contains pancreatic enzymes to help with digestion and bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid as it enters the small intestine.
Gall Bladder & LiverThe gallbladder is a small pouch that sits just under the liver. The gallbladder stores bile produced by the liver. After meals, the gallbladder is empty and flat, like a deflated balloon. Before a meal, the gallbladder may be full of bile and about the size of a small pear. liver's main job is to filter the blood coming from the digestive tract, before passing it to the rest of the body. The liver also detoxifies chemicals and metabolizes drugs. As it does so, the liver secretes bile that ends up back in the intestines. The liver also makes proteins important for blood clotting and other functions.
BileBile plays a vital role in the digestion of fats and is present in most mammals. It is formed in the liver, where it is principally composed of cholesterol, lecithin, pigments, and salts. Most of the salts in this liquid are reabsorbed back into the body, and are necessary electrolytes. bile is made in the liver, between meals it is stored in the gallbladder. In humans, when we eat, it is excreted into the duodenum, helping to break down fats. In some ways you can compare this substance to a detergent, since it has emulsification properties. Emulsification binds two substances together.
Large IntestineThe large intestine is the final section of the gastrointestinal tract that performs the vital task of absorbing water and vitamins while converting digested food into feces. Although shorter than the small intestine in length, the large intestine is considerably thicker in diameter, thus giving it its name.
Absorb water into the bloodstream
AnusThe anus is the last part of the digestive tract. It consists of the pelvic floor muscles and the two anal sphincters (internal and external muscles). The lining of the upper anus is specialized to detect rectal contents. It lets us know whether the contents are liquid, gas, or solid. pelvic floor muscle creates an angle between the rectum and the anus that stops stool from coming out when it is not supposed to. The anal sphincters provide fine control of stool. The internal sphincter keeps us from going to the bathroom when we are asleep, or otherwise unaware of the presence of stool.