|Year||Month||Day||Time||End Year||End Month||End Day||End Time||Display Date||Headline||Text||Media||Media Credit||Media Caption||Media Thumbnail||Type||Group||Background|
|1100||1400||1100||Arabs kept the secret of the Spice Islands||They controlled the market not only for nutmeg and cloves from the Spice Islands, but also for ginger from China and cinnamon from India. If you had been alive then you might have heard tales told by Arab traders of the fantastic monsters and hideous flesh-eating birds that guarded the Spice Islands. Stories like these were|
designed to help the Arab traders preserve their monopoly of the spice trade.
|https://libweb5.princeton.edu/visual_materials/maps/websites/pacific/spice-islands/map-moluccas-sanson-1683.jpg||https://libweb5.princeton.edu/visual_materials/maps/websites/pacific/spice-islands/spice-islands-maps.html||Dutch Map of the Spice Islands|
|1271||1295||1271||Marco Polo Travels with father and uncle||Marco Maffeo and Niccolo Polo begin their second journey. They decide to take Niccolo's son with them. Their trip takes 24 years. When Marco Polo returns to Venice but is captured during a war and send to jail. It is in jail where Marco Polo wrote his story The Travels of Marco Polo.||https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/78/Travels_of_Marco_Polo.jpg||By Maximilian Dörrbecker (Chumwa) [CC BY-SA 2.5 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5)], from Wikimedia Commons||Travels of Marco Polo|
|1300||1300||Marco Polo Travels to the Far East||While many thought that Marco Polo's book, The Travels of Marco Polo, was mostly fictional, scientists are now finding that some of what he wrote was true. His book inspired people like Henry the Navigator and Christopher Columbus to travel and explore the world.||https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7a/Travels_of_Marco_Polo.svg/550px-Travels_of_Marco_Polo.svg.png||By Asie.svg: historicair 20:31, 20 November 2006 (UTC)derivative work: Classical geographer (talk) - Background map is Asie.svg, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=8297839||The route taken by Marco Polo and his father and uncle.||title|
|1394||3||4||1460||11||13||1394||Henry the Navigator||The son of the King of Potugal, Henry is credited with creating a school to help educate Portuguese sailors to explore.||https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sTELadiuxB4||Studies Weekly||Learn more about Henry the Navigator||http://knightlab.northwestern.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/front-page-image.jpg|
|1441||1441||African Slave First Sold Into Slavery||They became servants and laborers. Africans were also taken along on expeditions to serve as interpreters and help set up trade agreements in new ports. Portuguese traders set up trading posts and challenged the Moors for leadership in West Africa.||https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1d/FOOT%281854%29_p008_THE_HUMAN_SACRIFICES_OF_THE_EK-GNEE-NOO-AH-TOH.jpg/1280px-FOOT%281854%29_p008_THE_HUMAN_SACRIFICES_OF_THE_EK-GNEE-NOO-AH-TOH.jpg||By This file is from the Mechanical Curator collection, a set of over 1 million images scanned from out-of-copyright books and released to Flickr Commons by the British Library.View image on FlickrView all images from bookView catalogue entry for book., Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=36788709||THE HUMAN SACRIFICES OF THE EK-GNEE-NOO-AH-TOH|
|1451||11||11||1506||5||20||1451||Christopher Columbus||We do not know exactly when Columbus was born but we do know that he is credited with being the first European explorer to reach the Caribbean Sea.||https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/38/ColombusMap.jpg/1280px-ColombusMap.jpg||By Bartolomeo and Christopher Colombus - Bibliothèque Nationale de France (CPL GE AA 562 RES), Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3134818||A map made by Christopher Columbus.|
|1487||1487||Bartolomeu Dias Rounds the Cape of Good Hope||Dias set sail with three Portuguese ships. The fleet traveled far beyond where any European had ever sailed before. The ships stopped at various ports along the coast before stormy seas forced the fleet offshore. They did not see land for several days. When the seas calmed, the ships turned back to make landfall. They looked for the land that had been to the east of them as they journeyed southward. They could not find it. Then, when the ships turned north, land was sighted. But it was on the west side of the ship, not the east. This could only mean one thing: The fleet was traveling north up the east coast of Africa. They had sailed around the southern tip of Africa without knowing it!||https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-4LL5tZdZ72E/WZRa11NX6MI/AAAAAAAASaU/AXrGWswS6C0hIGiJTtbY5pt6-pFPApVWgCEwYBhgL/s1600/rota3.png||http://afmata-tropicalia.blogspot.com||Dias' travels along the coast of Africa.|
|1492||8||3||1492||Christopher Columbus||Columbus sets out on his first voyage. It was during this trip that Columbus kept two logs: One for the crew and one for himself. He purposefully under-reported the distances traveled each day. He did this for two reasons: he wanted to keep the crew from wanting to turn back home and also to keep his route a secret from other explorers.||https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/18/Columbus_first_voyage.jpg||https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/18/Columbus_first_voyage.jpg||A visual of Columbus' first trip to the Caribbean.|
|1497||1497||Vasco da Gama Travels to India||Vasco da Gama travels around the Cape of Good Hope and makes his way up the African east coast. He meets up with hostile Arab trading posts but gets help in Malindi to cross the Indian Ocean to India. da Gama leaves Calicut under bad terms but makes 60 time more the cost of the expedition.||https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/75/Gama_route_1.svg/875px-Gama_route_1.svg.png||By User:PhiLiP - self-made, base on Image:Gama_route_1.png, Image:BlankMap-World6.svg, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=4805180||Vasco da Gama's voyage.|
|1500||3||1500||Pedro Alvares Cabral Discovers Brazil||En route to India, Crbral is blown off course and discovers Brazil. Cabral continues to India but looses 8 of his 13 ships. He is never allowed to explore for Portugal again.||https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/97/Cabral_voyage_1500.svg/1280px-Cabral_voyage_1500.svg.png||By Cabral_voyage.png: Lecen (based on work created by Castoro. See File:MONDO3.GIF)derivative work: Odysseus1479 (talk) - Cabral_voyage.png, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=11849769||Cabral's historic journey to Brazil and India.|
|1524||1534||France sponsors Cartier to explore North America||In 1534 France’s king asked Jacques Cartier, a French sea captain, to explore the coast of North America. Cartier sailed to Newfoundland, where he encountered English and Spanish fishing fleets.|
|1535||1535||Cartier's Exploration of America||In 1535 Cartier explored the St. Laurence River.|
|1492||1800||Enslavement of Native Peoples of Africa|| In 1619, a Dutch ship sailed into the mouth of the James River in the|
English colony of Virginia in North America and dropped anchor.
On board were Dutch pirates who had been attacking other
ships on the high seas. They had captured a shipload of enslaved
Africans from a Spanish vessel heading for the Caribbean. Now the
Dutch sailors were traveling north and needed supplies. The pirates
traded these people for food. This was the first arrival of Africans
in the English North American colonies. Whether these Africans
became indentured servants or enslaved workers remains unclear.
|1517||1517||Magellan Sails for Spain||In 1517, John of Lisbon, a friend of Magellan’s, persuaded him to ask Spain for support. A famous navigator, John of Lisbon had just returned from a Portuguese expedition to explore the coastline of Brazil. He said he had come upon a strait. He thought this new information might lead to the discovery of a water route through the middle of the South American continent. John of Lisbon fired up Magellan’s imagination. When another friend helped him gain command of a Spanish expedition to explore this strait, Magellan turned his back on Portugal forever.||https://www.portugaltravelguide.com/images/magalhes_article.jpg||https://www.portugaltravelguide.com/20149-magellan-portugal|
|1607||1611||Henry Hudson sails around Greenland and into the Hudson Bay|
|1577||1577||Drake convinced a group of people to invest in one of his voyages.||In 1577, Drake convinced a group of people to invest in one of his|
voyages. He set out with a fleet of five ships with 164 crewmen. At
first, the voyage seemed to be nothing more than one of Drake’s
usual raiding parties. Instead, Drake followed Magellan’s example
by embarking on a journey around the world. Drake surprised his
crew by plundering a Portuguese ship and taking not only several
sacks of silver but also an experienced Portuguese pilot. This
hostage guided Drake’s fleet on the journey across the Atlantic.
|1519||9||1519||Magellan sets sail to find a westward route to the Indies.||In September 1519, five ships carrying 277 men left port for the three-month voyage to Brazil. Right away, the boats started leaking. A week into the voyage, Magellan faced mutiny. But he held onto his command. In January 1520, the ships reached the waters that John of Lisbon had described.||https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQC5ELRTAHInFuOfkyKa80vQc3suFMjQIsS6ysZRexpvbIwQlI8||https://libweb5.princeton.edu/visual_materials/maps/websites/pacific/magellan/magellan.html|
|1492||10||12||1492||Columbus finds land||After 5 weeks of hard travel, Columbus sights the Bahama Islands.||https://libcom.org/files/imagecache/article/images/history/Indians.jpg||https://libcom.org/history/columbus-indians-discovery-america|
|1495||1535||Conquistadors take much control of Central and South America||Pizarro and Cortes conquer the Aztec and Inca Empires. Spain takes tons of gold and silver to the Americas and expand their empire. Millions of native people die from diesase, forced labor, and torture. The Encomienda System robs the native people of their land and forces them to convert to Christianity.||https://www.thoughtco.com/thmb/sNCCBP7LJCEi95jgZK1w_nFmgL4=/768x0/filters:no_upscale():max_bytes(150000):strip_icc()/spanish-conquistadors-torturing-american-indians--1539-1542--463925165-5a6b6fbc119fa8003723a059.jpg||Minster, Christopher. (2018, September 10). Spain's American Colonies and the Encomienda System. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/spains-american-colonies-encomienda-system-2136545|
|1496||1496||John Cabot Attempts to Sail||After a failed first attempt in 1496, John Cabot set sail again in
|https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9f/Newfoundland_Cabots_ship_1897_issue-10d.jpg||Public Domain||Stamp of the ship Matthew. This ship was used by John Cabot.||[[File:Newfoundland Cabots ship 1897 issue-10d.jpg|thumb|Newfoundland Cabots ship 1897 issue-10d]]|
|1524||1524||In 1524, the of France king hired an Italian explorer|
named Giovanni da Verrazano to explore North
America and look for the Northwest Passage.
Verrazano’s brother, a cartographer, sailed with him. North America
was new to the Europeans and had not been mapped. One of the
goals of Verrazano’s expedition was to create accurate maps of the
Atlantic coast. Core Knowledge®, Core Knowledge Curriculum SeriesTM,
Core Knowledge History and GeographyTM and CKHGTM
are trademarks of the Core Knowledge Foundation.
|https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fe/GiovanniVerrazano.jpg/800px-GiovanniVerrazano.jpg||By Allegrini, Francesco (1729-17..). Graveur ; Zocchi, Giuseppe (1711-1767). Peintre - https://archive.org/download/verrazanoexplore00deco/verrazanoexplore00deco_orig_jp2.tar, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=625293|
|1512||1513||The Encomienda system||Encomienda was a Spanish labor system. It rewarded conquerors with the labor of particular groups of subject people. It was first established in Spain during the Roman period, but used also following the Christian conquest of Muslim territories. It was applied on a much larger scale during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and the Philippines. Conquered peoples were considered vassals of the Spanish monarch. The Crown awarded an encomienda as a grant to a particular individual. In the conquest era of the sixteenth century, the grants were considered to be a monopoly on the labor of particular groups of Indians (indigenous peoples), held in perpetuity by the grant holder, called the encomendero, and his descendants.||https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encomienda#External_links||https://f2bbf871-a-8fa1d5d8-s-sites.googlegroups.com/a/spartanpride.net/j-baade/latin-american-studies---social-studies-and-literature/focus-on-encomienda/images.jpg?attachauth=ANoY7co51r9SGM9zYmJ7zR-vz0Hf_0QSYXMm2I-f5bqH1iYA2pCPwYzJeYRhz5CtyKsv67hv1V7TEVd27ZNprpMFUWkkGNmSBiM8mEjjhSXMeo6-SNxU-Un18Lz_EAWGpFLKYlGUxQbPUpfovjpvpMaC_gI2F6yXofxBZ-ALnDYukJDY7un87iWQiq3VyzmQAFS5wlJswOme-j7qrhEmQk4eHZScagxAJQb2FMtDXQvnerU0jWrpzXlSctMiXD0mUiSTulvwwyXcShGvymCIuAS9US2a6elX50EZP1I5RF4dacnnWjxsboUY7EbXenBg99Iw07386sPB&attredirects=0|
|1534||1534||King of France askes Cartier to Explore North America||In 1534 France’s king asked Jacques Cartier, a French sea|
captain, to explore the coast of North America. Cartier sailed to
Newfoundland, where he encountered English and Spanish fishing
fleets. This area of water off the coast of Newfoundland was a rich
fishing ground.Core Knowledge®, Core Knowledge Curriculum SeriesTM,
Core Knowledge History and GeographyTM and CKHGTM
are trademarks of the Core Knowledge Foundation.
|https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/79/Cartier_First_Voyage_Map_1.png||Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International|
|1490||1490||John Cabot moves from Venice to Spain||Cabot want to explore so he moved his family from Venice to Spain. Years of experience as a Venetian spice trader had made Cabot an expert seaman. Now he wanted to explore and have adventure.||https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3f/Cabot_fugitive.png/800px-Cabot_fugitive.png||By Evan T Jones - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=54723912|
|1497||1497||John Cabot sets sail again!||Cabot set sail under an english flag with only one ship an a crew of 18. The ship crossed over the North Atlantic. After 5 weeks of travel, the crew spotted what they called "new found land." Cabot believed that he had found an island off the coast of Asia. He returned to England to report his findings.|
|1400||Portugal becomes a seafaring pioneer||The most
powerful European governments in
the 1400s were the Spanish states of
Castile and Aragon, France, England,
and some of the city-states in Italy,
such as Venice. But none of these
countries led the search for a sea route to the East.
It was Portugal—a small, relatively poor country—
that became the seagoing pioneer.
|1495||1535||Spanish Conquistadors conquerored the Americas||Between 1495 and 1535, Spanish|
gained control of much of South and
Central America. You have learned about
Hernán Cortés, the conquistador who
destroyed the mighty Aztec Empire in
modern-day Mexico. You have also learned
about Francisco Pizarro, who invaded the
Inca civilization in Peru.