MCR Labs - Terpenes Research Database
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Limonene(peels of) citrus fruits
essential oils
Citrus aurantium
promote weight loss data provide new insights into the therapeutic approach of d-limonene against the development of the metabolic syndrome associated with NAFLD.Super Lemon Haze gets it’s name partially from the aroma, but did you know the smell is present because it contain’s Limonene?
prevent/treat cancer is likely that monoterpenes prevent mammary cancer during their progression stage by mechanisms similar to those that occur during therapy.
Monoterpenes such as limonene and perillyl alcohol have been shown to prevent mammary, liver, lung, and'other cancers.
ulcers and gastric reflux studies have described the gastroprotective effects of essential oils that are derived from Citrus aurantium (OEC) and its main compound d-limonene (LIM) in a model of chemically induced ulcers in rats.
The obtained results demonstrated that lower effective doses of OEC (250 mg/kg) and LIM (245 mg/kg) induced gastric mucosal healing with a cure rate of 44% and 56%, respectively, compared with the control group (P<.05).
bay laurel leaves
anti-inflammatory is analgesic, and such activity, in contrast to cannabinoids, is blocked by naloxone (Rao et al 1990), suggesting an opioid-like mechanism. It also blocks inflammation via PGE-2 (Lorenzetti et al 1991).Anecdotal evidence suggests that eating a ripe mango prior to consuming cannabis may accentuate or extend the psychoactive effects of cannabis
sedative and muscle relaxer study showed that citral, limonene and myrcene presented sedative as well as motor relaxant effects. Although only at the highest dose, they also produced a potentiation of the pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in mice, which was more intense in the presence of citral. In addition, neither of them showed an anxiolytic effect, but rather a slight anxiogenic type of effect at the higher doses.
analgesic such as myrcene may constitute a lead for the development of new peripheral analgesics with a profile of action different from that of the aspirin-like drugs.
This analgesic activity supports the use of lemongrass tea as a “sedative” in folk medicine. Terpenes such as myrcene may constitute a lead for the development of new peripheral analgesics with a profile of action different from that of the aspirin-like drugs.
antimicrobial between fraction F6 (sabinene 25.4 % myrcene 39.9 % and p-cymene 33.1) and fraction F5 (sabinene 12.0 %, myrcene
24.0 % and p-cymene 52.4) indicated that antimicrobial activity of fraction F5 derives
from the influence of p-cymene, which is in agreement with published data.23
9 antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of thyme is apparently related to its terpenes type components such as, myrcene, camphene and pcymene (Table I), since there is a relationship between the chemical structures of the most abundant oils and their antimicrobial activities.
antimutagenic in vitro results show that myrcene is not mutagenic in mammalian cells, but has antimutagenic properties
anti anxiety results suggest that inhalation of linalool oxide may be a useful means of counteracting anxiety.It was reported that linalool returned elevated stress levels in the immune system to near-normal conditions.
antidepressant results indicate that linalool and β-pinene produce an antidepressant-like effect through interaction with the monoaminergic system.
anti-inflammatory results suggest that linalool inhibits inflammation both in vitro and in vivo, and may be a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
sedative low intensity of jasmine tea odor has sedative effects on both autonomic nerve activity and mood states, and (R)-(-)-linalool, one of its components, can mimic these effects.Linalool could be used to help treat liver cancer.
analgesic result suggests that the olfactory input evoked by linalool vapour drove the analgesic system and attenuated pain responses.
anti-epileptic/anti-convulsant invivo evaluation of linalool revealed that this compound has dose dependent marked sedative effects in the Central Nervous System (CNS). These include protection against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ,s.c.88mg/kg) and transcornealelectro shock (ECC)-induced convulsions, as well as hypnotic and hypothermic properties
Alpha Bisabololchamomile
candeia tree
anti-inflammatory findings suggest that the anti-nociceptive action of (−)-α-bisabolol is not linked to a central mechanism but instead is related to the inflammatory process. We demonstrate, for the first time, the peripheral anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of (−)-α-bisabolol.Alpha-Bisabolol is used in cosmetics and personal care products and is found in various plants, including the herbal tea, chamomile.
18 results indicate that (-)-α-bisabolol exerts anti-inflammatory effects by downregulating expression of iNOS and COX-2 genes through inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 (ERK and p38) signaling.
anti-irritant most important biological activities ofbisabolol are the anti-inflammatory, anti-irritant, antibac-terial and non-allergenic properties.
anti-microbial bacterium S. moorei is susceptible to the antimicrobial agents tea tree oil and alpha-bisabolol
decrease oxidative stress findings show that (−)-α-bisabolol is able to decrease oxidative stress and inflammatory event associated with the lesions induced by ethanol.
analgesic use of α-bisabolol or bisabolol-rich oil as an anti-inflammatory agent is ubiquitous. This compound also exhibits several other pharmacological properties such as analgesic, antibiotic and anticancer activities.
deodorizer of natural alpha Bisabolol in cosmetic products: anti‐inflammation promotes wound healing, antibacterial (deodorizing) activity.
Delta 3 Carenerosemary
anti-inflammatory essential oil of the Cázulas Mountains population was most active against acute inflammation owing to its high delta 3-carene content, whereas the Quéntar Reservoir essential oil of B. gibraltaricum was most effective against granuloma induced inflammationIt is also known to dry fluids like tears, running noses, and menstrual flows.
25 essential oil of Bupleurum gibraltaricum showed considerable anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-produced pedal edema in rats. This appeared to be due to the delta-3-carene component.
bone growth anabolic activity of 3-carene in bone metabolism suggested that the use of natural additives to the diet including essential oils could have a beneficial effect on bone health.
Blumea Balsamifera
Kaempferia Galanga
analgesic Borneol has certain analgesic action and anti-inflammation effect.borneol can be used as a topical to numb pain.
28 randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled clinical study demonstrated that a single application of 25% borneol for approximately 30–60 min produced a substantial reduction in postoperative pain in patients, validating the basis for the historical use of borneol as a topical analgesic in TCM.
anti-cancer (Natural Borneol) could be further developed as a chemosensitizer of SeC in treatment of human cancers.
NB effectively synergized with SeC to reduce cancer cell growth through the triggering apoptotic cell death.
anti-inflammatory confirmation of anti-inflammatory and healing action of borneol in oral mucositis in rats renders it a good marker for predicting this activity for plant extracts rich in this substance.
antifungal BGC material was subsequently challenged with Mucor racemosus and Aspergillus niger, and exhibited a remarkable performance in antifungal adhesion and fungal growth inhibition, suggesting the grafted borneol moieties are crucial for influencing the tactile sensing of fungal cells and subsequent selective inadhesion.
antifibrosis study indicates that borneol has anti-fibrosis activity and the mechanism may partly be relevant to its inhibiting effects on fibroblasts mitosis, collagen and TIMP-1 production.
anticoagulant suggested that the antithrombotic activity of borneol and its action in combined formula for preventing cardiovascular diseases might be due to anticoagulant activity rather than antiplatelet activity.
drug potentiator!divAbstractNatural borneol (NB) has been used as a promoter of drug absorption and widely used in candies, beverages, baked goods, chewing gum and other foods. Thus, we investigated whether NB could potentiate the cellular uptake of BDCur, and elucidated the molecular mechanisms of their combined inhibitory effects on HepG2 cells. Our results demonstrate that NB significantly enhanced the cellular uptake of BDCur. Induction of cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells by NB and BDCur in combination was evidenced by accumulation of the G2/M cell population. Further investigation on the molecular mechanism showed that NB and BDCur in combination resulted in a significant decrease in the expression level of Cdc2 and cyclin B.
anti-insomnia folk medicine, plant extracts containing borneol are traditionally used to relieve symptoms of anxiety, fatigue and insomnia. Borneol is used to induce anaesthesia and analgesia [5] for the treatment of abdominal pain [6], wounds, burns, to relieve rheumatic pain, haemorrhoids, skin diseases and ulcerations of the mouth, ears, eyes or nose, to treat sore throat, skin infections and for the treatment of encephalopathy and aromatherapy [7,8].
36 flowers of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat (FC) have been used in Asian countries for hundreds of years as a medicinal herbal tea. Its main components are volatile oils (e.g., borneol, camphor, and Chrysanthenone), flavonoids (e.g., diosmetin and luteolin), and amino acids (e.g., aspartic acid and glutamic acid) [83]. In China and some other Asia countries like Korea, dried FC in herbal tea has traditionally been used to treat insomnia.
Alpha Pinene / Beta PineneOrange peels
Pine needles
conifer trees
anti-inflammatory results indicate that α-pinene has an anti-inflammatory effect and that it is a potential candidate as a new drug to treat various inflammatory diseasesAlpha and beta pinene are the terpenes that let your weed smell earthy and piney
bronchodilator variety of interesting pharmacological properties have been attributed to α-pinene, including anti-inflammatory, bronchodilator, hypoglycemic, sedative, antioxidant, and broad-spectrum antibiotic activities.
anti-bacterial this idea, we assessed the comparative antibacterial and anticancer activities of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil and three of its main components 1,8-cineole, α-pinene and β-pinene. R. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited the strongest antibacterial and cytotoxic activities towards SK-OV-3, HO-8910 and Bel-7402 human tumor cell lines, which were in order: Rosmarinus officinalis L. essntial oil > α-pinene > β-pinene > 1,8-cineole.
tea trees
bay leaves
cough suppresant is an ingredient in many brands of mouthwash and cough suppressant.Eucalyptol has been shown to be anti-fungal, something that prevents or hinders the growth of fungus. Despite that fact, a fungus was recently discovered that produces eucalyptol in large amounts which has potential for use in future biofuels.
reduces contractile activity present study was designed to investigate the actions of the oil on the contractile activity of cardiac muscle.
Eucalyptol also reduced time parameters, time to peak tension and relaxation time of the isometric contractions (Figure 2) in a concentration-dependent manner.
Terpineolcannabisfights cancer results suggest that alpha terpineol inhibits the growth of tumour cells through a mechanism that involves inhibition of the NF-κB pathwayA research study conducted in June 2010 and published in the journal Anticancer Research found terpineol to be an anticancer agent. This research revealed that terpineol might be especially helpful for patients with small cell lung carcinoma.
anti-inflammatory oil showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect and moderate analgesic action after subcutaneous injection at a dose of 250 mg/kg.
antidepressant present study showed that the essential oil of R. officinalis also produced an antidepressant-like effect (0.1–100 mg/kg, p.o.) in TST, without altering the locomotion in the open-field test.
antioxidantα-Terpineol presented good antioxidant activity in ORAC test.
Antimicrobial anda-terpineol exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against periodontopathic and cariogenicbacteria.
antidepressant possibility that BCP may ameliorate the symptoms of these mood disorders offers exciting prospects for future studies.A study released just last month shows, for the first time, that BCP can make you live longer; at least in the case of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.
49 together, these preclinical results suggest that CB2 receptors may provide alternative therapeutic targets for the treatment of anxiety and depression.
analgesic, due to the fact that chronic pain is often an element of cancer disease, the double activity of BCP, anticancer and analgesic, as well as its beneficial influence on the efficacy of classical chemotherapeutics, is particularly valuable in oncolog.
Interestingly, pure BCP displays similar analgesic activities as several essential oils, in which BCP is a major active compound.
antibacterial conclusion, the essential oils from A. virgata, L. brasiliensis, L. sericea, L. camara, L. montevidensis and L. trifolia, collected in Minas Gerais, Brazil, are chemically similar, and this species are potential alternative source of (E)-caryophyllene and germacrene-D. The results described also demonstrate the promising possibility of using of the essential oils from A. virgata, L. brasiliensis, L. montevidensis and L. trifolia as an alternative to some disinfectants and preservatives against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
anti-inflammatory, a combination of BCP and DHA was suspected to bring a double, analgesic and anti‐inflammatory effect in the treatment of inflammation‐associated pain.
anti-proliferative these results justify the use of these plants in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso and open a new field of investigation in the characterization of the molecules involved in anti-proliferative processes.
antioxidant activity of the essential oil and b-caryophyllene was compared with the synthetic antioxidants BHA and BHT, and the phenolic compound quercetin.
GC/MS analyses identified 13 compounds, with b-caryophyllene as the major compound. The oil exhibited moderate antibacterial activity (MIC <1.0 mg/mL) and strong antifungal activity
anxiolitic major component, β-caryophyllene, also has an anxiolytic-like effect that may contribute to the effects of EO
neuroprotective (TC), a component of essential oil found in many flowering plants, has shown its neuroprotective effects in various neurological disorders.
anti-fungal analyses identified 13 compounds, with b-caryophyllene as the major compound. The oil exhibited moderate antibacterial activity (MIC <1.0 mg/mL) and strong antifungal activity
Camphenecitronella oil
ginger oil
campher oil
antibiotic / antibacterial the tested monoterpenes, thymol, (S)-limonene and myrcene were the most potent antibacterial compounds against A. tumefaciens with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1000 mg/L. Thymol was also the most effective compounds against E. carotovora var. carotovora, while camphene, cunimaldhyde and 1,8-cineole were the less effective compounds against both bacteria.Camphene can also be used to treat conditions such as hyperlipidemia and allergies. When mixed with vitamin C, it becomes a powerful antioxidant that soothes nerves and relieves stress
antifungal essential oil contained approximately 79.91% monoterpenoids and 18.25% sesquiterpenoids. α-Thujone (36.35%), β-thujone (9.37%), germacrene D (6.32%), 4-terpineol (6.31%), β-caryophyllene (5.43%), camphene (5.47%) and borneol (4.12%) were identified as the major constituents. The essential oil exhibited significant antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani (ED50, 85.75 mg L−1), Sclerotium rolfsii (ED50, 87.63 mg L−1) and Macrophomina phaseolina (ED50, 93.23 mg L−1).
60 to the literature, the antimicrobial activity of the tested essential oil can be related to the contribution of the mixture between major (γ-eudesmol, β-citronellol, citronellyl formate and germacrene D) and minor (camphene, borneol) [10] constituents, which known to have efficient antimicrobial properties
anti-inflammatory than 15 constituents in an amount ≥ 0.1% were identified in each oil. 1,8-Cineole, α- and β-pinene, P-cymene, α-terpineol, camphene and limonene were prevalent constituents. The antifungal activity of these oils (5 μL per disc) was evaluated by the diffusion method. Results indicate that all oils from fresh plant materials exhibited an antifungal activity at different levels against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Aspergillus niger, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis.
anti fungal results suggest that eugenol and nerolidol could apply supplementary antifungal agents.Nerolidol is a fragrance ingredient and has been studied as a topical skin penetration enhancer
anti leishmaniasis association of nerolidol and other drugs targeting the same pathway at different points may prove a valuable tool for the treatment of leishmaniasis.
anti malarial results indicate that combined use of nerolidol and other drugs targeting different points of the same isoprenoid pathway may be an effective treatment for malaria.
sedative showed sedative effects in animals subjected to the open field test. Oxidative process plays a crucial role on neuronal pathological consequence, and implies that antioxidant effects could be achieved using this sesquiterpene.
some citrus rind
antioxidant In this in vitro study we investigated TPO’s antiproliferative and/or cytotoxic properties using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test, genotoxic damage potential using the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE), and oxidative effects through total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidative stress (TOS) in cultured primary rat neurons and N2a neuroblastoma cells.Has a significant sedative effect that help promote
anticancer findings clearly demonstrate that TPO is a potent antiproliferative agent for brain tumour cells and may have potential as an anticancer agent, which needs to be further studied.
sedative of terpinolene analog activities showed that a double bond in the side-chain or pi bonds in the six-membered ring play important roles in the sedative effect.
70 investigated the structure–activity relationships of terpinolene to identify the structural part essential to its sedative effect.
some citrus rind
mosquito repellant mosquito (Aedes aegypti) repellent efficacy of the lotions containing citronella oil, citronellal or citronellol (both normal and inclusion complexes) was further evaluated by human-bait technique. The highest mosquito repellent activity was observed in the formulation which contained citronella oil–β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex at weight ratio of 1:1.It is well known for being aggressively anti-tumor. It has very low
72, citronella diffusers placed 6 m from mosquito traps repelled female mosquitoes by 22%, linalool repelled females by 58%, and geraniol repelled females by 75%.
anti-inflammatory anti-inflammatory activity of CT was investigated through carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice. Pretreatment with CT was able to inhibit both neutrophil infiltration and the increase in TNF-α level in the exudates from carrageenan-induced pleurisy.
Beta-Myrcenefresh mangoes
bay leaves
lemon grass
anti-tumor major components were nerolidol (19.887%), caryophyllene (16.714%) and beta-myrcene (9.29%). The essential oil exhibited strong antitumoractivity against SPCA-1 human tumor cell line with IC50 value of 6.61 microg/mone of the most important
75 oil demonstrated a strong cytotoxic effect, which may be attributed by the presence of specific components such as the monoterpenes citral, citronellol, and myrcene. Furthermore, Nikolić and collaborators [11] investigated the antitumor activity of Thymus serpyllum, T. algeriensis, and T. vulgaris essential oils on growth of four human tumor cells. The specie T. serpyllum was the most potent in all tested cell lines and contains thymol as its major constituent, a phenolic compound known in the literature for its antiproliterative activity [12]. Therefore, the essential oils and chemical constituents are natural products with high pharmacological potential against various types of tumors.
anti-inflammatoryβ-myrcene shows significant anti-inflammatory effects via inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways, which is observed by the diminished pain over time.for most people, the consumption of a fresh mango, 45 mins before inhaling cannabis, will result in a faster onset of psycho activity and greater intensity
77, and limonene to a lesser extent, also decreased IL-1β-induced NF-κB, JNK and p38 activation and the expression of inflammatory (iNOS) and catabolic (MMP-1 and MMP-13) genes, while increasing the expression of anti-catabolic genes (TIMP-1 and -3 by myrcene and TIMP-1 by limonene).
treatment of spasms Lemon verbena has a long history of folk uses in treating asthma, spasms, cold, fever, flatulence, colic, diarrhea, indigestion, insomnia and anxiety (Carnat et al., 1999; Santos-Gomes et al.,
Beta-Caryophyllenethai basils
black pepper
anti-septic results showed that β-caryophyllene has antimicrobial activity against the proliferation of dog’s dental plaque-forming bacteria representing a suitable alternative to the use of chlorhexidine in prophylaxis and treatment of periodontal disease of dogs.Has the ability to reduce feelings of stress, tension, and anxiety.
anti-bacterialβ.-caryophyllene (19.08%), bicyclogermacrene (11.22%), germacrene B (6.29%), and myrcene (6.55%) were the predominant constitutes. The essential oil extract exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activities against Gram-positive
The present results demonstrated that M. scan-dens mediated oil and extracts could be potential sources of natural fungicides to protect crops from fungal diseases.
anti-tumor with BCP significantly reduced these transcripts in the tumors of the HFD-fed mice.
The present study demonstrate that dietary BCP suppresses HFD-induced (i) body weight gain; (ii) solid tumor growth and LN metastasis; (iii) angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, cell proliferation and cell survival in tumor tissues.
anti-inflammatory present study is suggestive that Beta-Caryophyllene has prominent anti-arthritic activity which may be attributed to its anti-inflammatory activity.
Humulenecannabis sativa strainsanti-inflammatory these findings indicate that α-humulene and (−)-trans-caryophyllene, derived from the essential oil of C. verbenacea, might represent important tools for the management and/or treatment of inflammatory diseases
Vietnamese corianderanti-bacterial of our study suggest the possibility of using the oil or organic extracts of P. integrifolia as natural antimicrobials in food or pharmaceutical industry because they possess strong antibacterial activitiesIt has commonly been blended with β–caryophyllene and used as a major remedy for inflammation, and is well known to Chinese medicine.
anti-tumor antitumor activity of the essential oil of Abies balsamea (balsam fir oil) was evaluated against several solid tumor cell lines including MCF-7, PC-3, A-549, DLD-1, M4BEU and CT-26. All the compounds tested were inactive (tau; 250 microM) except for alpha-humulene (GI50 = 55 to 73 microM) which thus seems responsible for the cytotoxicity of the oil. hese results suggest that GSH depletion and ROS production may be implicated in the cytotoxicity of alpha-humulene and balsam fir oil.
Ocimenebasilanti bacterial main constituents were α-pinene (12.58–66.29 %), D-limonene (13.95–46.29 %), β-ocimene (0.03–40.49 %), β-pinene (2.63–20.47 %), sabinene (0.00–5.61 %) and (Z)-β-ocimene (0.00–44.85 %). Antibacterial testing of the essential oils against three clinical isolates of S. aureus revealed that seven of the eight samples had some activity at the concentration range tested (0.04–0.512 % v/v).They are used in perfumery for their sweet herbal scent
parsleyantifungal composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil (EO) of Angelica major and its main components α-pinene and cis-β-ocimene against clinically relevant yeasts and moulds were evaluated.
ValenceneValencia orangesingredient used in food and drink, personal care and household products. is of interest to the food industry on its own, and as a substrate for the synthesis of nootkatone, which confers a dominant grapefruit/citrus aromait takes more than 1 million kilograms of oranges to obtain 1 kilogram of valencene.
Geraniolgeraniumsmosquito repellant concluded that geraniol had significantly more repellent activity than citronella or linalool in both indoor and outdoor settings.geraniol emits a rosey scent that makes it a popular perfume additive.
inhibit cancer growth is a promising compound or chemical moiety for the development of a safe and effective multi-targeted anticancer agent
antioxidant attenuated important features of allergic asthma in mice, possibly through the modulation of TH1/TH2 balance and activation the of Nrf2/antioxidant response element pathwaythe perfume industry switched from using rose petal extracts to using geraniol in many perfumes because they smell so similar
anti-inflammatory supplementation greatly prevented the remodeling of tissues by enhancing the free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory effects.
Phellandreneeucalyptusantidepressant, the results of the present work show that essential oil of S. terebinthifolius and compounds present in this oil, including (R)-(+)-limonene and α-phellandrene, exhibit antihyperalgesic effects against mechanical hyperalgesia, and are antidepressive, while only α-phellandrene inhibited cold hyperalgesia in SNI rats.phellandrene was said to possess antibacterial and antifungal activity. Based on a study conducted in Lebanon.
antifungal present study suggests that α-Phellandrene and Nonanal might be a biological fungicide for the control of P. cyclopium in postharvest tomato fruits
Fencholbasilantibacterial the tested compounds, nerol, linalool alpha-terpineol, fenchol and terpinen-4-ol showed antibacterialBecause of it floral and lemon scent it is also being used in textile softener and liquid detergent.
Terpene Studies