Calling Database
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YearAuthorsTitle (hyperlinked)SourceTypeCalling Scale
Country (study context)
Variables Included
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1997
Wrzesniewski, McCauley, Rozin, & Schwartz
Jobs, careers, and callings: People's relations to their workJRPEmpirical
Survey designed for this study
USDemographics, Well-being, Job, Career, Calling
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1999WrzesniewskiJobs, careers, and callings: Work orientation and job transitionsDissertationMixedWOUSMonthly pay, Wage, Reemployment status, Quality of work, Occupational level/group
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2001Wrzesniewski & DuttonCrafting a job: Revisioning employees as active crafters of their workAMRConceptualUS
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2002Wrzesniewski"It’s Not Just a Job” Shifting Meanings of Work in the Wake of 9/11JMIConceptualUS
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2003
Wrzesniewski, Rozen, & Bennet
Working, playing, and eating: Making the most of most momentsBookConceptualUS
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2003Freed
Material Benefits, Advancement, or Fulfillment: A Study into the Causes and Predictors of Job Satisfaction Based on How People View Their Work
JAMEEmpirical
Survey designed for study
US, GermanyJob satisfaction, calling
8
2004
Gandal, Roccas, Sagiv & Wrzesniewski
Personal Value Priorities of Economists HREmpiricalWOIsraelWork orientation, Values, Economics students, Group identification, Perceived group status
9
2005Markow & Klenke
The Effects of Personal Meaning and Calling on Organizational Commitment: An Empirical Investigation of Spiritual Leadership
IJOAEmpiricalCCJUSPersonal meaning, Religious values, Transcendent values, work as calling, work as job, organizational commitment
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2005Hall & ChandlerPsychological Success: When the Career Is a CallingJOBConceptual
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2006
Smith, Arendt, Lahman, Settle & Duff
Framing the work of art: Spirituality and career discourse in the nonprofit arts sectorCSQualitativeUS
12
2006DreherRenaissance Lessons for Today: A Course to Promote Purpose and Personal Growth in Later LifeLLIRConceptual
13
2006BaackThe Significance of a Calling, Whether Secular or SpiritualThesisConceptualUSStudent volunteer movement
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2006FrenchLife Calling & Vocation: An Exploratory Qualitative Analytical Examination Among University StudentsThesisQualitativeCanada
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2006ParryRecrafting work: A model for workplace engagement and meaningThesisTheoretical
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2006YugoThe Effect of Response Format on the Criterion Related Validity of a Measure of Work OrientationThesisMixedWOUSJob satisfaction, Life satisfaction, Health satisfaction
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2007
Curlin, Dugdale, Lantos & Chin
Do Religious Physicians Disproportionately Care for the Underserved?AFMEmpiricalUSIntrinsic motivations for work, Intrinsic religiosity, Spirituality, Religious affiliation, Family emphasized service to the poor, Practice of medicine is a calling, Attendance at religious services, Religious beliefs influence medicine
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2007Dreher & PlanteThe Calling Protocol: Promoting Greater Health, Joy, and Purpose in LifeBookConceptual
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2007
Dreher, Holloway & Schoenfelder
The Vocation Identity Questionnaire: Measuring the Sense of CallingBookEmpiricalVIQ, WLQUSOccupation, job, career, calling, intrinsic motivation and meaning, joy and satisfaction
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2007MarkowCalling and leader identity: Utilizing narrative analysis to construct a stage model of calling developmentDissertationQualitativePastoral leaders
21
2007Michaels
The courage to listen to calling: Transcending personality fear patterns and false personality in order to manifest one's mission
DissertationQualitativeUS
22
2007Mullen
Nursing together: A grounded theory of acquiring self identity that motivates or obstructs hospital nurses to work after injury
DissertationQualitativeUS
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2007Duffy & SedlacekThe Presence of and Search for a Calling: Connections to Career DevelopmentJVBEmpirical
two-item scale developed by Steger and Dik (2006)
USPresence of calling, Search for calling, Decidedness, Comfort, Self clarity, Indecisiveness, Choice-work salience, Lack of educational info
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2007MackWhen Seafaring Is (Or Was) a Calling: Norwegian Seafarers’ Career ExperiencesMPMQualitativeNorway
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2007Houston & CartwrightSpirituality and Public ServicePAREmpiricalGSSUS Spiritual attitudes, participation in public service
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2007BergCoping with Passion: Crafting Work and Leisure to Answer a Missed CallingThesisQualitativeUS
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2008BurkeUnderstanding Career Choice of Business StudentsBookEmpiricalUSCitizenship, Individualism-collectivism, Individual influences on career choice, Expectations of MBA program, Types of Career, Career choice, Career goals, Value and Success in the MBA Program
28
2008
Ng, Burke & Fiksenbaum
Career choice in management: findings from US MBA studentsCDQEmpiricalOne itemUSCitizenship, individualism-collectivism, individual influences on career choice, program expectation, career type
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2008BighamRole of Spirituality in Persons Choosing a Career in Education: Calling as a Motivating FactorDissertationQualitativeUS
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2008HernandezVocational Call as an Alternative Pathway to Career Decision: A Phenomenological StudyDissertationQualitativeUS
31
2008Park
The effect of the learning organization, career-enhancing strategy, and work orientation on the protean career: A quantitative study of workplace learning and performance practitioners in a Korean financial company
DissertationEmpiricalWOKoreaWork orientation, learning organization, career-enhancing strategy, protean career attitude
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2008LewisThe Youth Entrepreneurship Journey in New Zealand: A Career or a Calling? ICSBQualitativeNew Zealand
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2008Dik, Sargent & StegerCareer Development StrivingsJCDEmpiricalBCS, USMaterialism, Religious Commitment, Meaning in Life, Presence of Calling, Intrinsic and Extrinsic Work Motivation, Career Decision Self-Efficacy, Career Development Strivings
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2008Roundy‘Every Man's Work Shall Be Made Manifest’: Religious Callings in the Age of Organizational SpiritualityJRRTTheoretical
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2008Dik & StegerRandomized Trial of a Calling-Infused Career Workshop Incorporating Counselor Self-DisclosureJVBEmpiricalUSCareer decision self-efficacy, Meaning in life, Satisfaction with counselors, Intervention integrity checklist, Development workshops
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2008Dekas & TostiReinforcing and reorienting work orientation research: Beyond jobs, careers and callingsProceeding
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2008Kamin & BrinkmanAcademic advising as purposeful work: Jobs, careers, and callingsProceeding
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2008Ng & BurkeUnderstanding career choice of business studentsProceedingEmpiricalOne itemUSCalling, career success, citizenship, individualism-collectivism, individual influences on career choice, program expectation, career type, education
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2008Walsh & GordonCreating an Individual Work Identity SHACConceptualUS
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2009
Leana, Appelbaum & Shevchuk
Work process and quality of care in early childhood education: The role of job craftingAMJEmpiricalWOUS
Work orientation, individual job crafting, collaborativ ejob crafting, work discretion, interdependence, supportive supervision, social ties, human capital, job status, performance, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention
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2009Steger & Dik If one is looking for meaning in life, does it help to find meaning in work?AP:HWBEmpiricalBCSUSCalling, meaning in life, career attitude, life satisfaction, depression
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2009Bunderson, ThompsonThe Call of the Wild: Zookeepers, Callings, and the Double-Edged Sword of Deeply Meaningful WorkASQQualitativeUS, Canada
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2009ParkAn integrative empirical approach to the predictors of self-directed career managementCDIEmpiricalWOWork orientation, subjective career success, organizational learning climate, protean career attitude
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2009Duffy, Dik & BlusteinIncorporating Calling into Career Counseling: How and for Whom?CPADJReview
45
2009DuncanGay and Lesbian Pastoral Leadership DissertationMixedUSLeadership beliefs, leadership behaviors, gay, lesbian, pastoral leadership
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2009MacMillanTowards an existential approach to the meaning of workDissertationQualitativeCanada
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2009ScholesA Vocation as Politics: Work and Popular Theology in a Consumer CultureDissertationConceptual
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2009ShiffmanThe Emerging Academician: The Rise of the Online Adjunct Faculty DissertationQualitativeUS
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2009TraceyDevelopment of The Calling QuestionnaireDissertationEmpiricalTCQUSCalling, job satisfaction, satisfaction with sacrifice, civic responsibility
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2009YugoRole of Calling in Emotional LaborDissertationEmpiricalWOUSCalling orientation, Significance of work, Emotional demands, Emotional labor
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2009Grawitch & BarberCrafting a Job, a Career, or a Calling: Motivational Caveats to AutonomyGCTheoretical
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2009Park & Rothwell
The Effects of Organizational Learning Climate, Career-Enhancing Strategy, and Work Orientation on the Protean Career
HRDIEmpiricalWOKoreaprotean career attitude, organizational learning climate, individual career-enhancing strategy, work orientation
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2009
Steger, Pickering, Shin & Dik
Calling in work: Secular or sacred? JCAEmpiricalBCSUSCalling, religious commitment, intrinsic religiousness, meaning in life, life satisfaction, existential well-being, positive affect, work challenge and work enjoyment, career decidedness
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2009ParkFactors influencing self-directed career management: an integrative investigationJEITEmpiricalWOKoreaWork orientation, organization learning climate, protean career attitude
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2009SwezeyFaculty sense of religious calling at a Christian universityJRCEQualitativeUS
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2009
Elangovan, Pinder & McLean
Callings and Organizational BehaviorJVBConceptual
57
2009Hunter, Dik & BanningCollege Students’ Perceptions of Calling in Work and Life: A Qualitative AnalysisJVBQualitativeUS
58
2009Dik, Duffy & EldridgeCalling and Vocation in Career Counseling: Recommendations for Promoting Meaningful WorkPPRPConceptual
59
2009Dik & DuffyCalling and Vocation at Work Definitions and Prospects for Research and PracticeTCPConceptual
60
2010Duffy & Sedlacek
The Salience of a Career Calling Among College Students: Exploring Group Differences and Links to Religiousness, Life Meaning, and Life Satisfaction
CDQEmpirical
two-item scale developed by Steger and Dik (2006)
USPresence of a calling, Search for a calling, Religiousness, Life meaning, Search for life meaning, Life satisfaction, Gender, Race, and Educational Aspirations
61
2010French & DomeneSense of “Calling”: An Organizing Principle for the Lives and Values of Young Women in UniversityCJCQualitativeCanada
62
2010BoydThe Surprising Impact of Purpose: The Effect of Calling on the Relationship Between Job Demands and BurnoutDissertationEmpiricalCVQUSJob burnout, Calling – Transcendent, Calling - Impact, job demands, Job complexity, gender, Exhaustion, Disengagement
63
2010DahlstrandThe Caller and the Called: How Young Adults Understand Vocation in Their LivesDissertationQualitativeUS
64
2010EldridgeStructure of Calling and Vocation Across Gender and Age CohortDissertationEmpiricalCVQUSGender, year in school, Psychometric evaluation of CVQ
65
2010GouldTowards a Total Occupation: A Study of UK Merchant Navy Officer CadetshipDissertationQualitativeUK
66
2010Green
A Qualitative Study Exploring the Influence of Religion, Spirituality, and Call on Career Decision-making Among New Pastoral Counseling Students
Dissertation
67
2010Park
The Predictors of Subjective Career Success: An Empirical Study of Employee Development in a Korean Financial Company
IJTDEmpiricalWOKoreasubjective career success, calling work orientation, career-enhancing strategy, organizational learning climate
68
2010Duffy, Reid & DikSpirituality, Religion, and Career Development: Implications for the WorkplaceJMSRTheoretical
69
2010Hirschi Callings in Career: A Typological Approach to Essential and Optional ComponentsJVBEmpiricalBCSGermanypresence of a calling, Career decidedness/commitment, Career engagement, Confidence, Work and religion centrality, Work values, self-evaluations
70
2010Berg, Grant, JohnsonWhen Callings Are Calling: Crafting Work and Leisure in Pursuit of Unanswered Occupational CallingsOSQualitativeUS
71
2010
Correia de Sousa & van Dierendonck
Knowledge Workers, Servant Leadership and the Search for Meaning in Knowledge-Driven OrganizationsOTHConceptual
72
2010MacMillanMeaning in work: an existential critique of the discourse of callingsProceedingReviewCritique of calling discourse
73
2010
van Zyl, Deacon & Rothmann
Towards Happiness: Experiences of Work-Role Fit, Meaningfulness and Work Engagement of Industrial/Organisational Psychologists in South Africa
SAJIPEmpiricalWLQSouth Africapsychological meaningfulness, work-role fit, calling, work engagement, time spent on work
74
2010WrzesniewskiCallingsYSMConceptualUS
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2011Diener & Biswas-DienerHappiness: Unlocking the Mysteries of Psychological Wealth: John Wiley & Sons.BookConceptual
76
2011
Longman, Dahlvig, Wikkerink, Cunningham & O'Connor
Conceptualization of calling: A grounded theory exploration of CCCU women leadersCHETheoretical
77
2011PhillipsPath models of vocational calling in Christian college studentsCHEEmpiricalICSUSCalling, hope, career-decision self-efficacy, strengths self-efficacy, spirituality, campus involvement, service activities, engaged learning, psychological sense of community
78
2011Dik, Duffy & StegerEnhancing Social Justice by Promoting Prosocial Values in Career Development InterventionsCVTheoretical
79
2011CoulsonParents' Subjective Sense of Calling in ChildrearingDissertationMixedSSCCSAustraliaLife purpose, awareness, passion, life satisfaction, affect, meaning in life, pleasure of parenting, calling, burden of parenting, Authoritarian Parenting, Authoritative Parenting, Permissive Parenting, parenting satisfaction, savouring
80
2011DobrowIt’s what you do and who you do it with: A longitudinal study of the sense of callingDissertation
81
2011DoengesCalling and Meaningful Work Among Student Military Veterans: Impact on Well-Being and Experiences on CampusDissertationMixedCVQUSCalling and vocation, Meaningful work, Post deployment support, Life satisfaction, Meaning in life, Positive and negative affect, Positive relationships
82
2011EleniModeration of Perceived Overqualification: An Exploration of Career CallingDissertationEmpiricalVIQUSCalling, Performance, Job Satisfaction, Commitment, Turnover Attitudes, Perceived Overqualification
83
2011KoCrafting a job: Creating optimal experiences at workDissertationMixedWOUSWork orientation, P-E fit, proactive personality, job resources, job security, job crafting activity, job crafting outcomes, mood, typical day, special events
84
2011LobeneModeration of Perceived Overqualification: An'Exploration of Career Calling.DissertationEmpiricalVIQUSPerceived Overqualification, Turnover Attitudes, Commitment, Job Satisfaction, Performance, Calling
85
2011RawatExamining work as callingDissertationEmpiricalWOUS
Work orientation, work discretion, organization type, task interdependence, participative decision making, work attitude, job satisfaction, turnover intention, organizational commitment, burnout, contextual performance, task performance
86
2011RodriguezThe relationships among calling, religiousness, and dysfunctional career thoughts in public university studentsDissertationEmpiricalBCSUSCalling, religiousness, dysfunctional career thoughts
87
2011Salerno
Motivation and Dual Enrollment: An Analysis of the Motivation of High School Students to Participate in Dual Enrollment in Association of Christian Schools International Schools
DissertationQualitativeUS
88
2011Skorikov & VondracekOccupational identity Handbook of identity theory and researchHandbook
89
2011
Hernandez, Foley & Beitin
Hearing the Call: A Phenomenological Study of Religion in Career ChoiceJCDQualitative
90
2011KeyesAuthentic purpose: The spiritual infrastructure of lifeJMReview
91
2011ConklinWork Worth Doing : A Phenomenological Study of the Experience of Discovering and Following One's CallingJMIQualitative
92
2011O'GradyThe role of inspiration in organizational life. JMSRConceptual
93
2011Duffy, Allan & DikThe Presence of a Calling and Academic Satisfaction: Examining Potential MediatorsJVBEmpiricalCVQUSCalling, Career decision self-efficacy, Work hope, Meaning in life , Academic satisfaction
94
2011Duffy, Dik & StegerCalling and Work-Related Outcomes: Career Commitment as a MediatorJVBEmpiricalCVQUSCalling, Withdrawal intentions, Career commitment, Organizational commitment, Job satisfaction
95
2011SvennungsenMaking Meaningful Career ChoicesNTNUMixedNorway
96
2011WilliamsGod's Global ProfessionalsPRGPQualitativeUS
97
2011
VanAntwerp, Bruxvoort, Plett & Wilson
Examining Calling as a Motivator in Career Decisions: A Comparison of Engineering Graduates from Secular and Christian Undergraduate Institutions
ProceedingQualitativeUS
98
2011
Lesher, Harms, Bulling, Herian & Spain
Evaluation of relationships between reported resilience and soldier outcomesReportEmpiricalWOUSGAT(Adaptability, coping, catastrophizing, character, depression, optimism, PA/NA, family satisfaction, family support, engagement - WO, friendship, loneliness, organizational trust, spirituality)
99
2011JaramilloCalling, Life Satisfaction and Job Satisfaction: Religion as a ModeratorThesisEmpiricalCVQUSCalling, Life satisfaction, Job satisfaction, Denominational affiliation, Intrinsic religiousness
100
2011LeeUnderstanding the sense of calling in the work contextThesisEmpiricalCVQChinaCalling, personality, individual performance, supportive climate, corporate social responsibility
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