Food Forest Plants
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ZonesLightMoistureSoil textureSoil pHFormHeightWidthRoot SpanLifespanGrowth RateNative?Edible?Medicinal?Nitrogen fixer?Ground cover?Dynamic Accumulator?Nectary?Cover crop?Notes
If Edible: Flavor Profile
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4Some shadeMoistshrub, medium5' - 8'fberriesHardy to -40°F, very easy to grow, and has very few pest and disease problems. Great fresh or made into preserves. Dioecious (two varieties of similar bloom time are needed for pollination.)
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AlfalfaDrought tolerant6.8 – 7.5herb3' (1m)ÏannualxxExcellent cover crop. Used as hay for cows (especially milk), goats, sheep, and horses.
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Alpine Strawberry5Some shadeMoistS, L, Cacid-neutralshrubfruitxTolerates heavy clay. Fruit is smaller than normal strawberries (1.5 cm) but abundant. Loses vigor after first few years. Likes pine needle mulch. Grows well with bush beans, spinach, borage, lettuce and pyrethrum
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Amaranth0Full sunDrought tolerantseeds, leavesHi protein. Drought-tolerant once established. Sown in late may/early june. Cuttings root easily. >1000 lbs grain/acre in upper midwest.
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American Persimmon4Some shadeMoistxfruitx
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Arugula
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AsparagusSun or shadeMoistS, L, C6.5 or higherherb, large5' 3'w coastal EuropestalksxStalks are harvested in the spring and are a good source of protein and fiber. Can be eaten steamed, boiled, pickled, or raw in salads. A good companion plant for tomatoes, parsley and basilDon't harvest first two years to allow roots to get established.
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Austrian Winter Pea3S, L, CannualSproutsxxxGood cold-season cover crop. Edible sprouts. Fixes nitrogen at 70-125 lbs/acre. Does well in heavy soils.
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Bali Cherry
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Barberry3Some shadeDrought tolerantvshrub10'6'mberriesxthe 1/2 in fruit has a very acid flavor and is mainly used in preserves, though can be eaten raw when it is fully ripe.
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Barberry, Mexican/RedFull sunDryS, Lslightly acidshrub, large20's - mxberriesAbundant red, tart berries are somewhat seedy. Thorny leaves - good as hedge. Fragrant flowers.
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Beetberry5full sunDrought tolerantshrub2'annualxLeaves, berriesSelf-seeding annual with edible leaves and small red berries. Like its relatives Quinoa and Lamb's Quarters, the leaves contain saponins and should be rinsed before eating.
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Buckwheat2full sunmoist Buckwheat apparently tolerates a wide range of soil pH (Bugg, pers. comm.).leaves and seedxxAccumulates soluble phosphorus. Edible sprouts, seeds and flour. "very fast-growing cover crop has low grain yield, but is tolerant of very cool temps, and is high in lysine. Widely used as a bee plant, green manure, "nurse" plant for seedlings, and to attract wildlife. Plant spring or late summer. Will grow on nearly any soil, but prefers light, well-drained soil."not frost hardy plant after frost danger, plant will die as seeds mature,cut and dry in sun to let green seeds mature then thresh.
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Buffalo Grassannual
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Buffaloberry 'Sakakaweja'2Some shadeDrought tolerantS, L, Cshrub, l15'15'sxberriesxCurrant-like yellow fruit. Thorns make fruit tough to harvest.
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Bur oakxacorns
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BurdockSome shadeMoist7 - 9rootxxexcellent detoxifier. sow in spring or autumn 15 cm apart. self-sows. likes sandy soil. Burdock burs were also the inspiration to the inventor of Velcro fasteners, who became curious about the burs after taking his dog for a walk one day, and finding them stuck in the dog’s fur afterward. By observing the hooked barbs on the burs, he was able to manufacture a product that replicated Burdock’s ‘seizing’ qualities. “…early 1940’s George de Mestral, a Swiss inventor, became curious about the seeds of the burdock plant that had attached themselves to his clothes and to the dog’s fur. Under a microscope, he looked closely at the hook-and-loop system that the seeds use to hitchhike on passing animals aiding seed dispersal, and he realized that the same approach could be used to join other things together. The result was Velcro."
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Cherry, western sand3Some shadeDrought tolerantS, L, Cherb, large5-8'xfruitFruit up to 1 in. can be eaten raw or cooked. Shallow-rooted. Fruits best in full sun.
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Chicory3Some shadeMoist4.5 - 8.5slightly acidicShrub1-2'fleaves, rootsxx"The crisp, bitter leaves add flavor and bite to salads, and can be braised or boiled. The roots of all types can be dried and roasted, then ground for a coffee flavoring or substitute, or can be cooked and eaten like carrots or parsnips"
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Chinese Chestnut2Full sunDrought tolerantshrub, m30'100 yrs +nuts (cooked)Very drought-tolerant once established, succeeds in a variety of soils. Produces abundant nuts that can be used as a staple crop when cooked.
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Chinese Magnolia4bFull shadeMoistberryLemony berries. Leaves can be used as tea. Does well in full shade. Drought intolerant - requires irrigation. The fully dormant plant is hardy to about 0 F, though the young growth in spring can be damaged by late frosts.
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chinquapinsnutsSucceeds in dry soils once established. Sweeter nuts than other chestnuts.
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Chokecherry, Canada Red2Some shadeMoistS,L,CshrubxfruitHardy to -40 F. Nomadic plains tribes pounded the dried berries and seeds into small, circular cakes. "Processed into syrups and jellies, the flavor can be best described as tart cherry with a mellow almond flavor. Trees are adaptable to shade and grow in almost all types of soils and locations." - OTC
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Comfrey4Some shadeMoists,l,c3-5'3-5'fxx (phosphorous)xxPermaculture all-star plant: cover crop, weed barrier, chicken feed, "living mulch", accumulates phosphorous, many medicinal uses, great compost activator
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Creeping RaspberrySun or shadeDrought tolerant6'indefperennialberriesx
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Currant, alpineDrought tolerant(S, L) C
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Currant, American Black3Some shadeMoist/Wet(S, L) Cberriestreatment of kidney diseases and menstrual and menopausal problems. Cree Indians used the fruit of Ribes glandulosum as a fertility enhancer to assist women in becoming pregnant.http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=RIAM2
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Currant, clove/buffalo3bSome shadeDrought tolerant(S, L) CxberryxOTC: one of the only currants that can be eaten raw. Best to have 2 plants for pollination. They appear to be self infertile. Hardy to -30 F. EFG: most drought-tolerant currant. PFAF: clove-scented flowers. ripens from late July and can hang on the bush until early autumn. Can also be dried for winter use.
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Currant, GoldenSome shadeDrought tolerant(S, L) CxberriesCurrant root and seeds are high in gamma-Linolenic acid (GLA). GLA has been clinically verified as an effective treatment for pre-menstrual syndrome. [1]somewhat drought-tolerant
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Dandelionxx
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Dwarf chestnut oakxacorns
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Echinacea3 - 8Some shadeDrought tolerants,lherb, large3-4'1-2'm-fxxPFAF: "The plant has a general stimulatory effect on the immune system and is widely used in modern herbal treatments". Drought-tolerant once established. Attracts slugs. Harvest and dry roots and/or tops of mature plants and use in teas and decoctions. Great guide to growing and harvesting: http://www.gardenguides.com/how-to/tipstechniques/herbs/coneflower.asp
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Egyptian Onions
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Fava Bean/Broad Bean0Full sunDrought tolerantS, L, C1annualBeanxxxCold-season cover crop. Fixes nitrogen up to 150 lbs/acre. Large, protein-rich seed.
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FenugreekannualHerb, seedxxxCold-season cover crop.
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Gamote/Widewing Springparsley6Full sunDryherb, medium1'1'xrootsxvery little info available.
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Ginger, wild3 - 8ShadeMoistS, L, Cshrub, m4"1'stubersxRoots have pungent peppery ginger smell
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Goji Berry/ Wolfberry5Full sunDrought tolerantS, L, Cshrub, mediumberries, shootsxxcan be tough to start, but once established, grows quickly & can grow in poor soil - can become invasive. recovers well from pruning. Hardy to about -15 F. Good for erosion control.
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Good King Henry
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Gooseberry, mountainSome shade(S, L) Cxberryxdoesn't sound delicious
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Goumi5 - 8Some shadeDrought tolerantS, Lshrub, large6-8'6-8'm - fberriesxxDrought tolerant nitrogen fixer, hardy to -20 F. Great for hedges and companion planting. "The fruit must be fully ripe before it can be enjoyed raw, if even slightly under-ripe it will be quite astringent... the fruit is well hidden in the shrub and is quite difficult to harvest without damaging the plant."
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Grain Sorghum
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Grapevine (large)20'20'mfruitWill produce after 3rd year. Require heavy pruning each year thereafter.
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Ground Nut3 - 10Some shadeMoistS, Lneutral to v. acidicVine, M4'10'-25'mtuberxxGrows naturally in low marshy areas of NE United States, forming long thin roots with tubers at intervals along their length. Can twine around neighboring plants for support, or trail on the ground. Tuber is 17% protein and takes 2-3 years to reach a sizeable harvest. Can be eaten raw or cooked. Best when harvested in autumn. stores well until the spring.
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Groundplum Milk Vetch3 to 8Full sunDryS, Lherb (small)6-15"1-2'fxleaves, fruitxxxSomewhat difficult to grow, esp for transplants. "The fruits are edible. They are very juicy and taste a little like pea pods. They were eaten by Native Americans and early settlers."
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Highbush Cranberry2Some shadeMoist/WetS, L, Cshrub (large)6-12'6-12'mfruitxTolerates heavy clay. Drought-tolerant once established.
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Honeylocust, thornlessDrought toleranttreex
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Honeypod Mesquite7Full sunDrought tolerantshrub, very large12-25'30'mpodsxxInvasive. Fruits even during drought. Bark gum is candy or wound treatment. Wood is also multifunctional.
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Hull-less Barleyannual
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Hull-less Oatsannual
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Jostaberry4Some shadeMoistS,L,CShrub6'6'perennialmberriesx
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Jujube6 - 9Full sunDrought tolerantS, L, Ctree, small-medium15-30'15-30'ffruitxxHardy to -13 F. Grows quickly even in poor soil. Drought tolerant. Responds well to coppicing. 1/2-inchx1-inch fruit can be eaten raw or dried. Increases immune system resistance
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Kinnikinnick/Bearberry4Sun or shadeDrought tolerantS, Lneutral - acidicshrub, medxberriesxxSucceeds well in poor soils. Cultivars 'Anchor Bay', 'Point Reyes' and 'Vulcan's Peak' have all been mentioned as good groundcover forms. 6mm fruit is best dried or cooked. "leaves are picked any time during the summer and dried for use in infusions, liquid extracts, medicinal tea bags and tablets. The plant has the following claimed properties: anti-lithic, aromatic, astringent, disinfectant, diuretic, lithontripic, sedative (renal), stimulant (mild), tonic, urinary antiseptic." - Wikipedia
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Kiwi, hardy4 - 8Moistvinefruit
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Korean Pinenuts
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Lab Lab Hyacinth BeanDrought tolerantannualBeanxxWarm-season cover crop. Fixes nitrogen up to 150 lbs/acre. Edible substitute for garbanzo beans.
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Lady's Mantle5Some shadeDrought tolerantherbperennialxxEasy-to-grow in partially shaded areas, spreads easily. "The herb is alterative, antirheumatic, astringent, diuretic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, sedative, styptic, tonic and vulnerary" (PFAF)
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Lamb's Quartersannualleaves, seeds
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Lamb's Quarters/Huauzontle0 (?)Full sunDrought tolerantS,L,C4'2'fxleaves, inflorescence, seedsCommon garden weed - self-sows freely in most soils. Indicator of nitrogen-rich soils. Good companion for potatoes, corn and cucurbits. Leaves are good spinach substitute. Contains saponins, which can cause indigestion unless cooked/rinsed.
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Lead Plant
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Lily of the Valley3Sun or shadeDrought tolerantherbxxAttractive ornamental. All parts of the plants are poisonous and should be used with supervision. "Lily of the valley encourages the heart to beat more slowly, regularly and efficiently, at the same time it is strongly diuretic, reducing blood volume and lowering blood pressure" - PFAF
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Lotus5Some shadeDrought tolerant5.1-8.5Herb1"1-2'mxx
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LovageSome shadeMoistLarge herb3-5'1-2'fleaves, stalksxleaves and stalks have strong celery taste and can be eaten cooked or raw. Not everyone finds the taste agreeable. Leaves are available early in the season. Regenerates when cut back to ground during growing season. Grows quickly in moist soil. Good companion plant.
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Lowbush Blueberrymoistberriesx
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Lupineannualxx
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Motherwort3Some shadeDrought tolerantherbannualx"historically used in China to prevent pregnancy and to regulate menstruation. Motherwort is also used to ease stomach gas and cramping, menopausal problems, and insomnia..." - Wiki
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Mountain Mahogany6Full sunDrySshrub (large)6-20'6-20's-mxxxCRMPI: coppice for chicken fodder and mulch. poison (?)
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Mustardannual
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Nanking Cherry2Some shademoistS, L, Clarge shrubfruitSmall, slightly tart fruit. Reliable crop.
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New Zealand SpinachFull sunDrought tolerant1'indefannualxSpreading groundcover that thrives in hot weather. Taste and use are similar to spinach.
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Oregon grape6Some shadeDrought tolerant(S, L) Cshrub, s1'6'smountainsberriesxDrought-tolerant, grows in poor soils. Taste is like a tart grape. Relatively little flesh and a lot of seeds. Root and root bark improves the digestion and absorption and is taken internally in the treatment of coughs, fevers, psoriasis, syphilis, haemorrhages, stomach complaints, kidney problems and impure blood conditions.
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Paw Paw5 - 7Sun or shadeMoistshrub (l)15"15"sfruitNative to SE USA - Nebraska to Florida (largest native american fruit). requires some irrigation in CO climate. Hardy to -30 F. Begins bearing in 4 - 6 years and yields up to 75 lbs per tree. Slow-growing at first, established plants average 1-2 feet growth.
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Pinon Pine5Full sunDryneutraltree50'35's-mxnuts, needle teatraditional source of protein
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Plum, American3Some shadeDrought tolerantS,L,CtreemxfruitxMost members of this genus are shallow-rooted and will produce suckers if the roots are damaged.
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Prickly Pear5 - 9Full sunDryshrub4-8'3'sxfruit, padsxneedles
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Proso Millet
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Prostrate Broom6 - 8Full sunDrought tolerantherb (small)4 - 8"3' +mxxdislikes root disturbance
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Quinoa0Full sunDrought tolerant6 - 8.5leaves, seedsWell-suited to high elevations with warm days and cool nights. Drought-tolerant but prefers moist soil. Sow in april. Must thoroughly rinse to remove saponins before eating. "The leaves, stem-tips and young flowers are excellent in salads, having a mild sweet flavor, and very succulent. Also good cooked like spinach or added to soups." - JLHSSouth American seed doesn't seem to do well,I bought Black quinoa from a place in the San Louis Valley and its doing very well in full sun some plants are 7 feet high.The only soil additions I used were bagged steer manure tilled in 8 inches.Last year my black quinoa failed because of drought and root maggots but still managed to pop a few seeds out.Use seed sparingly as every single one will germinate,the plants will tiller out if given room and create multiple seed heads.This is definitely a plant I will stick with in the future.
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Ramps4 - 8ShadeMoistS, Lleaves, rootxPlant bulbs fairly deeply. Requires relatively rich soil. Inhibits the growth of legumes.
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Rhubarb3Some shadeMoistS, L, Cherb5'4'fstalkTart stem is harvested in early spring. Can be eaten raw but is usually stewed with sugar or fruit. Roots have many medicinal properties. Grows best in moist, loamy soil but tolerates a wide variety of conditions.Don't harvest first year to allow roots to get established. Harvest just a few stalks per plant the second year.
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Rocky Mountain Bee Plant3/10/2010Full sunDrought tolerantS, L, Cherb3'1'annualxleavesxxEdible leaves. Attracts bees. Used by Anasazi and Navajo as "fourth sister". Pretty purple-pink flowers in July-Aug
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Rosemary 'arp'5 - 9Full sunDrought tolerantshrub, small/medium3-4'3-4'sherbx
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Running club moss1 - 8Partial shadeDrought tolerantherb, small5-12"indefsx
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Running Juneberry4Full sunDrought tolerantS (L, C)5.5-7Shrub, M4-6'IndefmberryxGrows true to seed
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Salad Burnet5Full sunMoistS, L, Cherb2'1'leavesMild perennial salad green with cucumber flavor. Can turn bitter in hot, dry conditions.
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Salsify
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Saltbush8Full sunDrought tolerantShrub6'9'other members of genusleavesTolerates dry and salty soils. Doesn't grow well in clay soil. "Plants can be damaged by severe frosts but they soon recover" - PFAF. A. Halimus might need a sheltered microclimate to grow in CO, but A. canescens, a relative, is native to the Denver area and was used as a fuel source by Native Americans.
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Saltbush, Four-wing7Full sunDrought tolerantS, Lbasic, neutralshrub, m5'5'xleaves, seedsxcommon to Denver area, used as fuel source by Native Americans. "It survives with 8" to 12" of rain a year and is found anywhere from below sea level to 8,000'. Taproots that can reach down 20' tolerate soils containing salt, selenium, boron, and alkalis, but accept slightly acid soils, deep sandy loams, heavy clays, and gravel washes... The leaves contain high levels of protein and carotene in the winter, but saponin makes them unpalatable in the summer when they’re producing seed." - NAG "The leaves can be made into a soapy lather and used as a wash on itches and rashes such as chickenpox. A poultice of the crushed leaves can be applied to ant bites to reduce the pain and swelling." - PFAF
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Sand Cherry3Some shadeDrought tolerantShrub, m3-6'3'15-30 yrsxfruitxpretty good fruit - up to 2 cm in diameter
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Sea Buckthorn3Some shadeDrought tolerantS, L, Cshrub, large20'10'15-30 yrsmberriesxxProduces acidic 1/4-inch berries high in vitamins A and C. A high-quality medical oil is produced from the fruit. Less tart (but less nutritious) after a frost. As the name implies, the branches are quite thorny. Grows on dunes and sea cliffs in the wild.
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Sea Kale4 - 8Some shadeDrought tolerant6.5-8herb, m2-3'3'5-10 yrsm-fleavesxlikes good, rich, deep soil and an open and sunny position with plenty of compost and manure. drought-tolerant
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Serviceberry, Shadblow2Drought tolerantS (L, C)5.5-7Shrub, L18'9'berriesxGrows true to seed
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Serviceberry/Saskatoon "Pigeon Berry" (Amelanchier alnifolia var. pumila)2 - 3Some shadeMoistS (L, C)5.5-7Shrub, M15'15'15-30 yrsxberryFor inflamation and pain when fruit ingested *http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15997850xGrows true to seed. Plants fruit in 2-3 years. Hardy to -40 F
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Sheep Sorrel3Full sunDrought tolerantacid-neutralherb6"indefperennialfleavesxxxxattracts wildlife. Detoxifier when juiced, makes lemonade-like drink when boiled. lemony flavor due to oxalic acid -> raw leaves in hi quantities will lock up other nutrients. Dark green to brown and dark grey dyes can be obtained from the roots.
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Siberian Pea Shrub2 - 9Full sunDrought tolerantShrub, large15-30 yrsfpodsxGood chicken feed, seeds are 36% protein, good hedge (thorny), winter hardy, drought tolerant. New growth can be trimmed and left on ground as nitrogen-rich mulch. "The seeds are edible cooked. Small, but produced in abundance, there are 4 - 6 seeds per pod. Having a bland flavor, it is best used in spicy dishes. The raw seed has a mild pea-like flavor. The seed contains 12.4% of a fatty oil and up to 36% protein, and it has been recommended as an emergency food for humans - http://www.djroger.com/Siberian%20Pea%20Shrub.htm
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Silverberry2 - 6Full sunDrought tolerant15-30 yrsxfruitxxOGW tastier, BRN hardier. good for hedgerows, poor soils, windbreaks. Resent root disturbance. Good-smelling flowers
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Soapberry8Full sunDrought tolerantS, L, Ctree40'ssw usxFruit contains saponins that make a good natural detergent. Antimicrobial properties good for disinfecting greywater and cisterns
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Sorrel, Garden3 - 9Some shadeDrought tolerantherb1'2'perennialleavesxLeaves are available year-round if in a good microclimate. However, "they tend to be almost tasteless early on, gradually gaining their characteristic and desired acidity and flavor as the season wears on". lemony flavor due to oxalic acid -> raw leaves in hi quantities will lock up other nutrients.
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