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PRIMARY RANKING SOURCE: Inter-Parliamentary Union (June 2020)RepresentWomen's June 2020 Data on Voting Systems and Quotas in Lower and Upper Legislative Houses Around the World
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Lower or Singular LegislatureUpper House or Senate
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RankCountryVoting SystemDescription of Voting SystemGender QuotaSeatsWomenPercent WomenElectionSystemDescriptionQuotaElectionSeatsWomen% Women
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1RwandaProportional53 members elected through closed-list PR, 27 members indirectly elected by special interest groupsReserved Seats804961.3%2018-09
Indirectly Elected & Appointed
12 members indirectly elected by regional governing councils, 8 members appointed by president, 4 members appointed by Forum of Political Organizations, 2 members elected by insitutions of higher learning Reserved Seats2019-09261038.5%
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2CubaWinner Take AllTwo-Round SystemNo Official Quota60532253.2%2018-03No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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3BoliviaMixed
Mixed Member Proportional
Legislated Candidate & Party1306953.1%2019-10Proportional
Closed-list proportional representation for multi-member constituencies, seats allocated according to D'Hondt method
Legislated Candidate & Party2019-10361747.2%
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4United Arab Emirates
Indirectly Elected & Appointed
Half of members are appointed by state rulers, and remaining half of members are indirectly elected by an electoral college
Reserved Seats402050.0%2019-10No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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5MexicoMixedMixed Member Proportional: 300 members elected through first past the post, 200 members elected through closed-list PRLegislated Candidate & Party50024148.2%2018-07MixedMixed Member Proportional system: 96 members elected in multi-member constituencies through plurality vote, 32 members elected through closed-list proportional representation in a single national constituencyLegislated Candidate & Party 2018-071286349.2%
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6NicaraguaProportionalClosed-List PRLegislated Candidate & Party914347.3%2016-11No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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7SwedenProportionalOpen-List PRParty34916447.0%2018-09No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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8GrenadaWinner Take All
First Past The Post (FPTP)
No Official Quota15746.7%2018-03Appointed
Senators are appointed by the Governor General- 10 are appointed on the advice of the Prime Minister, and three are apponted on the advice of the Leader of the Opposition
No Official Quota2018-0413430.8%
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9South AfricaProportionalClosed-List PRParty39518446.6%2019-05AppointedMembers appointed by provincial legislatures Party2019-05532037.7%
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10AndorraMixed
Parallel (Segmented) (PR Lists and Majoritarian constituencies)
No Official Quota281346.4%2019-04No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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11FinlandProportionalOpen-List PRNo Official Quota2009246.0%2019-04No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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12Costa RicaProportionalClosed-List PRLegislated Candidate & Party572645.6%2018-02No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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13SpainProportionalClosed-list PR with seats allocated according to D'Hondt methodLegislated Candidate & Party35015444.0%2019-11Mixed208 members elected by plurality vote in multi-member constituencies, remaining members appointed by regional legislatures Legislated Candidate & Party 2019-1126410339.0%
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14NamibiaProportionalClosed-List PRParty1044543.3%2019-11Indirectly ElectedIndirectly ElectedParty2015-1242819.0%
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15SenegalMixedParallel System: 105 members elected through plurality vote in single and multi-member constituencies, 60 members elected through PR in a single national constituency using the highest averages method
Legislated Candidate
1657143.0%2017-07No Upper HouseN/ANo Official QuotaN/AN/AN/AN/A
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16SwitzerlandProportionalOpen-List PRParty2008341.5%2019-10Winner Take AllMembers elected by plurality vote in single and multi-member constituencies, with the exception of two cantons (Jura and Neuchâtel), which use proportional representationParty2019-11461226.1%
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17NorwayProportionalOpen-List PRParty1697041.4%2017-09No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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18MozambiqueProportionalClosed-List PRParty25010341.2%2019-10No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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19ArgentinaProportionalClosed-List PR
Legislated Candidate & Party
25710540.9%2019-10ProportionalClosed-List version of Limited VotedLegislated Candidate & Party2019-10722940.3%
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20New ZealandMixed
Mixed Member Proportional: 70 members elected through first past the post, 50 members elected through closed-list PR
Party1204940.8%2017-09No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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21BelgiumProportionalOpen-List PR
Legislated Candidate
1506140.7%2019-05Indirectly ElectedIndirectly Elected
Legislated Candidate
2019-07602745.0%
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22BelarusWinner Take All
First Past the Post (FPTP)
No Official Quota1104440.0%2019-11
Indirectly Elected & Appointed
Most members elected indirectly by regional and city councils, remaining members appointed by king
No Official Quota2019-11601525.0%
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25DenmarkProportionalOpen-List PRNo Official Quota1797139.7%2019-06No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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26FranceWinner Take AllTwo-Round SystemLegislated Candidate & Party57722839.5%2017-06Indirectly ElectedIndirectly Elected Legislated Candidate & Party 2017-0934811633.3%
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27EcuadorProportionalOpen-List PR
Legislated Candidate
1375439.4%2017-02No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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28AustriaProportionalOpen-List PRParty1837239.3%2019-09Indirectly Elected
Members indirectly elected by provincial diets
PartyN/A612236.1%
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29EthiopiaWinner Take All
First Past The Post (FPTP)
Party54721238.8%2015-05Indirectly Elected
Members indirectly elected by State Councils, unless the Councils opt to hold direct elections - none currently do so
Party2015-101534932.0%
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30Timor-LesteProportional
Closed-list PR for a single national constituency with seats allocated according to the D'Hondt method
Legislated Candidate
652538.5%2018-05No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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31BurundiProportional
Closed-List PR with seats distributed according to the D'Hondt method
Legislated Candidate & Reserved Seats
1234738.2%2020-05Indirectly Elected
Indirectly elected with three seats reserved for members of the Twa ethnicity
Reserved Seats2015-07391846.2%
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32IcelandProportionalOpen-List PRParty632438.1%2017-10No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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33SerbiaProportionalClosed-List PR
Legislated Candidate
2479337.7%2016-04No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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34United Republic of TanzaniaMixedParallel System: 264 members elected through first past the post, 113 women elected through list proportional representation, 10 members appointed by president
Reserved Seats & Party
39314536.9%2015-10No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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35ItalyMixed
Parallel: 231 members elected through first past the post system, 386 members are elected through list PR, using the largest remainder method
Legislated Candidate & Party
63022535.7%2018-03Mixed
Parallel: 116 members elected through first-past-the-post system, 199 members elected in multi-seat constituencies through list PR, 6 members appointed by president
Legislated Candidate & Party 2018-0332011034.4%
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36UgandaWinner Take All
First Past The Post (FPTP)
Reserved Seats45916034.9%2016-02No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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37Dominica
Winner Take All & Appointed
21 members are elected through First Past the Post (FPTP), 9 members are appointed
No Official Quota321134.4%2019-12No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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38CameroonMixedParallel: First Past the Post (FPTP) for single member constituencies, party block vote in multi-member consituencies; if no list obtains an absolute majority of votes, list proportional representation is used Party1806133.9%2020-03
Indirectly Elected & Appointed
Indirectly Elected & AppointedNo Official Quota2018-031002626.0%
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39United KingdomWinner Take All
First Past The Post (FPTP)
Party65022033.8%2019-12AppointedAppointedNo Official QuotaN/A79521627.2%
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43NepalMixed
Parallel: 165 members elected through first past the post, 110 members elected through closed-list PR
Reserved Seats2759032.7%2017-12Indirectly ElectedIndirectly ElectedReserved Seats2020-01582237.9%
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44UzbekistanWinner Take AllTwo-Round System
Legislated Candidate
1504832.0%2020-01
Indirectly Elected & Appointed
84 members elected by regional governing councils, 16 members appointed by the president
Legislated Candidate
2020-01972424.7%
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45ZimbabweWinner Take All
First Past The Post (FPTP)
Reserved Seats & Party
2708631.9%2018-07ProportionalList PRLegislated Candidate & Party 2018-07803543.8%
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46San MarinoProportional
List PR with seats allocated according to the D'Hondt method
Legislated Candidate
601931.7%2019-12No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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47GermanyMixedMixed Member Proportional: 299 members elected through first past the post system, 299 members elected under proportional representationParty70922131.2%2017-09AppointedAppointedParty N/A692536.2%
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48Trinidad and TobagoWinner Take All
First Past The Post (FPTP)
No Official Quota421331.0%2015-09Appointed
Appointed by president on the advice of the Prime Minister and Leader of the Opposition
No Official Quota2015-09311238.7%
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49AustraliaWinner Take All
Single-winner ranked choice voting, also known as Alternative Vote
Party1514630.5%2019-05ProportionalSingle Transferable VoteParty2019-05763748.7%
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53MontenegroProportionalClosed-List PR
Legislated Candidate
812429.6%2016-10No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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54AlbaniaProportionalClosed-List PR
Legislated Candidate
1223629.5%2017-06No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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55SurinameProportionalOpen-List PRNo Official Quota511529.4%2020-05No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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56CanadaWinner Take All
First Past the Post (FPTP)
Party3389829.0%2019-10Appointed
Members appointed by the Governor-General
PartyN/A964850.0%
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57EstoniaProportionalOpen-List PRNo Official Quota1012928.7%2019-03No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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58PolandProportionalOpen-List PR with seats allocated according to the D'Hondt method
Legislated Candidate
46013228.7%2019-10Winner Take AllFirst Past The Post (FPTP)No Official Quota2019-101002424.0%
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59South SudanNot AvailableNot AvailableReserved Seats38310928.5%2016-08AppointedAppointedReserved Seats2011-0850612.0%
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60PhilippinesMixedParallel System: 230 members elected through first past the post, 57 members elected through closed-list PRParty3048528.0%2019-05Winner Take AllBlock VoteParty 2019-0524729.2%
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61Dominican RepublicProportionalOpen-List PR
Legislated Candidate
1905327.9%2016-05ProportionalList PRNo Official Quota2016-053239.4%
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62MaliWinner Take AllTwo-Round SystemLegislated Candidate & Party1474127.9%2020-04No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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63SloveniaProportionalOpen-List PRLegislated Candidate & Party902527.8%2018-06Indirectly Elected
Members indirectly elected by an electoral college representing various interest groups
No Official Quota2017-1140410.0%
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64Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos)Winner Take AllBlock VoteNo Official Quota1494127.5%2016-03No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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65KazakhstanProportionalClosed-List PRNo Official Quota1072927.1%2016-03
Indirectly Elected & Appointed
15 members appointed by president, remaining members indirectly elected by regional legislatures No Official Quota2017-0649612.2%
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66AfghanistanMixed
Single Non-Transferable Vote (SNTV)
Reserved Seats2486727.0%2018-10
Indirectly Elected & Appointed
34 members of the House of Elders (Meshrano Jirga) are appointed by the President. The other 68 members are split evenly to be indirectly elected by regional legislatures (District Councils and Provinicial Councils) using a two-round system.
No Official Quota2015-01681927.9%
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67Viet NamWinner Take AllTwo-Round SystemNo Official Quota49413226.7%2016-05No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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68BulgariaProportionalClosed-List PR with seats distributed according to the Hare QuotaParty2406426.7%2017-03No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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69IraqProportionalOpen-list PR with seats allocated according to the St. Laguë methodReserved Seats3298726.4%2018-05No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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72AlgeriaProportionalClosed-List PR
Legislated Candidate
46211925.8%2017-05
Indirectly Elected & Appointed
Indirectly Elected & AppointedNo Official Quota2018-1213296.8%
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73Cabo VerdeProportional
Closed-List PR with seats distributed according to the D'Hondt method
No Official Quota721825.0%2016-03No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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73TurkmenistanWinner Take AllTwo-Round SystemNo Official Quota1243125.0%2018-03No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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75China
Indirectly Elected
Members of the National People's Congress are indirectly elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses and the People's Liberation Army
Legislated Candidate & Reserved Seats
297574224.9%2018-03No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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76TunisiaProportional
Closed-list PR with seats allocated according to largest remainders method
Legislated Candidate
2175424.9%2019-10No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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77Republic of MoldovaMixedParallel System: 51 members elected through first past the post, 50 members elected through closed-list PR for a single national constituency
Legislated Candidate
1012524.8%2019-02No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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78SomaliaAppointedAppointedReserved Seats2756724.4%2017-02Indirectly ElectedIndirectly ElectedNo Official Quota2017-02541324.1%
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79IsraelProportionalClosed-list PR for one national constituency, with seats allocated according to the D'Hondt method Party1202924.2%2020-03No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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80LithuaniaMixedParallel: 71 members elected through two-round system, 70 members elected through open-list PRParty1413424.1%2016-10No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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81SingaporeWinner Take All
First Past The Post & Party Block Vote
No Official Quota1002424.0%2015-09No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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82TajikistanMixed
Parallel: 41 members elected through first past the post, 22 members elected through closed-list PR
No Official Quota631523.8%2020-03
Indirectly Elected & Appointed
Indirectly Elected & AppointedNo Official Quota2020-0331722.6%
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83United States of AmericaWinner Take AllFirst past the post, with the exception of Georgia, where a two-round system is usedNo Official Quota43210223.6%2018-11Winner Take All
First Past The Post for single-member constituencies, with the exception of Georgia and Louisiana, which require an absolute majority vote, with two rounds if necessary
No Official Quota2018-111002525.0%
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84ArmeniaProportionalList PR
Legislated Candidate
1323123.5%2018-12No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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85LesothoMixedMixed Member Proportional: 80 members are elected through first past the post, 40 members elected through closed-list PR
Legislated Candidate
1202823.3%2017-07Appointed
22 seats are reserved for tribal chiefs, and remaining 11 seats are appointed by King on the advice of the Council of State
No Official Quota2017-0732721.9%
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86MalawiWinner Take All
First Past The Post (FPTP)
Party1924422.9%2019-05No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
80
87ChileProportional
Closed-List PR with seats allocated according to the D'Hondt method
Legislated Candidate & Party1553522.6%2017-11ProportionalClosed-List PRLegislated Candidate & Party2017-11431023.3%
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88PanamaMixedParallel: 26 members elected through first past the post, 45 members elected through open-list PR
Legislated Candidate
711622.5%2019-05No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/ANAN/AN/A
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91Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)Mixed
Parallel System: 113 members elected through plurality vote, 51 members elected through closed-list PR, 3 seats reserved for indigenous peoples
Legislated Candidate
1673722.2%2015-12No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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92RomaniaProportional
List PR, seats allocated according to the D'Hondt method
Party3297221.9%2016-12Proportional
Open-List PR for multi-member constituencies, seats allocated according to D'Hondt method
Party2016-121362014.7%
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93KenyaWinner Take All
First Past The Post (FPTP)
Reserved Seats3497621.8%2017-08Winner Take AllFirst Past The Post (FPTP)
Reserved Seats/Party
2017-08682130.9%
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94Bosnia and HerzegovinaProportionalOpen-List PR with seats distributed according to the Sainte-Laguë method
Legislated Candidate
42921.4%2018-10AppointedAppointedNo Official Quota2019-0215320.0%
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97HondurasProportionalOpen-List PR
Legislated Candidate
1282721.1%2017-11No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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98Equatorial Guinea
Proportional Representation
Open-List PRParty1002121.0%2017-11
Proportional & Appointed
Closed-list proportional representation for multi-member constituencies, some members appointed by president
Party2017-11721216.7%
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99BangladeshWinner Take All
First Past the Post (FPTP)
Reserved Seats3497320.9%2018-12No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
89
100UkraineMixed
Parallel System: 225 members elected through first past the post, 225 members elected through closed-list PR in a single national constituency
No Official Quota4238820.8%2019-07No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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101GreeceProportionalOpen-List PRLegislated Candidate & Party3006220.7%2019-07No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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102MoroccoProportionalList PRReserved Seats3958120.5%2016-10Indirectly Elected Indirectly Elected No Official Quota2015-101201411.7%
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103IndonesiaProportional
Open-List PR with seats allocated according to St. Laguë method
Legislated Candidate
57511720.3%2019-04No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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104MauritaniaMixedParallel: 113 members elected through plurality vote, 40 members elected through closed-list PRReserved Seats1533120.3%2018-09No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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105PakistanMixed
Parallel: 272 members elected through first past the post, 70 members elected through list PR
Reserved Seats3426920.2%2018-07Indirectly ElectedUsing PR STV for those seats allocated to each provinceReserved Seats2018-031042019.2%
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106SlovakiaProportionalOpen-List PRParty1503020.0%2020-02No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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111Saudi ArabiaAppointedAppointed Reserved Seats1513019.9%2016-12No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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112CyprusProportionalOpen-List PRParty561119.6%2016-05No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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113FijiProportionalList PRNo Official Quota511019.6%2018-11No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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114GuatemalaProportional
Closed-list PR with seats allocated according to the D'Hondt method
Party1603119.4%2019-06No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
100
115CroatiaProportional
Open-List PR with seats allocated according to the D'Hondt method
Legislated Candidate & Party1512919.2%2016-09No Upper HouseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A