Relevant Project Step
Type of Publication
|Seagrass||Planning||Manager||Blue currency!!!-The role of Seagrasses as Carbon sinks|
Carbon, progress from birth to death and decomposition in animals, in some plants it get trapped for long time, even thousands of years. Seagrasses are the hidden treasure could be termed as “blue currency”. This vegetated marine habitat are hot spots for biodiversity, provides important and valuable ecosystem services, including carbon sink but are experiencing a steep global decline. In addition to burying a fraction of their own production, seagrasses reduce flow, alter turbulence and attenuate wave action. Seagrass serves as its own unique habitat. The meadows provide canopy cover that shelters small organisms such as invertebrates and juvenile fish, including commercial fish species. But their values are still underestimated in many parts of the world including in India. [publication]
Climate change, Seagrass, Carbon Sequestration, Ocean Acidification
Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change
|Asia||India||Journal Article||Yes||E.P. Nobi||0.05.1|
|Seagrass||Methods||Manager||Geographic variability in organic carbon stock and accumulation rate in sediments of East and Southeast Asian seagrass meadows|
Organic carbon (OC) stored in the sediments of seagrass meadows has been considered a globally significant OC reservoir. However, the sparsity and regional bias of studies on long-term OC accumulation in coastal sediments have limited reliable estimation of the capacity of seagrass meadows as a global OC sink. We evaluated the amount and accumulation rate of OC in sediment of seagrass meadows and adjacent areas in East and Southeast Asia. In temperate sites, the average OC concentration in the top 30 cm of sediment was higher in seagrass meadows (780–1080 μmol g−1) than in sediments without seagrass cover (52–430 μmol g−1). The average OC in the top 30 cm of subtropical and tropical seagrass meadow sediments ranged from 140 to 440 μmol g−1. Carbon isotope mass balancing suggested that the contribution of seagrass-derived carbon to OC stored in sediments was often relatively minor (temperate: 10–40%; subtropical: 35–82%; tropical: 4–34%) and correlated to the habitat type, being particularly low in estuarine habitats. Stock of OC in the top meter of sediment of all the studied meadows ranged from 38 to 120 Mg ha−1. The sediment accumulation rates were estimated by radiocarbon dating of six selected cores (0.32–1.34 mm yr−1). The long-term OC accumulation rates calculated from the sediment accumulation rate and the top 30 cm average OC concentration for the seagrass meadows (24–101 kg ha−1 yr−1) were considerably lower than the OC accumulation rates previously reported for Mediterranean Posidonia oceanica meadows (580 kg ha−1 yr−1 on average). Current estimates for the global carbon sink capacity of seagrass meadows, which rely largely on Mediterranean studies, may be considerable overestimations.[publication]
Organic Carbon, Seagrass Meadows,
|2015||Global Biogeochemical Cycles||Asia||Japan||Journal Article||No|
T. Miyajima, M. Hori, M. Hamaguchi, H. Shimabukuro, H. Adachi, H. Yamano, M. Nakaoka
|Seagrass||Capacity Building||Manager||Opportunities for seagrass blue carbon development in the Mediterranean Sea|
Seagrass meadows in the Mediterranea sea are about 1.35 to 5 million hectares or 5-17% of global seagrass. Seagrass loss in the Mediterannean is rapid. Protecting these seagrasses would avoid emissions of 500 tons of carbon dioxide per hectare. Binet believes that Marein Protected Areas are the key. He also suggested the compliance market of the UNFCCC and voluntary markets. The Ocean Foundation has a seagrass carbon compensation scheme called Seagrass grow! [publication]
Blue Carbon, Development, MPA, Markets,
Marine Environmental Economics
|Europe & Mediterrean||Review||Yes||T. Bient||0.05.3|
|Seagrass||Methods||Manager||Carbon storage and preservation in seagrass meadows|
Seagrass meadows are important ‘Blue Carbon’ sinks but many questions remain unaddressed in regards to the organic carbon (OC) sequestration capacity and processes leading to retention and persistence of OC in seagrass sediments. The research summarised in this dissertation examined 37 sediment cores from twelve Australian seagrass meadows (Posidonia australis and Halophila ovalis) in order to improve our understanding of OC storage and preservation in seagrass sediments. The research: quantified the OC storage in seagrass meadows and the reduction in stores after ecosystem degradation; the rates of OC accumulation; the roles of species composition and the depositional nature of the habitat as factors affecting OC storage; and, characterised the sedimentary organic matter (OM) accumulated over millennia using techniques not previously applied to seagrass sediments. In Oyster Harbour, Western Australia, P. australis had been present over the past 6000 years, as evidenced from radiocarbon analysis of sedimentary matter. Both seagrass- and nonseagrass-derived OM contributed to high sedimentary organic stores (10.79-11.42 kg OC m- 2 ; 150 cm sediment depth). The persistence of sedimentary OM over millennial scales indicated that the carbon was well-preserved, thus showing a link between carbon storage and its preservation. By quantifying accumulation rates, and using historical accounts of the highest areal cover (6.1 to 6.7 km2 ) and recent losses in cover (by 2.8-3.1 km2 ) due to eutrophication, it was estimated that up to 11.17 Gg OC has been lost from shallow sediments (50 cm depth) following seagrass loss. This carbon was potentially remineralisable and may, therefore, have been liberated back to the atmospheric CO2 pool. Nine Posidonia australis meadows were then investigated for the effect of the depositional environment on sedimentary OC stores. Based on hydrodynamic differences of meadows categorised as More Sheltered, Less Sheltered, and Exposed, the More Sheltered sites had OC stores 6-fold higher (4.57 ± 0.16 to 13.51 ± 0.53 kg OC m-2; 140 cm sediment depth) compared to Exposed meadows (2.24 ± 0.31 to 3.77 ± 0.85 kg OC m-2). The OC stores of Less Sheltered meadows were not significantly different to either of the other two categories. iv It was concluded that the depositional nature of a seagrass habitat can affect the OC stores, though the affects may be influenced by other site-specific characteristics. The effect of species composition on OC stores and accumulation rates was subsequently investigated by comparing the stores in estuarine P. australis and H. ovalis meadows. Comparisons were based on stratigraphic- (OC stores over a set depth) and temporal-based (i.e. accumulation over a set period of time, and as accumulation rates) measures. Organic carbon stores were between 2- (P. australis: 10.81 ± 2.06 kg OC m-2 , H. ovalis: 5.17 ± 2.16 kg OC m-2; 150 cm depth) and 11-fold (P. australis: 10.87 ± 2.86 kg OC m-2 , H. ovalis: 0.97 ± 0.47 kg OC m-2; 2500 yr accumulation) different between meadows of the two species. While the OC stores were different between species, it was also apparent that environmental factors also contributed to the variability, with some H. ovalis meadows having stores comparable to some P. australis meadows. Thus, both the species and environmental factors needs to be considered for robust predictions of OC storage in seagrass meadows. The final study reported here investigated the preservation of sedimentary OC in the P. australis meadow of Oyster Harbour. A range of biogeochemical variables (age, sediment grain size, anoxia, OM and OC contents, and δ 13C values) were characterised at increasing depth within a sediment core. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance was applied to a seagrass core for the first time to characterise the biochemical constituents of the sedimentary OM. There was a 76-80% contribution of seagrass-derived organics (lignin, carbohydrate, and a black-carbon-like OM) into the sediment. The proportion of black-carbon-like material increased with age/depth, indicating that it underwent selective preservation. Carbohydrates decreased with depth/age and lignin showed no changes, indicating that they have undergone non-selective preservation. There was remarkable consistency in the biochemical makeup of the OM with depth, which accumulated over the past 1900 years, indicating a very high preservation potential within seagrass sediments. Cumulatively, the research presented in this dissertation has highlighted the variability of OC stores in seagrass meadows and how OC may be preserved. The research has indicated that any attempts to estimate regional or global carbon stores must take into account both the species of seagrass that dominate the meadows and the type of depositional environment that v the meadows occur in. It is also clear that Posidonia meadows in south-western Australia have the potential to store very large amount of Blue Carbon, comparable in some instances to the highest stores recorded globally, and to preserve these stores over millennia. Modelling future Blue Carbon stores requires an understanding of the fate of the stored carbon following disturbance. It is clear that this carbon can be lost from the meadow, but much of it appears to be in highly recalcitrant forms and it is unclear whether this material is available for subsequent re-mineralisation. [publication]
|Organic Carbon, Seagrass||2015||Edith Cowan University|
Australia & Indo-Pacific Islands
|Journal Article||Yes||M.R. Jamaludin||0.05.4|
|Seagrass||Methods||Manager||Seagrass Restoration Enhances "Blue Carbon" Sequestration in Coastal Waters|
Seagrass meadows are highly productive habitats that provide important ecosystem services in the coastal zone, including carbon and nutrient sequestration. Organic carbon in seagrass sediment, known as “blue carbon,” accumulates from both in situ production and sedimentation of particulate carbon from the water column. Using a large-scale restoration (>1700 ha) in the Virginia coastal bays as a model system, we evaluated the role of seagrass, Zostera marina, restoration in carbon storage in sediments of shallow coastal ecosystems. Sediments of replicate seagrass meadows representing different age treatments (as time since seeding: 0, 4, and 10 years), were analyzed for % carbon, % nitrogen, bulk density, organic matter content, and 210Pb for dating at 1-cm increments to a depth of 10 cm. Sediment nutrient and organic content, and carbon accumulation rates were higher in 10-year seagrass meadows relative to 4-year and bare sediment. These differences were consistent with higher shoot density in the older meadow. Carbon accumulation rates determined for the 10-year restored seagrass meadows were 36.68 g C m-2 yr-1. Within 12 years of seeding, the restored seagrass meadows are expected to accumulate carbon at a rate that is comparable to measured ranges in natural seagrass meadows. This the first study to provide evidence of the potential of seagrass habitat restoration to enhance carbon sequestration in the coastal zone.
Seagrasses, ecosystem services, restoration
|2013||PLOS ONE||USA & Canada||Journal Article||Yes|
J.T. Greiner, K.J. McGlathery, J. Gunnell, B.A. McKee
|Seagrass||Methods||Manager||Variability in the Carbon Storage of Seagrass Habitats and Its Implications for Global Estimates of Blue Carbon Ecosystem Service|
The recent focus on carbon trading has intensified interest in ‘Blue Carbon’–carbon sequestered by coastal vegetated ecosystems, particularly seagrasses. Most information on seagrass carbon storage is derived from studies of a single species, Posidonia oceanica, from the Mediterranean Sea. We surveyed 17 Australian seagrass habitats to assess the variability in their sedimentary organic carbon (Corg) stocks. The habitats encompassed 10 species, in mono-specific or mixed meadows, depositional to exposed habitats and temperate to tropical habitats. There was an 18-fold difference in the Corg stock (1.09–20.14 mg Corg cm−3 for a temperate Posidonia sinuosa and a temperate, estuarine P. australis meadow, respectively). Integrated over the top 25 cm of sediment, this equated to an areal stock of 262–4833 g Corg m−2. For some species, there was an effect of water depth on the Corg stocks, with greater stocks in deeper sites; no differences were found among sub-tidal and inter-tidal habitats. The estimated carbon storage in Australian seagrass ecosystems, taking into account inter-habitat variability, was 155 Mt. At a 2014–15 fixed carbon price of A$25.40 t−1 and an estimated market price of $35 t−1 in 2020, the Corg stock in the top 25 cm of seagrass habitats has a potential value of $AUD 3.9–5.4 bill. The estimates of annual Corg accumulation by Australian seagrasses ranged from 0.093 to 6.15 Mt, with a most probable estimate of 0.93 Mt y−1 (10.1 t. km−2 y−1). These estimates, while large, were one-third of those that would be calculated if inter-habitat variability in carbon stocks were not taken into account. We conclude that there is an urgent need for more information on the variability in seagrass carbon stock and accumulation rates, and the factors driving this variability, in order to improve global estimates of seagrass Blue Carbon storage. [publication]
Carbon stocks, carbon trading
Australia & Indo-Pacific Islands
P.S. Lavery, M.A. Mateo, O. Serrano, M. Rozaimi
|Seagrass||Planning||General||Seagrass ecosystems as a globally significant carbon stock|
The protection of organic carbon stored in forests is considered as an important method for mitigating climate change. Like terrestrial ecosystems, coastal ecosystems store large amounts of carbon, and there are initiatives to protect these ‘blue carbon’ stores. Organic carbon stocks in tidal salt marshes and mangroves have been estimated, but uncertainties in the stores of seagrass meadows—some of the most productive ecosystems on Earth—hinder the application of marine carbon conservation schemes. Here, we compile published and unpublished measurements of the organic carbon content of living seagrass biomass and underlying soils in 946 distinct seagrass meadows across the globe. Using only data from sites for which full inventories exist, we estimate that, globally, seagrass ecosystems could store as much as 19.9 Pg organic carbon; according to a more conservative approach, in which we incorporate more data from surface soils and depth-dependent declines in soil carbon stocks, we estimate that the seagrass carbon pool lies between 4.2 and 8.4 Pg carbon. We estimate that present rates of seagrass loss could result in the release of up to 299 Tg carbon per year, assuming that all of the organic carbon in seagrassbiomass and the top metre of soils is remineralized.
Seagrasses, stocks, estimates
|2012||Nature Geoscience||World||Journal Article||No|
J.W. Fourqurean, C.M. Duarte, H. Kennedy, N. Marba, M. Holmer, M. A. Mateo, E.T. Apostoiaki, G.A. Kendrick, D. Krause-Jensen, K.J. McGlathery, O. Serrano
|Seagrass||Methods||Manager||Quantifying and modeling the carbon sequestration capacity of seagrass meadows- A critical assessment|
Seagrasses are among the planet's most effective natural ecosystems for sequestering (capturing and storing) carbon (C); but if degraded, they could leak stored C into the atmosphere and accelerate global warming. Quantifying and modelling the C sequestration capacity is therefore critical for successfully managing seagrass ecosystems to maintain their substantial abatement potential. At present, there is no mechanism to support carbon financing linked to seagrass. For seagrasses to be recognised by the IPCC and the voluntary C market, standard stock assessment methodologies and inventories of seagrass C stocks are required. Developing accurate C budgets for seagrass meadows is indeed complex; we discuss these complexities, and, in addition, we review techniques and methodologies that will aid development of C. [publication]
Blue Carbon, Seagrasses, Carbon, Modeling, Sequestration, Carbon Sinks
|2014||Marine Pollution Bulletin||World||Journal Article||No|
PI Macreadie, ME Baird, SM Trevathan-Tackett, AWD Larkum, PJ Ralph
|Seagrass||Methods||Academic||Seagrass community metabolism: Assessing the carbon sink capacity of seagrass meadows|
The metabolic rates of seagrass communities were synthesized on the basis ofa data set on seagrass community metabolism containing 403 individual estimatesderived from a total of 155 different sites. Gross primary production (GPP) rates(mean ± SE = 224.9 ± 11.1 mmol O2m−2d−1) tended to be significantly higher thanthe corresponding respiration (R) rates (mean ± SE = 187.6 ± 10.1 mmol O2m−2d−1),indicating that seagrass meadows tend to be autotrophic ecosystems, reflected in a positivemean net community production (NCP 27.2 ± 5.8 mmol O2m−2d−1) and a mean P/Rratio above 1 (1.55 ± 0.13). Tropical seagrass meadows tended to support higher metabolicrates and somewhat lower NCP than temperate ones. The P/R ratio tended to increasewith increasing GPP, exceeding, on average, the value of 1 indicative of metabolic balancefor communities supporting a GPP greater than 186 mmol O2m−2d−1, on average. Theglobal NCP of seagrass meadows ranged (95% confidence limits of mean values) from20.73 to 50.69 Tg C yr−1considering a low global seagrass area of 300,000 km2and41.47 to 101.39 Tg C yr−1when a high estimate of global seagrass area of 600,000 km2was considered. The global loss of 29% of the seagrass area represents, therefore,a major loss of intense natural carbon sinks in the biosphere. [publication]
Seagrass, metabolism, Gross Primary Production
|2010||Global Biogeochemical Cycles||World||Journal Article||Yes|
C.M. Duarte, N. Marba, E. Gacia, J.W. Fourqurean, J. Beggins, C. Barron, E.T. Apostolaki
|Seagrass||Conservation||Manager||Trophic Transfers from Seagrass Meadows Subsidize Diverse Marine and Terrestrial Consumers|
In many coastal locations, seagrass meadows are part of a greater seascape that includes both marine and terrestrial elements, each linked to the other via the foraging patterns of consumers (both predators and herbivores), and the passive drift of seagrass propagules, leaves, roots and rhizomes, and seagrass-associated macroalgal detritus. With seagrasses declining in many regions, the linkages between seagrass meadows and other habitats are being altered and diminished. Thus, it is timely to summarize what is known about the prevalence and magnitude of cross-habitat exchanges of seagrass-derived energy and materials, and to increase awareness of the importance of seagrasses to adjacent and even distant habitats. To do so we examined the literature on the extent and importance of exchanges of biomass between seagrass meadows and other habitats, both in the form of exported seagrass biomass as well as transfers of animal biomass via migration. Data were most abundant for Caribbean coral reefs and Australian beaches, and organisms for which there were quantitative estimates included Caribbean fishes and North American migratory waterfowl. Overall, data from the studies we reviewed clearly showed that seagrass ecosystems provide a large subsidy to both near and distant locations through the export of paniculate organic matter and living plant and animal biomass. The consequences of continuing seagrass decline thus extend far beyond the areas where seagrasses grow.[publication]
seagrass; connectivity; trophic subsidy; consumers
Kenneth L Heck Jr, Tim JB Carmthers, Carlos M Duarte, A Randall Hughes, Gary Kendrick, Robert J Orth, Susan W Williams
|Seagrass||Methods||Manager||Impact of seagrass loss and subsequent revegetation on carbon sequestration and stocks|
1. Seagrass meadows are sites of high rates of carbon sequestration and they potentially support‘blue carbon’ strategies to mitigate anthropogenic CO2emissions. Current uncertainties on the fateof carbon stocks following the loss or revegetation of seagrass meadows prevent the deployment of‘blue carbon’ strategies.2. Here, we reconstruct the trajectories of carbon stocks associated with one of the longest moni-tored seagrass restorati on projects globally. We demonstrate that sediment carbon stocks erode fol-lowing seagrass loss and that revegetati on projects effectively restore seagrass carbon seques trationcapacity. We combine carbon chronosequences with210Pb dating of seagrass sediment s in a mea-dow that experienced losses until the end of 1980s and subsequent serial revegetation efforts.3. Inventories of excess210Pb in seagrass sediments revealed that its accumulation, and thus sedi-ments, coincided with the presence of seagrass vegetation. They also showed that the upper sedi-ments eroded in areas that remained devoid of vegetation after seagrass loss. Seagrass revegetationenhanced autochthonous and allochthonous carbon deposition and burial. Carbon burial ratesincreased with the age of the restored sites, and 18 years after planting, they were similar to that incontinuously vegetated meadows (26.4 +/- 0.8 gCorgm^-2year^-1).4. Synthesis. The results presented here demonstrate that loss of seagrass triggers the erosion of his-toric carbon deposits and that revegetation effectively restores seagra ss carbon sequestration capac-ity. Thus, conservation and restoration of seagrass meadows are effective strategies for climatechange mitiga tion. [publication]
aquatic plant ecology, blue carbon, burial, carbon sink, climate change mitigation,erosion, Oyster Harbour, Posidonia australis, restoration
|2015||Journal of Ecology|
Australia & Indo-Pacific Islands
N. Marba, Arias-Ortiz, P. Masque, G.A. Kendrick, I. Mazarrasa, G.R. Bastyan, J. Farcia-Orellana, C.M. Duarte
|Seagrass||Capacity Building||Manager||Valuing Blue Carbon: Carbon Sequestration Benefits Provided by the Marine Protected Areas in Colombia|
Marine protected areas are aimed to protect and conserve key ecosystems for the provision of a number of ecosystem services that are the basis for numerous economic activities. Among the several services that these areas provide, the capacity of sequestering (capturing and storing) organic carbon is a regulating service, provided mainly by mangroves and seagrasses, that gains importance as alternatives for mitigating global warming become a priority in the international agenda. The objective of this study is to value the services associated with the capture and storage of oceanic carbon, known as Blue Carbon, provided by a new network of marine protected areas in Colombia. We approach the monetary value associated to these services through the simulation of a hypothetical market for oceanic carbon. To do that, we construct a benefit function that considers the capacity of mangroves and seagrasses for capturing and storing blue carbon, and simulate scenarios for the variation of key variables such as the market carbon price, the discount rate, the natural rate of loss of the ecosystems, and the expectations about the post-Kyoto negotiations. The results indicate that the expected benefits associated to carbon capture and storage provided by these ecosystems are substantial but highly dependent on the expectations in terms of the negotiations surrounding the extension of the Kyoto Protocol and the dynamics of the carbon credit’s demand and supply. We also find that the natural loss rate of these ecosystems does not seem to have a significant effect on the annual value of the benefits. This approach constitutes one of the first attempts to value blue carbon as one of the services provided by conservation.[publication]
Marine Protected Areas, Carbon Sequestration, Blue Carbon, economic valuation,
|2015||PLOS ONE||South America||Columbia||Journal Article||Yes|
T.G. Zarate-Barrera, J.H. Maldonado
|Seagrass||Methods||Manager||Carbon Storage in Seagrass Beds of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates|
“Blue Carbon” initiatives have highlighted the significant role of seagrasses in organic carbon (C org) burial and sequestration. However, global databases on the extent of C org stocks in seagrass ecosystems are largely comprised of studies conducted in monospecific beds from a limited number of regions, thus potentially biasing global estimates. To better characterize carbon stocks in seagrass beds of varying structure and composition, and to further expand the current “Blue Carbon” database to under-represented regions, we evaluate the extent of C org stocks in the relatively undocumented seagrass meadows of the Arabian Gulf. Surveys were conducted along the coast of Abu Dhabi (UAE) and encompassed sites ranging from sheltered embayments to offshore islands. Seagrass beds consisted of Halodule uninervis, Halophila ovalis and Halophila stipulacea. While seagrasses were widely distributed along the coast, both living and soil C orgstores were relatively modest on an areal basis. Total seagrass biomass ranged from 0.03 to 1.13 Mg C ha−1, with a mean of 0.4 ± 0.1 (±SEM), and soil C org stocks (as estimated over the top meter) ranged from 1.9 to 109 Mg C ha−1, with a mean of 49.1 ± 7.0 (±SEM). However, owing to the expansive distribution of seagrasses in the Arabian Gulf, seagrass “Blue Carbon” stocks were large, with 400 Gg C stored in living seagrass biomass and 49.1 Tg C stored in soils. Thus, despite low Corg stores for any given location, the overall contribution of seagrass beds to carbon storage are relatively large given their extensive coverage. This research adds to a growing global dataset on carbon stocks and further demonstrates that even seagrass beds dominated by small-bodied species function to store carbon in coastal environments. [publication]
Blue Carbon, Organic Carbon, Carbon Sequestration, Soil Carbon
|2015||Estuaries and Coasts||Middle East|
United Arab Emirates
J.E. Campbell, E.A. Lacey, R.A. Decker, S. Crooks, J.W. Fourqurean
|Seagrass||Methods||Manager||No detectable impact of small-scale disturbances on 'blue carbon' within seagrass beds|
Seagrass meadows are among the most efficient and long-term carbon sinks on earth, but disturbances could threaten this capacity, so understanding the impacts of disturbance on carbon stored within seagrass meadows—‘blue carbon’—is of prime importance. To date, there have been no published studies on the impacts of seagrass loss on ‘blue carbon’ stocks. We experimentally created several kinds of small-scale disturbances, representative of common grazer and boating impacts, within seagrass (Zostera nigracaulis) meadows in Port Phillip Bay (Australia) and measured the impacts on sediment organic carbon stocks (‘C org’, and other geochemical variables—%N, δ13C, δ15N). Disturbance had no detectable effect on C org levels within seagrass sediments, even for high-intensity disturbance treatments, which remained bare (i.e. no seagrass recovery) for 2 years after the disturbance. These findings challenge the widely held assumption that disturbance and concomitant loss of seagrass habitat cause release of carbon, at least for small-scale disturbances. We suggest that larger (e.g. meadow scale) disturbances may be required to trigger losses of ‘blue carbon’ from seagrass meadows.[publication]
Seagrass, Carbon Sinks, Disturbances
Australia & Indo-Pacific Islands
Macreadie P.I., York P.H., Sherman C.D.H., Keough M.J., Ross D.J., Ricart A.M., Smith T.M.
|Seagrass||Monitoring||Academic||The effect of ocean acidification on carbon storage and sequestration in seagrass beds; a global and UK context|
Ocean acidification will have many negative consequences for marine organisms and ecosystems, leading to a decline in many ecosystem services provided by the marine environment. This study reviews the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on seagrasses, assessing how this may affect their capacity to sequester carbon in the future and providing an economic valuation of these changes. If ocean acidification leads to a significant increase in above- and below-ground biomass, the capacity of seagrass to sequester carbon will be significantly increased. The associated value of this increase in sequestration capacity is approximately £500 and 600 billion globally between 2010 and 2100. A proportionally similar increase in carbon sequestration value was found for the UK. This study highlights one of the few positive stories for ocean acidification and underlines that sustainable management of seagrasses is critical to avoid their continued degradation and loss of carbon sequestration capacity. [publication]
Seagrass; Ocean acidification; Ecosystem services; Carbon sequestration; Valuation
|2014||Marine Pollution Bullentin||Europe & Mediterrean||UK||Journal Article||No||S.L. Garrard, N.J. Beaumon||1.05.15|
|Seagrass||Methods||Manager||Influence of water depth on the carbon sequestration capacity of seagrasses|
The actual estimates of carbon stocks beneath seagrass meadows worldwide are derived from few data, resulting in a tendency to generalize global carbon stocks from a very limited number of seagrass habitats. We surveyed Posidonia oceanica and Posidonia sinuosa meadows along depth-induced gradients of light availability to assess the variability in their sedimentary organic carbon (Corg) stocks and accretion rates. This study showed a fourfold decrease in Corg stocks from 2–4 m to 6–8 m depth P. sinuosa meadows (averaging 7.0 and 1.8 kg m−2, respectively; top meter of sediment) and a fourteenfold to sixteenfold decrease from shallow (2 m) to deep (32 m) P. oceanica meadows (200 and 19 kg m−2 average, respectively; top 2.7 m of sediment). The average Corg accretion rates in shallow P. sinuosa meadows were higher (10.5 g m−2 yr−1) than in deeper meadows (2.1 g m−2 yr−1). The reduction of sedimentary Corg stocks and accretion rates along depth-related gradients of light reduction suggests that irradiance, controlling plant productivity, meadow density, and sediment accretion rates, is a key environmental factor affecting Corg storage potential of seagrasses. The results obtained highlighted the exceptional carbon storage capacity of P. oceanica meadows at Balearic Islands (Spain), containing the highest areal Corg stocks of all seagrasses (estimated in up to 691–770 kg m−2 in 8–13 m thick deposits). Seagrass communities are experiencing worldwide decline, and reduced irradiance (following e.g., eutrophication or sediment regime alterations) will lead to photoacclimation responses (i.e., reduced plant productivity and shoot density), which may impact the carbon sequestration capacity of seagrasses. [publication]
blue carbon, stock, seagrass
|2014||Global Biogeochemical Cycles||Europe & Mediterrean||Journal Article||No|
S. Oscar, P.S Lavery, M. Rozaimi, M.A. Mateo
|Seagrass||Methods||Manager||Future seagrass beds: Can increased productivity lead to increased carbon storage?|
While carbon capture and storage (CCS) is increasingly recognised as technologically possible, recent evidence from deep-sea CCS activities suggests that leakage from reservoirs may result in highly CO2 impacted biological communities. In contrast, shallow marine waters have higher primary productivity which may partially mitigate this leakage. We used natural CO2 seeps in shallow marine waters to assess if increased benthic primary productivity could capture and store CO2 leakage in areas targeted for CCS. We found that the productivity of seagrass communities (in situ, using natural CO2 seeps) and two individual species (ex situ, Cymodocea serrulata and Halophila ovalis) increased with CO2 concentration, but only species with dense belowground biomass increased in abundance (e.g. C. serrulata). Importantly, the ratio of below:above ground biomass of seagrass communities increased fivefold, making seagrass good candidates to partially mitigate CO2 leakage from sub-seabed reservoirs, since they form carbon sinks that can be buried for millennia. [publication]
Primary productivity; Blue carbon; Seagrass; Carbon sequestration
|2013||Marine Pollution Bulletin|
Australia & Indo-Pacific Islands
Papua New Guinea
B.D. Russell, S.D. Connell, S. Uthicke, N. Muehllehner, K.E. Fabricius, J.M.H. Spencer
|Seagrass||Planning||Manager||Assessing the capacity of seagrass meadows for carbon burial: Current limitations and future strategies|
Seagrass meadows support high primary production rates and their canopies are efficient at filtering particles out of their water column as well as in preventing resuspension of the sediments. In addition, decomposition rates in seagrass sediments are slow, because of low nutrient concentration in seagrass detritus and low oxygen concentration in seagrass sediments. These characteristics result in high carbon burial rates in seagrass meadows, which have the capacity to accumulate large stores of carbon in their sediments, raising the seafloor. Carbon fingerprinting techniques allow to calculate both the age of these deposits and, therefore, the rate of carbon burial and identify the contribution of carbon produced by the seagrass. Yet, data on the regional cover and carbon stocks in seagrass meadows is sparse for some regions, particularly the Indo-Pacific, Africa and South America. In addition, our understanding of the factors regulating the variability in carbon sink capacity among seagrass meadows is limited. These gaps limit the capacity to formulate strategies to mitigate climate change based on the carbon sink capacity of seagrass meadows. A research strategy needs be formulated to address these gaps and provide the necessary protocols to ensure the accountability of mitigation actions involving the conservation and restoration of seagrass meadows. [publication]
Seagrasses, carbon fingerprinting, gaps
Ocean and Coastal Management
C.M. Duarte, H.Kennedy, N. Marba, I. Hendriks
|Seagrass||Methods||Manager||Carbon budget for a subtropical seagrass dominated coastal lagoon: How important are seagrasses to total ecosystem net primary production?|
The question of whether seagrass beds are effective carbon sinks has recently attracted much attention. Leaf production and consumption, and detrital export and decomposition were determined to quantify the carbon budget of leaf production in a southern Taiwan seagrass bed composed of the tropical intertidal seagrass Thalassia hemprichii, which is widely distributed in intertidal zones of the western Pacific. The influence of elevation in the intertidal zone on these processes was also investigated. Leaf production and consumption, and export of leaf detritus showed seasonal variations, with higher rates in the wet season (summer and autumn) and lower rates in the dry season (winter and spring). At the high-elevation site, leaf consumption by fish was significantly higher than that by sea urchins. At the low-elevation site, however, the proportion of leaves consumed by sea urchins was equivalent to that by fish. Leaf detritus decomposed rapidly within the first 9 days, then gradually slowed down, and stabilised after 212 days, at which only 8.7% of dry weight remained in the litterbags. The carbon budget of seagrass leaves demonstrated that 20% of leaf production was grazed by fish and sea urchins and 80% flowed to detritus. This suggests that seagrass leaves are important food sources for inhabiting herbivores. Most of the detritus decomposed (44% of leaf production) or was exported (32% of leaf production), and only 4% of leaf production or 22 g C m−2 yr−1 was stored in this tropical intertidal seagrass bed. Mass balance calculations support this tropical seagrass bed acting as a carbon sink and an outwelling system which exports organic detritus to neighboring coral reefs. [publication]
carbon sink; degradation; herbivores; leaf litter; outwelling; primary production
|2002||Estuaries and Coasts||Asia||Taiwan||Journal Article||No|
J.E. Kaldy, C.P. Onuf, P.M. Eldridge, L.A. Cifuentes
|Seagrass||Methods||Manager||Assessing the CO2 capture potential of seagrass restoration projects|
Seagrass meadows are important carbon sinks, and they are experiencing a global decline. Restoration of seagrass meadows provides a strategy to mitigate climate change while conserving these important ecosystems.We examined the long-term carbon sequestration expected for seagrass restoration programmes by developing a model that combined models of patch growth, patch survival in seagrass planting projects and estimates of seagrass CO2 sequestration per unit area for the five seagrass species commonly used in restoration programmes.The model results indicated that the cumulative C sequestered increased rapidly over time and with planting density to reach an asymptote at a planting density of 100 units ha−1 (or 6 m spacing between units). At this planting density, the modelled cumulative C sequestered ranges from 177 to over 1337 tons CO2 ha−1 after 50 years. The value corresponding to this carbon sequestration suggests that the costs of seagrass restoration programmes may be fully recovered by the total CO2 captured in societies with a carbon tax in place, providing additional ecosystem services derived from the role of seagrasses in providing ecosystem services, such as enhanced biodiversity.Synthesis and applications. Seagrass restoration programmes are economically viable strategies to mitigate climate change through carbon sequestration, particularly in subtropical and tropical island states where land-based options have a limited scope. [publication]
carbon burial;climate change;mitigation;restoration;seagrass
|2013||Journal of Applied Ecology||World||Journal Article||No|
C.M. Duarte, T. Sintes, N. Marba
|Mangrove||Methods||Academic||How mangrove forests adjust to rising sea levels|
Mangroves are among the most well described and widely studied wetland communities in the world. The greatest threats to mangrove persistence are deforestation and other anthropogenic disturbances that can compromise habitat stability and resilience to sea-level rise. To persist, mangrove ecosystems must adjust to rising sea level by building vertically or become submerged. Mangroves may directly or indirectly influence soil accretion processes through the production and accumulation of organic matter, as well as the trapping and retention of mineral sediment. In this review, we provide a general overview of research on mangrove elevation dynamics, emphasizing the role of the vegetation in maintaining soil surface elevations (i.e. position of the soil surface in the vertical plane). We summarize the primary ways in which mangroves may influence sediment accretion and vertical land development, for example, through root contributions to soil volume and upward expansion of the soil surface. We also examine how hydrological, geomorphological and climatic processes may interact with plant processes to influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with rising sea level. We draw on a variety of studies to describe the important, and often under-appreciated role that plants play in shaping the trajectory of an ecosystem undergoing change.
Sea level rise, organic matter accumulation, soil
K.W. Krauss, K.L. McKee, E. Lovelock, D.R. Cahoon, N. Saintilan, R. Reef, L. Chen
|Mangrove||Methods||Academic||Mangroves among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics|
Mangrove forests occur along ocean coastlines throughout the tropics, and support numerous ecosystem services, including fisheries production and nutrient cycling. However, the areal extent of mangrove forests has declined by 30–50% over the past half century as a result of coastal development, aquaculture expansion and over-harvesting1–4. Carbon emissions resulting from mangrove loss are uncertain, owing in part to a lack of broad-scale data on the amount of carbon stored in these ecosystems, particularly below ground5. Here, we quantified whole-ecosystem carbon storage by measuring tree and dead wood biomass, soil carbon content, and soil depth in 25 mangrove forests across a broad area of the Indo-Pacific region—spanning 30_ of latitude and 73_ of longitude—where mangrove area and diversity are greatest4,6. These data indicate that mangroves are among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics, containing on average 1,023Mg carbon per hectare. Organic-rich soils ranged from 0.5m to more than 3m in depth and accounted for 49–98% of carbon storage in these systems. Combining our data with other published information, we estimate that mangrove deforestation generates emissions of 0.02–0.12 Pg carbon per year—as much as around 10% of emissions from deforestation globally, despite accounting for just 0.7% of tropical forest area
Carbon storage, biomass, tropical forest
Australia & Indo-Pacific Islands
D.C. Donato, J.B. Kauffman, D. Murdiyarso, S. Kurnianto, M. Stidham, M. Kanninen
|Mangrove||Methods||Academic||Carbon balance in mangrove sediments: the driving processes and their controls|
The carbon input to mangrove sediments is dominated by tree litter, but the extent by which this material contributes to the carbon dynamics in the benthic community depends on local hydrodynamics and geomorphology. Exposed mangrove areas probably export most of the litter, while autochthonous and allochthonous algal materials become the primary drivers of the carbon cycling. Crabs (fiddler crabs and sesarmid crabs) are important mediators of digestible organic matter for the microbial community by macerating, ingesting and burying litter and algal material. Generation of CO2 via microbial decay of organic matter then occurs through aerobic and anaerobic pathways. The partitioning between oxygen and other electron acceptors varies considerably within and between mangrove areas. Also the partitioning between various anaerobic electron acceptors varies, and the role of for example iron respiration is highly dependent on the content of reactive oxidized iron in the sediment. Rates of methanogenesis are usually low and variable in mangrove sediments and are inversely related to sulfate levels. CH4 generation and emission is therefore usually highest in areas impacted by freshwater or loaded with labile organic substrates. When all consumption and production processes are considered, mangrove ecosystems appear to be net atmospheric CO2 sinks and CH4 sources, and as long as CH4 emissions are low they overall are net sinks of greenhouse gas equivalents. It is difficult, however, to generalize with respect to factors controlling carbon cycling in mangrove areas because of the extremely high heterogeneity within individual forests and between regions. It is therefore needed that our database is expanded by more extensive and coordinated work on these aspects before we can provide a sufficiently detailed classification of mangrove environments and subsequently provide reliable global estimates.
|Carbon storage, soil||2007|
In Greenhouse Gas and Carbon Balances in Mangrove Coastal Ecosystems. Eds. Y. Tateda et al. p 61-78
|World||Journal Article||No||E. Kristensen||1.05.23|
|Mangrove||Methods||Academic||Carbon sequestration in mangrove forests|
Mangrove forests are highly productive, with carbon production rates equivalent to tropical humid forests. Mangroves allocate proportionally more carbon belowground, and have higher below- to above-ground carbon mass ratios than terrestrial trees. Most mangrove carbon is stored as large pools in soil and dead roots. Mangroves are among the most carbon-rich biomes, containing an average of 937 tC ha-1, facilitating the accumulation of fine particles, and fostering rapid rates of sediment accretion (∼5 mm year -1) and carbon burial (174 gC m-2 year -1). Mangroves account for only approximately 1% (13.5 Gt year -1) of carbon sequestration by the world’s forests, but as coastal habitats they account for 14% of carbon sequestration by the global ocean. If mangrove carbon stocks are disturbed, resultant gas emissions may be very high. Irrespective of uncertainties and the unique nature of implementing REDD+ and Blue Carbon projects, mangroves are prime ecosystems for reforestation and restoration. Carbon sequestration in mangrove forests (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/274116107_Carbon_sequestration_in_mangrove_forests [accessed Jan 30, 2016].
Carbon storage, sequestration, biomass, soil
|2012||Carbon Management||World||Review||No||D.M. Alongi||1.06.24|
|Mangrove||Methods||Academic||Carbon cycling and storage in mangrove forests|
Mangroves are ecologically and economically important forests of the tropics. They are highly productive ecosystems with rates of primary production equal to those of tropical humid evergreen forests and coral reefs. Although mangroves occupy only 0.5% of the global coastal area, they contribute 10–15%(24TgCy−1) to coastal sediment carbon storage and export 10–11% of the particulate terrestrial carbon to the ocean.Their disproportionate contribution to carbon sequestration is now perceived as a means for conservation and restoration and a way to help ameliorate greenhouse gas emissions. Of immediate concern are potential carbon losses to deforestation (90–970 Tg C y−1) that are greater than these ecosystems’ rates of carbon storage. Large reservoirs of dissolved inorganic carbon in deep soils, pumped via subsurface pathways to adjacent waterways, are a large loss of carbon, at a potential rate up to 40% of annual primary production. Patterns of carbon allocation and rates of carbon flux in mangrove forests are nearly identical to those of other tropical forests.
Carbon storage, sequestration, coastal ecosystem, mineralization, primary production, tropical wetlands
Annual Review of Marine Science
|Multiple||Certification||General||The Gold Standard FAQ|
Overview of the basics of generating and certifying carbon offset credits through The Gold Standard.
Certification, Offsets, Carbon Credits
|Mangrove||Project Assessment||Manager||VCS Module - Estimation of Baseline Carbon Stock Changes and Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Upland Deforestation|
Provides in depth explaination of how to map and model projected deforestation with and without a carbon project based on historic deforestation rates. The module is aimed at upland forest ecosystems but could be a good reference on which to base similar models. Model relies principally on historic deforestation rates and population estimates. Walks through the calculations step by step.
REDD, Deforestation, Methodology, Stock Assessment, Mapping
VCS, Avoided Deforestation Partners, Climate Focus, Winrock International, Carbon Decisions International, Terra Carbon LLC
|Multiple||Project Assessment||Manager||Baseline Map of Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in Tropical Regions|
Provides critique of general, low resolution deforestation models used for baseline establishment and demonstrates that rates of deforestation are much lower when estimated using more regionally specific, higher resolution data sets.
Baseline, Deforestation, Mapping, Stock Assessment
|2012||Science Magazine||World||Journal Article||No|
N.L. Harris, S. Brown, S.C. Hagen, S.S. Saatchi, S. Petrova, W. Salas , M.C. Hansen, P.V. Potapov, A. Lotsch
|Multiple||Project Assessment||Manager||A Comparison of Baseline Methodologies for "Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation"|
Compares methodologies for calculating baseline scenarios based on expert opinion. Considerations include accuracy, compatability with existing modeling schemes such as the IPCC and availability of data.
Baseline, Deforestation, REDD
Carbon Balance and Management
M. Huettner, R. Leemans, K. Kok, J. Ebeling
|Multiple||Project Assessment||Manager||AGEDI Blue Carbon Demonstration Project - Baseline Assessment Report: Coastal Ecosystem Carbon Stocks|
Synthesis of status of blue carbon project in Abu Dhabi. Report establishes in depth, precise baseline carbon stock for Abu Dhabi and reccomendations for next steps but does not assess with and without project scenarios.
Stock Assessment, Mapping, Ecosystem Services
|2014||Blue Carbon Portal||Middle East||Report||Yes|
AGEDI - Abu Dhabi Global Environment Data Initiative
|Multiple||Project Assessment||General||The Abu Dhabi Blue Carbon Demonstration Project - Final Report|
Provides an overview of the demonstration project in Abu Dhabi. An overview of the financial feasibility review of the project begins on page 42.
Demonstration Project, Abu Dhabi, Stock Assessment
|2013||Blue Carbon Portal||Middle East||Report||Yes|
AGEDI - Abu Dhabi Global Environment Data Initiative
|Multiple||Certification||Manager||The Abu Dhabi Blue Carbon Demonstration Project - Financial Feasibility Assessment Report|
Estimates value of preserving blue carbon ecosystems. Given the low price for carbon credits at the time of the assessment and the high cost of conservation the report concluded that financing through carbon credits alone was infeasible and that only including additional ecosystems services in valuations were NPVs of conservation schemes positive. The report reccomends creating a flexible "Specialized Fund" to help support conservation efforts.
Carbon Credits, Ecosystem Services, Ecosystem Valuation, NPV
|2014||Blue Carbon Portal||Middle East||Report||Yes|
AGEDI - Abu Dhabi Global Environment Data Initiative
|Multiple||Planning||Manager||Carbon market crossroad: new ideas for harnessing global markets to confront climate change|
forest, carbon market, california, partnerhips, wetlands
|2015||The Climate Trust||USA & Canada|
|Multiple||Planning||Manager||A review of offset programs: trading systems, funds, protocols, standards and retailers|
Wetlands, carbon markets, wetland restoration
|2014||The Climate Trust||USA & Canada|
S. Mack, C. Yankel, R. Lane, J. W. Day, D. Kempka, J. S. Mack, E. Handee, C. LeBlanc
|Seagrass||Planning||Manager||Climate change and Mediterranean seagrass meadows: a synopsis for environmental managers|
This synopsis focuses on the effects of climate change on Mediterranean seagrasses, and associated communities, and on the contribution of the main species, Posidonia oceanica, to the mitigation of climate change effects through sequestering carbon dioxide. Whilst the regression of seagrass meadows is well documented, generally linked to anthropogenic pressures, global warming could be a cause of new significant regression, notably linked to the introduction of exotic species, the rise of Sea-Surface Temperature (SST), and relative sea level. Seagrass communities could also be affected by climate change through the replacement of high structural complexity seagrass species by species of lower complexity and even by opportunistic introduced species. Although it is currently very difficult to predict the consequences of these alterations and their cascade effects, two main potential conflicting trends in the functioning of seagrass ecosystems are acceleration of the herbivore pathway or the detritivore pathway. The mean net primary production of the dominant species, Posidonia oceanica, is relatively high and can be estimated to range between 92.5 to 144.7 g C m-2 a-1. Around 27% of the total carbon fixed by this species enters the sedimentary pathway leading to formation, over millennia, of highly organic deposits, rich in refractory carbon. At the Mediterranean scale, the sequestration rate might reach 1.09 Tg C a-1. The amount of this stored carbon is estimated to range from 71 to 273 kg C m-2, which when considered at the Mediterranean scale would represent 11 to 42% of the CO2 emissions produced by Mediterranean countries since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. The greatest value of the P. oceanica ecosystem, in the context of mitigation of global climate change, is linked to this vast long-term carbon stock accumulated over millennia, and therefore, efforts should be focused on preserving the meadows to keep this reservoir intact. [publication]
Seagrass ecosystem, Posidonia oceanica, Global change, Primary production, Carbon sink, Mediterranean, Seagrasses
Hellenic Center for Marine Research
|Europe & Mediterrean||Journal Article||No|
G. Pergent, H. Bazairi, C.N. Bianchi, C.F. Boudouresque, M.C. Buia, S. Calvo, P. Clabaut, M. Harmelin-Vivien, M.A. Mateo, M. Montefalcone, C. Morri, S. Orfanidis, PM C, R. Semroud, O. Serrano, T. Thibaut, A. Tomasello, M. Verlaque
|Seagrass||Governance||Manager||Reduced carbon sequestration in a Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) ecosystem impacted by fish farming|
We studied the relationship between sediment nutrient enrichment and carbon sequestration, using the ratio of gross primary production to respiration (P/R), in a fish-farming impacted and an unaffected Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) ecosystem in the Aegean Sea, Greece. Carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) sedimentation, nutrient pools in sediment and dissolved nutrients in pore water were significantly and positively intercorrelated, indicating close linkage between sedimentation and sediment nutrient pools in seagrass meadows. C, N and P sediment pools were significantly enhanced in the impacted meadow throughout the year, even during winter when fish farming activity was low. In the impacted sediment, the increase in C and N was higher than P, reflecting a faster remineralization and uptake of P than C and N. The ecosystem P/R ratio decreased exponentially with sediment nutrient enrichment. Threshold values are given for C, N and P sedimentation rates and sediment pools, and for N and P concentrations in pore waters, after which P/R ratio in the seagrass meadow decreases below 1, indicating a shift from autotrophy to heterotrophy with sediment nutrient enrichment. Such a regime shift indicates a loss of storage capacity of the seagrass ecosystem, jeopardizing the key role of P. oceanica as a carbon sink in the Mediterranean [publication]
carbon sequestration, aquaculture, nutrient enrichment, seagrasses
|2011||Inter Research||Europe & Mediterrean||Journal Article||No|
Apostolaki Eugenia T, Holmer, Marianne, Marba Nuria, Karakassis, Loannis
|Seagrass||Methods||Manager||Mapping Seagrass from Space: Addressing the Complexity of Seagrass LAI Mapping|
Information of seagrass LAI is still lacking in most parts of the world due to the high cost of comprehensive mapping. In this paper, we described the use of remote sensing as the cost and time effective solution to perform continuous seagrass LAI mapping, and discussed the issues and difficulties encountered during the mapping. ASTER VNIR and ALOS AVNIR- 2 were used to perform the mapping. We proposed at life-form seagrass classification scheme to accommodate the low accuracy of at species level mapping. We also developed sampling mapping unit consist of several factors affecting the distribution of seagrass LAI. The results showed that sensor, method, and environmental limitation contribute to the low accuracy of seagrass LAI mapping
remote sensing, seagrass, mapping
Cartography and Remote Sensing, Faculty of Geography Universitas Gadjah Mada
|Asia||Journal Article||Yes||P. Wicaksono and M. Hafizt||0.05.39|
|Seagrass||Methods||Manager||Remote sensing of seagrasses in a patchy multi-species environment|
We tested the utility of IKONOS satellite imagery to map seagrass distribution and biomass in a 4.1 km2 area around Chumbe Island, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Considered to be a challenging environment to map, this area is characterized by a diverse mix of inter- and subtidal habitat types. Our mapped distribution of seagrasses corresponded well to field data, although the total seagrass area was underestimated due to spectral confusion and misclassification of areas with sparse seagrass patches as sparse coral and algae-covered limestone rock. Seagrass biomass was also accurately estimated (r 2 = 0.83), except in areas with Thalassodendron ciliatum (r 2 = 0.57), as the stems of T. ciliatum change the relationship between light interception and biomass from that of other species in the area. We recommend the use of remote sensing over field-based methods for seagrass mapping because of the comprehensive coverage, high accuracy and ability to estimate biomass. The results obtained with IKONOS imagery in our complex study area are encouraging, and support the use of this data source for seagrass mapping in similar areas.[publication]
satellite imagery, remote sensing, seagrasses
International Journal of Remote Sensing
|Africa||Tanzania||Journal Article||No||A. Knudby and L. Nordlund||1.05.40|
|Seagrass||Methods||Manager||Challenges of remote sensing for quantifying changes in large complex seagrass environments|
Managing seagrass environments and understanding and responding to coastal impacts such as floods or cyclones, requires assessment of seagrass distribution and its biophysical properties in time and space. Comparable assessments of seagrass distribution over time are often lacking as the information is present for separate dates, or created following different mapping approaches, and this makes it difficult to conduct quantitative comparisons. We provide an assessment of available data sets and approaches, and their suitability for monitoring and quantifying change in seagrass percentage cover and extent for a large coastal embayment (Moreton Bay, Australia, 1582 km2). Seagrass percentage cover maps were created for 2011 and 2004 and compared to map and measure the extent of seagrass percentage cover change, and changes in the extent of seagrass environments. Total extent of seagrass was shown to be higher in 2011 compared to 2004. Potential sources of these differences may be: mapping inaccuracy; actual change in extent and cover; and, monthly to seasonal variations in seagrass cover. A qualitative comparison of the 2004 and 2011 maps was performed against maps of seagrass extent maps from 1975, 1986 and 1999, which were created using a range of different methods and data. The output maps show changes in seagrass extent, but a lack of detail arising from variable mapping methods and differing mapping extents prevented a reliable comparison. We conclude that robust mapping of seasonal and inter-annual variation in seagrass percentage cover distribution or extent, as well as impacts of episodic and stochastic disturbance events, requires a thorough understanding of the mapping approaches used so that data sets can be compared. Additional complimentary information is required to help understand the drivers of changes.[publication]
seagrass; remote sensing; historical data; management
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science
Australia & Indo-Pacific Islands
C. Roelfsema, E. Kovacs, M. Saunders, S. Phinn, M. Lyons, P. Maxwell
|Other||Planning||Manager||Can macroalgae contribute to blue carbon? An Australian perspective|
Macroalgal communities in Australia and around the world store vast quantities of carbon in their living biomass, but their prevalence of growing on hard substrata means that they have limited capacity to act as long-term carbon sinks. Unlike other coastal blue carbon habitats such as seagrasses, saltmarshes and mangroves, they do not develop their own organic-rich sediments, but may instead act as a rich carbon source and make significant contributions in the form of detritus to sedimentary habitats by acting as a “carbon donor” to “receiver sites” where organic material accumulates. The potential for storage of this donated carbon however, is dependent on the decay rate during transport and the burial efficiency at receiver sites. To better understand the potential contribution of macroalgal communities to coastal blue carbon budgets, a comprehensive literature search was conducted using key words, including carbon sequestration, macroalgal distribution, abundance and productivity to provide an estimation of the total amount of carbon stored in temperate Australian macroalgae. Our most conservative calculations estimate 109.9 Tg C is stored in living macroalgal biomass of temperate Australia, using a coastal area covering 249,697 km2. Estimates derived for tropical and subtropical regions contributed an additional 23.2 Tg C. By extending the search to include global studies we provide a broader context and rationale for the study, contributing to the global aspects of the review. In addition, we discuss the potential role of calcium carbonate-containing macroalgae, consider the dynamic nature of macroalgal populations in the context of climate change, and identify the knowledge gaps that once addressed will enable robust quantification of macroalgae in marine biogeochemical cycling of carbon. We conclude that macroalgal communities have the potential to make ecologically meaningful contributions toward global blue carbon sequestration, as donors, but given that the fate of detached macroalgal biomass remains unclear, further research is needed to quantify this contribution. [publication]
|Macroalgea||2015||Limnology and Oceanography|
Australia & Indo-Pacific Islands
R. Hill, A. Bellgrove, P.I. Macreadie, K. Petrou, J. Beardall, A. Steven, P.J. Ralph
|Other||Planning||Manager||How organic carbon derived from multiple sources contributes to carbon sequestration processes in a shallow coastal system?|
Carbon captured by marine organisms helps sequester atmospheric CO2, especially in shallow coastal ecosystems, where rates of primary production and burial of organic carbon (OC) from multiple sources are high. However, linkages between the dynamics of OC derived from multiple sources and carbon sequestration are poorly understood. We investigated the origin (terrestrial, phytobenthos derived, and phytoplankton derived) of particulate OC (POC) and dissolved OC (DOC) in the water column and sedimentary OC using elemental, isotopic, and optical signatures in Furen Lagoon, Japan. Based on these data analysis, we explored how OC from multiple sources contributes to sequestration via storage in sediments, water column sequestration, and air–sea CO2 exchanges, and analyzed how the contributions vary with salinity in a shallow seagrass meadow as well. The relative contribution of terrestrial POC in the water column decreased with increasing salinity, whereas autochthonous POC increased in the salinity range 10–30. Phytoplankton-derived POC dominated the water column POC (65–95%) within this salinity range; however, it was minor in the sediments (3–29%). In contrast, terrestrial and phytobenthos-derived POC were relatively minor contributors in the water column but were major contributors in the sediments (49–78% and 19–36%, respectively), indicating that terrestrial and phytobenthos-derived POC were selectively stored in the sediments. Autochthonous DOC, part of which can contribute to long-term carbon sequestration in the water column, accounted for >25% of the total water column DOC pool in the salinity range 15–30. Autochthonous OC production decreased the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon in the water column and thereby contributed to atmospheric CO2 uptake, except in the low-salinity zone. Our results indicate that shallow coastal ecosystems function not only as transition zones between land and ocean but also as carbon sequestration filters. They function at different timescales, depending on the salinity, and OC sources. [publication]
|Phytoplankton||2015||Global Change Biology||Asia||Japan||Journal Article||Yes||K. Watanabe, T. Kuwae||0.05.43|
|Seagrass||Planning||Academic||Seaweed fails to prevent ocean acidification impact on foraminifera along a shallow-water CO2 gradient|
Ocean acidification causes biodiversity loss, alters ecosystems, and may impact food security, as shells of small organisms dissolve easily in corrosive waters. There is a suggestion that photosynthetic organisms could mitigate ocean acidification on a local scale, through seagrass protection or seaweed cultivation, as net ecosystem organic production raises the saturation state of calcium carbonate making seawater less corrosive. Here, we used a natural gradient in calcium carbonate saturation, caused by shallow-water CO2 seeps in the Mediterranean Sea, to assess whether seaweed that is resistant to acidification (Padina pavonica) could prevent adverse effects of acidification on epiphytic foraminifera. We found a reduction in the number of species of foraminifera as calcium carbonate saturation state fell and that the assemblage shifted from one dominated by calcareous species at reference sites (pH ~8.19) to one dominated by agglutinated foraminifera at elevated levels of CO2 (pH ~7.71). It is expected that ocean acidification will result in changes in foraminiferal assemblage composition and agglutinated forms may become more prevalent. Although Padina did not prevent adverse effects of ocean acidification, high biomass stands of seagrass or seaweed farms might be more successful in protecting epiphytic foraminifera. [publication]
ocean acidification, seagrasses,
|2015||Ecology and Evolution||Europe & Mediterrean||Italy||Journal Article||Yes|
L.R. Pettit, C.W. Smart, M.B. Hart, M. Milazzo, J.M. Hall-Spencer
|Multiple||Governance||Manager||Predators help protect carbon stocks in blue carbon ecosystems|
Predators continue to be harvested unsustainably throughout most of the Earth's ecosystems. Recent research demonstrates that the functional loss of predators could have far-reaching consequences on carbon cycling and, by implication, our ability to ameliorate climate change impacts. Yet the influence of predators on carbon accumulation and preservation in vegetated coastal habitats (that is, salt marshes, seagrass meadows and mangroves) is poorly understood, despite these being some of the Earth's most vulnerable and carbon-rich ecosystems. Here we discuss potential pathways by which trophic downgrading affects carbon capture, accumulation and preservation in vegetated coastal habitats. We identify an urgent need for further research on the influence of predators on carbon cycling in vegetated coastal habitats, and ultimately the role that these systems play in climate change mitigation. There is, however, sufficient evidence to suggest that intact predator populations are critical to maintaining or growing reserves of 'blue carbon' (carbon stored in coastal or marine ecosystems), and policy and management need to be improved to reflect these realities. [publication]
carbon, predators, trophic downgrading, climate change mitigation
|2015||Nature climate Change||World||Journal Article||No|
T.B. Atwood, R.M. Connolly, E.G. Ritchie, C.E. Lovelock, M.R. Heithaus, G.C. Hays, J.W. Fourqurean, P.I. Macreadie
|Multiple||Methods||Manager||Indonesia’s blue carbon: a globally significant and vulnerable sink for seagrass and mangrove carbon|
The global significance of carbon storage in Indonesia’s coastal wetlands was assessed based on published and unpublished measurements of the organic carbon content of living seagrass and mangrove biomass and soil pools. For seagrasses, median above- and below-ground biomass was 0.29 and 1.13 Mg C ha−1 respectively; the median soil pool was 118.1 Mg C ha−1. Combining plant biomass and soil, median carbon storage in an Indonesian seagrass meadow is 119.5 Mg C ha−1. Extrapolated to the estimated total seagrass area of 30,000 km2, the national storage value is 368.5 Tg C. For mangroves, median above- and below-ground biomass was 159.1 and 16.7 Mg C ha−1, respectively; the median soil pool was 774.7 Mg C ha−1. The median carbon storage in an Indonesian mangrove forest is 950.5 Mg C ha−1. Extrapolated to the total estimated mangrove area of 31,894 km2, the national storage value is 3.0 Pg C, a likely underestimate if these habitats sequester carbon at soil depths >1 m and/or sequester inorganic carbon. Together, Indonesia’s seagrasses and mangroves conservatively account for 3.4 Pg C, roughly 17 % of the world’s blue carbon reservoir. Continued degradation and destruction of these wetlands has important consequences for CO2 emissions and dissolved carbon exchange with adjacent coastal waters. We estimate that roughly 29,040 Gg CO2 (eq.) is returned annually to the atmosphere–ocean pool. This amount is equivalent to about 3.2 % of Indonesia’s annual emissions associated with forest and peat land conversion. These results highlight the urgent need for blue carbon and REDD+ projects as a means to stem the decline in wetland area and to mitigate the release of a significant fraction of the world’s coastal carbon stores. [publication]
Blue carbon Carbon sequestration Mangrove Seagrass Wetland Indonesia
Wetlands Ecology and Management
D.M. Alongi, D. Murdiyarso, J.W. Fourqurean, J.B. Kauffman, A. Hutahaean, S. Crooks, C.E. Lovelock, J. Howard, D. Herr, M. Fortes, E. Pidgeon, T. Wagey
|Multiple||Methods||Manager||Ecosystem carbon stocks across a tropical intertidal habitat mosaic of mangrove forest, seagrass meadow, mudflat and sandbar|
Intertidal habitats provide numerous ecosystem services, including the sequestration and storage of carbon, a topic of great recent interest owing to land-cover transitions and climate change. Mangrove forests and seagrass meadows form a continuum of intertidal habitats, alongside unvegetated mudflats and sandbars, however, studies that consider carbon stocks across these spatially-linked, threatened ecosystems are limited world-wide. This paper presents the results of a field-based carbon stock assessment of aboveground, belowground and sediment organic carbon stock to a depth of 1m at Chek Jawa, Singapore. It is the first study of ecosystem carbon stocks of both vegetated and unvegetated intertidal habitats in the tropics. Ecosystem carbon stocks were 497Mg C ha(-1) in the mangrove forest and 138Mg C ha(-1) in the seagrass meadow. Sediment organic carbon stock dominated the total storage in both habitats, constituting 62% and >99% in the mangrove forest and seagrass meadow, respectively. In the adjacent mudflat and sandbars, which had no vegetative components, sediment organic carbon stock ranged from 124-143Mg C ha(-1), suggesting that unvegetated habitats have a carbon storage role on the same order of importance as seagrass meadows. This study reinforces the importance of sediment in carbon storage within the intertidal ecosystem, and demonstrates the need to consider unvegetated habitats in intertidal blue carbon' stock assessments. Copyright (c) 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [publication]
blue carbon; climate change mitigation; ecosystem services; intertidal habitats
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms
V.X.H. Phan, L.M. Chou, D.A. Friess
|Multiple||Planning||Manager||Estimation of mangrove carbon stocks by applying remote sensing and GIS techniques|
The sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and ocean into coastal ecosystems such as seaweed beds, seagrasses, saltmarshes, and tidal flats is an important and emerging area of interest due to their valuable role in carbon storage and potential for moderating climate conditions. Here, we investigated how these ecosystems in Korea can serve as carbon sinks and estimated the amount of CO2 that might be removed through aquaculture beds, artificial reefs, and sea forests. We also examined the benefits of restoring degraded coastal ecosystems. In total, we estimated that the 0.38 × 106 ha covered by Korean coastal ecosystems could potentially lock up approximately 1.01 × 106 t of CO2. [publication]
blue carbon coastal ecosystem carbon accumulation CO2 sequestration
|2015||Ocean Science Journal||Asia||South Korea||Journal Article||No||C.F.A Sondak, I.K. Chung||1.05.48|
|Multiple||Planning||Manager||Installing kelp forests/seaweed beds for mitigation and adaptation against global warming: Korean Project Overview|
Seaweed beds can serve as a significant carbon dioxide (CO2) sink while also satisfying global needs for food, fodder, fuel, and pharmaceutical products. The goal of our Korean Project has been to develop new baseline and monitoring methodologies for mitigation and adaptation within the context of climate change. Using innovative research approaches, we have established the Coastal CO2 Removal Belt (CCRB), which comprises both natural and man-made plant communities in the coastal region of southern Korea. Implemented on various spatial–temporal scales, this scheme promotes the removal of CO2 via marine forests. For example, when populated with the perennial brown alga Ecklonia, a pilot CCRB farm can draw down ∼10 t of CO2 per ha per year. This success is manifested by an increment in biomass accumulations and a decrease in the amount of dissolved inorganic carbon in the water column. [publication]
blue carbon carbon sink Coastal CO2 Removal Belt (CCRB) kelp forest seaweed
|2012||ICES Jounral of Marine Science||Asia||South Korea||Journal Article||No|
I.K. Kyo Chung, J.H. Oak, J.A. Lee, J.G. Kim, K.S. Park
|Multiple||Methods||Manager||Coastal Blue Carbon: Methods for assessing carbon stocks and emissions factors in mangroves, tidal salt marshes, and seagrass meadows|
The objective of this manual is to provide standardized methods for field measurements and analysis of blue carbon stocks and flux in coastal ecosystems. The manual is designed to provide users with relevant background information on key concepts, and guide them in a step-by-step process, pointing out stages where expert advice or additional technical data may be required. The goal is to utilize these assessments to support improved conservation and restoration of coastal ecosystems through various management and policy approaches, regulatory frameworks, and participation in voluntary carbon markets.
|methods, blue carbon||2014||The Blue Carbon Initative||World||Manual||Yes|
J. Fourgurean, B. Johnson, J.B. Kauffman, H. Kennedy, C.Lovelock, J.P. Megonigal, A. Rahman, N. Saintilan, M. Simard
|Multiple||Feasibility||Academic||Comparison of marine macrophytes for their contributions to blue carbon sequestration|
Many marine ecosystems have the capacity for long-term storage of organic carbon (C) in what are termed “blue carbon” systems. While blue carbon systems (saltmarsh, mangrove, and seagrass) are efficient at long-term sequestration of organic carbon (C), much of their sequestered C may originate from other (allochthonous) habitats. Macroalgae, due to their high rates of production, fragmentation, and ability to be transported, would also appear to be able to make a significant contribution as C donors to blue C habitats. In order to assess the stability of macroalgal tissues and their likely contribution to long-term pools of C, we applied thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to 14 taxa of marine macroalgae and coastal vascular plants. We assessed the structural complexity of multiple lineages of plant and tissue types with differing cell wall structures and found that decomposition dynamics varied significantly according to differences in cell wall structure and composition among taxonomic groups and tissue function (photosynthetic vs. attachment). Vascular plant tissues generally exhibited greater stability with a greater proportion of mass loss at temperatures >300°C (peak mass loss ~320°C) than macroalgae (peak mass loss between 175−300°C), consistent with the lignocellulose matrix of vascular plants. Greater variation in thermogravimetric signatures within and among macroalgal taxa, relative to vascular plants, was also consistent with the diversity of cell wall structure and composition among groups. Significant degradation above 600°C for some macroalgae, as well as some belowground seagrass tissues, is likely due to the presence of taxon-specific compounds. The results of this study highlight the importance of the lignocellulose matrix to the stability of vascular plant sources and the potentially significant role of refractory, taxon-specific compounds (carbonates, long-chain lipids, alginates, xylans, and sulfated polysaccharides) from macroalgae and seagrasses for their long-term sedimentary C storage. This study shows that marine macroalgae do contain refractory compounds and thus may be more valuable to long term carbon sequestration than we previously have considered.Wiley Job Network. [publication]
|Macroalgea||2015||Ecological Society of America|
Australia & Indo-Pacific Islands
S.M. Trevathan-Tackett, J. Kelleway, P. Macreadie, J. Beardall, P. Ralpha, A. Bellgrove
|Multiple||Planning||Manager||Financing Blue Carbon through the Green Climate Fund|
Presentation on how blue carbon projects can be funded through Green Climate Fund
Financing, Blue Carbon, Green climate Fund,
|2015||Blue Carbon Policy Workshop||World||Workshop||Yes||?||0.04.52|
|Multiple||Planning||Manager||Current State of the UNFCCC: The Road to Paris|
Expectations of the new legal agreement that will be reached in Paris at COP 21 including: inclusion of landuse, implications for blue carbon, intended nationally determined contributions, Lima Paris Action Agenda, Lessons from the REDD+ community, other UNFCCC opportunities for Blue Carbon.
UNFCC, legal agreement, INDCs, Lima-Paris Action Agreement
|2015||Blue Carbon Policy Workshop||World||Workshop||Yes||?||0.04.53|
|Multiple||Feasibility||Manager||Opportunities and Hurdles for Blue Carbon State of the Carbon Markets in 2015|
Describes latest research and development related to Blue Carbon. Discusses carbon markets and finances. Describes opportunities and hurdles for Blue Carbon.
Blue Carbon, Carbon Markets
|2015||Blue Carbon Policy Workshop||World||Workshop||Yes||T. Vegh||0.04.54|
|Multiple||Planning||Manager||Development Blue Carbon Policies and Strategies|
Describes the process of formulating policy guidelines, barriers to Blue Carbon Projects, challenges, and lessons learned.
Policies, Blue Carbon, barriers, challenges
|2015||Blue Carbon Policy Workshop|
Central America & Caribbean
M.C. Jara, M.H. Blanco, E.R. Herrera
|Mangrove||Planning||Manager||REDD+ in Indonesia What Next for Mangroves?|
Goes over the next steps for Mangroves in Indonesia, specifically focusing on REDD+. In reference to REDD+ the workshop talks about challenges, gaps, and challenges. It ends with the way forward.
REDD+, MAngroves, financing, policy
|2015||Blue Carbon Policy Workshop||Asia||Indonesia||Workshop||Yes||R.M. Idrus||0.04.56|
|Multiple||Planning||Manager||Innovative funding for coastal carbon|
Discusses innovative funding for Blue Carbon. The workshop goes over opporunities and challenges for Blue Carbon in Carbon Markets. It specifically talks about the conditions for success and the options for Blue Carbon.
coastal carbon, funding, investment, carbon markets,
|2015||Blue Carbon Policy Workshop||World||Workshop||Yes||A.Soles and D. Benzaken||0.04.57|
|Multiple||Planning||Manager||Finally There: The 2014 IPCC Wetland Guidance and Other Science Achievements|
This workshop is on the IPCCC Wetlands Supplement. It includes a short review of achievements and gaps in Blue Carbon. Under the Wetlands Supplement it talks about stock assessments and legislation. There is a best pratices section, emerging research, and data needs sections.
Blue Carbon, International Policy Making, National Policy Making, Implementation
|2015||Blue Carbon Policy Workshop||World||Workshop||Yes||S. Crooks||0.04.58|
|Multiple||Evaluation||Manager||AGEDI: Blue carbon and other coastal ecosystem services-Next steps in International and National Policy making and implementation|
This presentation documents the next steps for the Abu Dhabi Blue Carbon work, as well as the current state of blue carbon research and projects in Abu Dhabi.
|Abu Dhabi, Policy||2015||Blue Carbon Policy Workshop||Middle East||Abu Dhabi||Workshop||Yes||J. Glavan||0.04.59|
|Mangrove||Evaluation||Manager||Descriptive study on the legal and political Ecuadorian regulations on mangrove ecosystems and their relation to blue carbon initiatives|
This presentation is about the legislative and political regulations concerning mangroves in Ecuador.
|Ecuador, policy,||2015||Blue Carbon Policy Workshop||South America||Ecuador||Workshop||Yes||L. F. Jara||0.04.60|
|Multiple||Planning||Manager||Blue Forests and Beyond Incentives beyond UNEP/GEF project implementation|
The workshop goes over the different Blue Carbon Pathways, the GRID-ARENDAL Blue Carbon Program, as well as opporunities for Blue Carbon within UNEP and GEF. The presentation also includes pilot projects and future work.
Incentives, project implementation, grid arendal, GEF, pathways, whale, marine invertebrates,
|2015||Blue Carbon Policy Workshop||World||Workshop||Yes|
S. Lutz, T. Kurvits, GRID-Arendal
|Mangrove||Evaluation||Manager||Blue Carbon Project implementation in Madagascar Empowering communities to sustainably manage their mangroves|
In Madagascar, they are empowering communities to sustainably manage their mangroves. This is community based mangrove management. They are also trying to improve policy and get a grasp on the current state of blue carbon science. Problems that arose were a lack of clarity in carbon ownership, difficult implementation of legal options to secure communities' management rights, abd a compelx mangrove management regulatory framework.
Mangroves, Madagscar, communities, blue ventures
|2015||Blue Carbon Policy Workshop||Africa||Madagascar||Workshop||Yes||A. Carro||0.04.62|
|Mangrove||Evaluation||Manager||Regional Action Plan for the Conservation of Mangroves in the Southeast Pacific|
This power point includes the Regional Action Plan for the Conservation of Mangroves in the Southeast Pacific.
Conservation of Mangroves, Southeast Pacific, regional Action Plan,
|2015||Blue Carbon Policy Workshop|
Australia & Indo-Pacific Islands
South East Pacific
|Multiple||Evaluation||Manager||blue carbon Activities and Opportunities in the US|
Restore America's Estuaries presents on blue carbon activities and opportunities in the United States. The powerpoint goes over their Blue Carbon Strategy: 1-Introduce Blue Carbon into Carbon Markets 2- Support Science and Demonstration Projects 3- Explore Policy and Regulatory Options 4- Coordinate Blue Carbon Initiatives 5- Raise Awareness and Build Capacity.
United States, Estuaries, bays
|2015||Blue Carbon Policy Workshop||USA & Canada||USA||Workshop||Yes||S. Emmett-Mattox||0.04.64|
|Multiple||Evaluation||Manager||Blue carbon NAMA: Dominican Republic|
Equip individuals, organizations and communities – our counterparts – to become solution creators in their own families, communities, regions and countries. Example of Dominican Republic- 10 years of local capacity buildling, coastal communities climate resilience framework, Blue Carbon NAMA concept, NAMA structure, approaches, supporting programs, and opporutnities for collaboration.
Dominican Republic, NAMA,
|2015||Blue Carbon Policy Workshop|
Central America & Caribbean
|Salt Marsh/Estuary||Planning||Manager||Reclamation of coastal salt marshes promoted carbon loss from previously-sequestered soil carbon pool|
Reclamation, carbon sequestration
|2015||Ecological Engineering||Asia||China||Journal Article||No|
B. Nai-Shun, Q. Jun-Feng, L. Gang, Z. Bin, Z. Rong-Juan, F. Chang-Ming
|Salt Marsh/Estuary||Planning||Manager||Living Shorelines: Coastal Resilience with a Blue Carbon Benefit|
Study of contstructed living shorelines (constructed native marshes for coastal protection), measure carbon sequestration in living shorelines ranging in age 12-38 years. Found that carbon sequestration decreased with marsh age, thought to be due to a relitive enrichment of organic matter in younger sites, but living shorelines may include a susbstantial carbon benefit. Long term carbon sequestration potential was not calculated.
Living Shorelines, carbon sequestration
|2015||PLoS ONE||USA & Canada||USA||Journal Article||Yes|
Jenny L. Davis, Crolyn A. Currin, Colleen O'Brien, Craig Raffenburg, Amanda Davis
|Multiple||Project Assessment||Academic||Evaluation of sensor types and environmental controls on mapping biomass of coastal marsh emergent vegetation|
A study modelling above ground biomass of emergent vegetation with field spectometer and satellite data, looking at the effect of water inundation interactions with biomass model accuracy.
Sensory data, mapping, emergent vegetation, blue carbon
Remote Sensing of Environment
|USA & Canada||USA||Journal Article||No|
Kristin B. Byrd, Jessica L. O'Connell, Stefania Di Tommaso, Maggi Kelly
|Salt Marsh/Estuary||Planning||Academic||Optical Characterization and distribution of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in soil porewater from a salt marsh ecosystem|
The study analyses chromophoric dissolved organic matter in marsh porewaters and its contribution as a carbon source. Optical properties were measured in the surface water, and found that they may be correlated to CDOM in the salt marsh.
|Dissolved organic matter||2014||Marine Ecology Progress Series||USA & Canada||USA||Journal Article||No|
Catherine D. Clark, Paige Aiona, Jason K. Keller, Warren J. De Bruyn
|Salt Marsh/Estuary||Project Assessment||Manager||Loss of 'Blue Carbon' from coastal salt marshes following habitat disturbance|
Investigation of the stability of salt marsh sediment carbon levels following seagrass wrack accumulation disturbance in a Florida bay. Recent vegetation loss patches of 3-12 months old were used to measure levels of organic C, and found to be ~30% lower than in undisturbed marshes. The reduction is likely due to loss of below ground plant biomass. Concluding that disturbance could shift salt marshes from carbon sinks to C sources.
Disturbance, Carbon sequestration, blue carbon
|2013||PLoS ONE||USA & Canada||USA||Journal Article||Yes|
Peter I. Macreadie, A. Randall Hughes, David L. Kimbro
|Salt Marsh/Estuary||Project Assessment||Academic||Transformation and fate of microphytobenthos carbon in subtropical, intertidal sediments: potential for long-term carbon retention revealed by 13C-labeling|
Investigation of microphytobenthos (MPB) in coastal sediments using a labeling method with C-bicarbonate. Measured carbon lozzes through dissovled organic carbon fluxes from exposed sediments. Findings suggest that MPB may contribute to carbon burial over a long term.
Australia & Indo-Pacific Islands
|Australia||Journal Article||Yes||J.M. Oakes, B.D. Eyre||0.05.71|
|Multiple||Planning||Manager||An Introduction to Blue Carbon for the Coastal Restoration and Management Community: Linking Climate Mitigation and Adaptation with Conservation|
This was a workshop put on my USGS and Restore America's Wetlands that tries to link climate change adapation and adapation to conservation.
Estuaries, Markets, Restoration,
|?||Restore America's Estuaries||USA & Canada||USA||Workshop||Yes||S. Emmett-Mattox||0.04.72|
|Multiple||Planning||Manager||Potential Application of blue Carbon in the Landscape-Linking to coastal Restoration and Management|
An example of linking conservation and management in Louisiana. The presentation goes over laws, working groups, sustainable management, goals of restoration, goals of carbon management, options for connecting climate change adaptation and mitigation, stock assessments, and current projects.
Restoration, Policy, Finance
|2014||Restore America's Estuaries||USA & Canada||USA||Workshop||Yes||S. Crooks||0.04.73|
|Multiple||Monitoring||Manager||The past and future of Blue Carbon in the San Fransico Bay-Delta||This is an example of Blue Caron in the San Francisco Bay Delta.|
Wetlands, estuaries, negative emissions, sea level rise,
|2013||Restore America's Estuaries||USA & Canada||USA||Workshop||Yes||L. Windham-Myers||0.04.74|
|Multiple||Methods||Manager||Is the Carbon From Here or There? Importance of Source Identification in Sequestered Blue Carbon|
This presentation goes over carbon sources, carbon source assessment, Verified Carbon Standard Methdology, suggested parameters, and equations. Waquoit Bay is used as an example. The conclusions are that 1- coastal wetlands are efficient at burrying both autochthonous and allocthonous carbon 2- carbon source is readilly determined-literature values, sample collection and analysis, and models 3- common methods include carbon isotopes and lipid analysis 4- emerging remote sensing techniques may provide greater spatial coverage.
carbon sources, coastal wetlands, VCS methodology, Qauoit salt marsh
|?||Restore America's Estuaries||USA & Canada||USA||Workshop||Yes||M.E. Gonneea||0.04.75|
|Multiple||Methods||Manager||Blue Carbon Blues: Accounting for CH4 and N20 Emissions in Tidal Wetlands|
This presetnation looks at CH4 and N20 emissions in tidal wetlands and is part of the VCS methodology working group. The policy of concern is the IPCCC wetland supplement. The presentation also includes case studies.
emissions, case studies, restoration,
|Restore America's Estuaries||USA & Canada||USA||Workshop||Yes|
S. Crooks, I. Emmer, S. Emmett-Mattox, D. Myers, B. Needelman
|Multiple||Evaluation||Academic||Remaining Priority Science Gaps to Advance Coastal Blue carbon|
This presetntation address gaps in Blue Carbon scientific knowledge. There are three blue caron interventions: 1-policy adjustment 2- management actions 3- carbon finance projects.
science gaps, policy, management, finance, information needs,
|2014||Restore America's Estuaries||USA & Canada||USA||Workshop||Yes||S. Crooks||0.04.77|
|Multiple||Methods||Manager||Enhancing Blue Carbon Mapping, Science and Policy in North America|
This presentation is about blue carbon mapping, science, and policy in North America. Their three tasks include: 1-facilitate the collaboration of a trinational group of experts through workshops, meetings, and exchange of information 2- compile and develop maps of coastal blue carbon habitats for North America 3- Support scientific research to collect data that improves estimates of carbon storage, sequestration, and flux/emissions, including impacts of natural and human caused disturbances or restoration of carbon processes. This presentation includes several case studies.
Blue carbon Mapping, Assessing Processes, Stocks, Rates, Restoration
|?||Restore America's Estuaries||USA & Canada||USA||Workshop||Yes||K. Richardson, L. Wenzel||0.04.78|
|Multiple||Governance||Policy Maker||Coastal Blue Carbon Opportunities in US Federal Policies: Policy Pilots|
This presentation highlights several policy pilots. It includes an analysis of federal policies, and common limitations.
|Policy, Federal,||?||Restore America's Estuaries||USA & Canada||USA||Workshop||Yes|
A. Moore and A. Sutton-Grier
|Multiple||Methods||Manager||Carbon Markets and the New Tidal Wetland and Seagrass Restoration Methodology|
This presentation focuses on the new tidal wetlands and seagrass restoration methodology. Carbon markets are discussed as well as standards, registries, and methodologies.
|markets, methodology,||2014||Restore America's Estuaries||USA & Canada||USA||Workshop||Yes||S. Emmet-Mattox||0.04.80|
|Mangrove||Monitoring||Academic||Historical analysis of mangrove leaf traits throughout the 19th and 20th centuries reveals differential responses to increases in atmospheric CO2|
The study reconstructed the response of two mangrove species to increases in atmospheric CO2 over two centuries using plant responses - by measuring leaf traits. The mangroves related to the study are Rhizophora stylosa and Avicennia marina.
climate change, history, blue carbon
Global Ecology and Biogeography
Australia & Indo-Pacific Islands
|Australia||Journal Article||No||R. Reef and C.E. Lovelock||1.05.81|
|Mangrove||Conservation||Manager||Carbon Stocks of intact mangroves and carbon emissions arising from their conversion in the Dominican Republic|
Reports on the biophysical assessment of carbon stock in different mangroves. Found that in D.R. Carbon stocks ranged from 706-1131 mg/ha of mangrove. Used a stock-change approach to calculate the potential emissions from the conversion of mangrove to shrimp ponds, and found to be amongst the largest land use change emissions in the tropics.
Carbon stocks, emissions, mangroves, REDD+, climate change
Central America & Caribbean
J. B. Kauffman, C. Heider, J. N., F. Payton
|Mangrove||Feasibility||Manager||Locally assessing the economic viability of blue carbon: A case study from Panay Island, the Philippines|
The study evaluates the value of carbon of mangrove forests, to determine if they can offset the costs of land use change for local aquaculture. Opportunity costs are modelled using a broad range of assumptions.
Opportunity Costs, Payments for Ecosystem Services, Carbon
|2014||Ecosystem Services||Asia||Philippines||Journal Article||No|
Benjamin S. Thompson, Colin P. Clubbe, Jurgenne H. Primavera, David Curnick, Heather J. Koldewey
|Multiple||Planning||General||Blue Carbon: International Policy Analysis|
This powerpoint is an international policy analysis regarding Blue Carbon. The objectives are to identify potential existing international policies that could incorporate blue carbon and find and discuss the opportunities and challenges within these policies.
|Policies,IPCC, UNFCCC,||2014||Restore America's Estuaries||World||Workshop||Yes|
A. Sutton-Grier, A. McCarty, A. Moore, E. Tewes, K. Armstrong, Y. Lu, M. Morales, D. Peters
|Multiple||Planning||Manager||Grouping Estuary Restoration Projects for Carbon Markets-Efficiencies at Scale|
This powerpoint discusses the need for grouping estuary restoration projects for carbon markets and goes over examples from other land use sectors.
Efficiencies at Scale, Carbon Markets, Estuaries,
|2014||REstore America's Estuaries||World||USA||Workshop||Yes||I. Emmer||0.04.85|
|Multiple||Planning||Manager||Linking Blue Carbon Science to Practice at the Qaquoit Bay NERR|
They use Waquoit Bay is an example National Estuarine Research Reserve and how they can bring wetlands to market, stakeholder engagement process, stakeholder ontributions, and the lessons learned.
markets, stakeholders, NERR
|2014||REstore America's Estuaries||World||USA||Workshop||Yes||T.M.S. Rogers||0.04.86|
|Multiple||Monitoring||Academic||Assessing the eddy covariance technique for evaluating carbon dioxide exchange rates of ecosystems: past, present and future|
The eddy covariance technique ascertains the exchange rate of CO2 across the interface between the atmosphere and a plant canopy by measuring the covariance between fluctuations in vertical wind velocity and CO2 mixing ratio. Two decades ago, the method was employed to study CO2 exchange of agricultural crops under ideal conditions during short field campaigns. During the past decade the eddy covariance method has emerged as an important tool for evaluating fluxes of carbon dioxide between terrestrial ecosystems. and the atmosphere over the course of a year, and more. At present, the method isbeing applied in a nearly continuous mode to study carbon dioxide and water vaporexchange at over a hundred and eighty field sites, worldwide. The objective of thisreview is to assess the eddy covariance method as it is being applied by the globalchange community on increasingly longer time scales and over less than ideal surfaces.
eddy covariance, carbon exchange, micrometeorology, monitoring
|2003||Global Change Biology||World||Review||No||D.D. Baldocchi||1.06.88|
|Mangrove||Project Assessment||Manager||Carbon stock assessment of four mangrove restoration stands in the Philippines|
In the Philippines, there is very limited information on carbon stock and sequestration of established mangrove reforestation stands which are criticized by some as mono-specific. The mangrove reforestation stands are now providing ecological services to coastal communities, wildlife, and marine fisheries, among others. In the light of climate change mitigation, their potential capacity to store and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) was investigated using common field sampling technique and existing mangrove allometric biomass model applicable for ASEAN mangroves. Four established reforestation stands aged 15 to 27 years old and planted to Rhizophora species were studied. The above-ground and root biomass for each reforestation stand was determined as follows: 1) Aklan 70.2 t/ha; 2) Bataan 128.9 t/ha; 3) Palawan 164.5 t/ha; and 4) Samar 373.8 t/ha. The biomass of 27 year-old Samar plantation was significantly higher than that of the three other sites as well as the biomass of plantations in Palawan and Aklan (p<0.05). On the average, the biomass in these four reforestation stands was 184.3 t/ha. The total carbon stock from biomass (with 47% carbon fraction) and sediment (upper 30cm) for each site was: 1) Bataan 117.6 tC/ha; 2) Aklan 146.9 tC/ha ; 3) Palawan 235.5 tC/ha; and 4) Samar 300 tC/ha. On the average, these reforestation stands contained 200 tC/ha. The contribution of above-ground biomass to the total carbon stock of each mangrove reforestation stand varied from 17% (Aklan), 24% (Palawan), 39% (Bataan) to 44% (Samar). Mangrove sediment was indeed a significant storage of Carbon in the mangrove ecosystem which accounted for 42% (Samar), 48% (Bataan), 67% (Palawan) and 78% (Aklan) of the total carbon stock in each reforestation/plantation stand.
carbon stock, mangroves, reforestation, assessment
ASEAN Congress on Mangrove Research and Development
Australia & Indo-Pacific Islands
|Yes||J.A.A. Castillo L.A. Breva||0.09.89|
|Salt Marsh/Estuary||Methods||Academic||Effects of Nitrogen Loading on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Salt Marshes|
The power point looks at the effects of nitrogen loading on greenhouse gas emissions from Salt Marshes.
Nitrogen Loading, Green House Gas Emissions,
|?||Restore America's Estuaries||USA & Canada||USA||Workshop||Yes|
J. Tang, K. Kroeger, S. Moseman-Valtierra, K. Morkeski, J. Mora
|Multiple||Methods||General||Estimating Global "Blue carbon" Emissions from Conversion and Degradation of Vegetated Coastal Ecosystems|
Recent attention has focused on the high rates of annual carbon sequestration in vegetated coastal ecosystems—marshes, mangroves, and seagrasses—that may be lost with habitat destruction (‘conversion’). Relatively unappreciated, however, is that conversion of these coastal ecosystems also impacts very large pools of previously-sequestered carbon. Residing mostly in sediments, this ‘blue carbon’ can be released to the atmosphere when these ecosystems are converted or degraded. Here we provide the first global estimates of this impact and evaluate its economic implications. Combining the best available data on global area, land-use conversion rates, and near-surface carbon stocks in each of the three ecosystems, using an uncertainty-propagation approach, we estimate that 0.15–1.02 Pg (billion tons) of carbon dioxide are being released annually, several times higher than previous estimates that account only for lost sequestration. These emissions are equivalent to 3–19% of those from deforestation globally, and result in economic damages of $US 6–42 billion annually. The largest sources of uncertainty in these estimates stems from limited certitude in global area and rates of landuse conversion, but research is also needed on the fates of ecosystem carbon upon conversion. Currently, carbon emissions from the conversion of vegetated coastal ecosystems are not included in emissions accounting or carbon market protocols, but this analysis suggests they may be disproportionally important to both. Although the relevant science supporting these initial estimates will need to be refined in coming years, it is clear that policies encouraging the sustainable management of coastal ecosystems could significantly reduce carbon emissions from the land-use sector, in addition to sustaining the well recognized ecosystem services of coastal habitats. [publication]
Rates, Emissions, Economic Impacts, Uncertainties
|2012||Plos ONE||USA & Canada||USA||Journal Article||Yes|
L. Pendleton, D. C. Donato, B.C. Murray, S. Crooks, W.A. Jenkins, S. Sifleet, C. Craft, J.W. Fourqurean, J. B. Kauffman, N. Marba, P. Megonigal, E. Pidgeon, D. Herr, D. Gordon, A. Baldera
|Multiple||Planning||General||A blueprint for blue carbon: toward an improved understanding of the role of vegetated coastal habitats in sequestering CO2|
Recent research has highlighted the valuable role that coastal and marine ecosystems play in sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2). The carbon (C) sequestered in vegetated coastal ecosystems, specifically mangrove forests, seagrass beds, and salt marshes, has been termed “blue carbon”. Although their global area is one to two orders of magnitude smaller than that of terrestrial forests, the contribution of vegetated coastal habitats per unit area to long-term C sequestration is much greater, in part because of their efficiency in trapping suspended matter and associated organic C during tidal inundation. Despite the value of mangrove forests, seagrass beds, and salt marshes in sequestering C, and the other goods and services they provide, these systems are being lost at critical rates and action is urgently needed to prevent further degradation and loss. Recognition of the C sequestration value of vegetated coastal ecosystems provides a strong argument for their protection and restoration; however, it is necessary to improve scientific understanding of the underlying mechanisms that control C sequestration in these ecosystems. Here, we identify key areas of uncertainty and specific actions needed to address them.
carbon storage, carbon sequestration, climate change, habitat loss
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment
E. McLeod, G.L. Chmura, S. Bouillon, R. Salm, M. Bjork, C.M. Duarte, C.E. Lovelock, W.H Schelsinger. B.R. Silliman
|Other||Feasibility||Academic||Using marine macroalgae for Carbon Sequestration: a critical appraisal|
There has been a good deal of interest in the potential of marine vegetation as a sink for anthropogenic C emissions (“Blue Carbon”). Marine primary producers contribute at least 50% of the world’s carbon fixation and may account for as much as 71% of all carbon storage. In this paper, we analyse the current rate of harvesting of both commercially grown and wild-grown macroalgae, as well as their capacity for photosynthetically driven CO2 assimilation and growth. We suggest that CO2 acquisition by marine macroalgae can represent a considerable sink for anthropogenic CO2 emissions and that harvesting and appropriate use of macroalgal primary production could play a significant role in C sequestration and amelioration of greenhouse gas emissions. [publication]
|Macroalgae,||2010||J Appl Phycol||World||Journal Article||No|
I.K. Chung, J. Beardall, S. Mehta, D. Sahoo, S. Stojkovie
|Seagrass||Planning||General||Seagrass Meadows, Ecosystem Services, and Sustainability|
Seagrass meadows are soft-sediment marine habitats that are comprised of a group of plants adapted to life in the sea. These meadows have been estimated to cover up to 600,000 km2 of the coastal ocean and occur in abundance on every continent except Antartica. Like all flowering plants, seagrasses develop frui and produce seeds, have true roots, and have internal gaseous and nutrient transport systems. There are approximately only 72 species of seagrass, and these live within sheltered intertidal and subtidal areas of the marine environment. Although three seagrass specis are endangered, and 10 species are at elevated risk of exctinction, the majority are common; therefor, their imporrtance lies in the role they play int he ecosystem as a whole.
Seagrasses, Sustainability, Fisheries, Primary Production, Ecosystem Services
Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development
Leanne Cullen-Unsworth and Richard Unsworth
|Mangrove||Capacity Building||General||The Blue Carbon Project|
We develop and provide blue carbon offsets for individuals, events and organizations to offset greenhouse gas emissions through the conservation and restoration of coastal vegetation
Mangroves, development, reforestation, offsets
|2016||The Blue Carbon Project||World|
|Mangrove||Planning||Policy Maker||Coastal aquaculture, mangrove deforestation and blue carbon emissions: Is REDD+ a solution?|
Globally, coastal aquaculture particularly shrimp farming has been under huge criticism because of its environmental impacts including devastating effects on mangrove forests. However, mangroves are ecologically and economically important forests, and the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics that provide a wide range of ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation. Carbon emissions are likely to have been the dominant cause of climate change and blue carbon emissions are being critically augmented through mangrove deforestation. Because of mangrove deforestation, different climatic variables including coastal flooding, cyclone, drought, rainfall, salinity, sea-level rise, and sea surface temperature have dramatic effects on coastal aquaculture. Mangrove forests have been instrumental in augmenting resilience to climate change. The “Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD)” program can help to restore mangroves which in turn increases options for adaptation to climate change. However, technical and financial assistance with institutional support are needed to implement REDD+.
Mangroves, REDD+, shrimp farming, carbon emissions, adaptation, restoration
|2016||Marine Policy||World||Journal Article||No||N. Ahmed, M. Glaser||1.05.96|
|Mangrove||Planning||Policy Maker||Do protected areas reduce blue carbon emissions? A quasi-experimental evaluation of mangroves in Indonesia|
Mangroves provide multiple ecosystem services such as blue carbon sequestration, storm protection, and unique habitat for species. Despite these services, mangroves are being lost at rapid rates around the world. Using the best available biophysical and socio-economic data, we present the first rigorous large-scale evaluation of the effectiveness of protected areas (PAs) at conserving mangroves and reducing blue carbon emissions. We focus on Indonesia as it has the largest absolute area of mangroves (about 22.6% of the world's mangroves), is one of the most diverse in terms of mangrove species and has been losing its mangroves at a very fast rate. Specifically, we apply quasi-experimental techniques (combining propensity score and covariate matching, differences-in-differences, and post-matching bias adjustments) to assess whether PAs prevented mangrove loss between 2000 and 2010. Our results show that marine protected areas reduced mangrove loss by about 14,000 ha and avoided blue carbon emissions of approximately 13 million metric tons (CO2 equivalent). However, we find no evidence that species management PAs stalled the loss of mangroves. We conclude by providing illustrative estimates of the blue carbon benefits of establishing PAs, which can be cost-effective policies for mitigating climate change and biodiversity loss.
Mangroves, impact evaluation, protected areas, market
Australia & Indo-Pacific Islands
D.A. Miteva, B.C. Murray, S.K. Pattanayak
|Mangrove||Evaluation||Academic||Contribution of mangroves to coastal carbon cycling in low latitude seas|
The contribution of mangrove carbon to the coastal ocean in low latitudes was evaluated. Mangrove forests occupy only 2% of the world's coastal ocean area yet they account for about 5% of net primary production, 12% of ecosystem respiration and about 30% of carbon burial on all continental margins in subtropical and tropical seas. Mangroves also account for nearly one-third of all riverine DIC discharging into low latitude coastal waters. Mangrove forests fix, release and sequester more carbon by area than all other coastal ecosystem types, except perhaps for subtropical and tropical seagrass meadows for which data are lacking. Globally, mangrove waters release to the atmosphere more than 2.5 times (−42.8 Tg C y−1) the amount of CO2 emitted from all other subtropical and tropical coastal waters. The global destruction of the large carbon stocks (956 Mg C ha−1) of mangroves at the current annual rate of about 1% results in an additional annual release of roughly 133 Tg C y−1 to the atmosphere. Mangroves account for only 0.7% of tropical forest area globally, but their destruction currently adds another 10% to global CO2 release from tropical deforestation. Despite considerable uncertainty upscaling small numbers of measurements with large coefficents of variation, our calculations suggest that mangroves are a globally significant contributor to the carbon cycle in low latitude seas, and to greenhouse emissions resulting from tropical deforestation.
Carbon cycling, coastal ocean, carbon sequestration, deforestation
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
D.M. Alongi, S.K. Mukhopadhyay
|Mangrove||Planning||General||Can the Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve provide perfect teething ground for a blue carbon based REDD+ pilot project?|
Mangroves provide a variety of ecosystem services and are among the most carbon-rich forest types on earth. While much attention has been given in policies and scientific literature to the opportunities mangrove blue carbon can potentially provide for climate change mitigation, sustainable development and ecological conservation, little attention has been paid to identifying a location that can serve as a conducive site for the development of a climate change mechanism. This paper proposes to address this gap by analysing the advantages of integrating a blue carbon based REDD+ pilot project at the Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve. The Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve is an interesting case study because it is a large contiguous mangrove forest area (40,466 ha) that has been primarily managed for the production of charcoal for more than a century and has been well managed to achieve favourable outcomes for local communities and ecological health. It is also one of the most studied mangrove forests in the world. The proposed blue carbon based REDD+ pilot project could potentially be a crucial building block in the development and implementation of Malaysia's National REDD+ Strategy
REDD+, Mangroves, pilot project, charcoal, sustainable development
Journal of Tropical Forest Science
A.A. Ammar, P. Dargusch, I. Shamsudin
|Mangrove||Feasibility||General||Turning the Tide: How Blue Carbon and Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) Might Help Save Mangrove Forests|
In this review paper, we aim to describe the potential for, and the key challenges to, applying PES projects to mangroves. By adopting a "carbocentric approach," we show that mangrove forests are strong candidates for PES projects. They are particularly well suited to the generation of carbon credits because of their unrivaled potential as carbon sinks, their resistance and resilience to natural hazards, and their extensive provision of Ecosystem Services other than carbon sequestration, primarily nursery areas for fish, water purification and coastal protection, to the benefit of local communities as well as to the global population. The voluntary carbon market provides opportunities for the development of appropriate protocols and good practice case studies for mangroves at a small scale, and these may influence larger compliance schemes in the future. Mangrove habitats are mostly located in developing countries on communally or state-owned land. This means that issues of national and local governance, land ownership and management, and environmental justice are the main challenges that require careful planning at the early stages of mangrove PES projects to ensure successful outcomes and equitable benefit sharing within local communities.
Mangroves, PES, carbon credits, environmental justice, certification, natural hazards, REDD+, carbon sequestration
T. Locatelli, T. Binet, J. Gitundu Kairo, L. King, S. Madden, G. Patenaude, C. Upton, M. Huxham
|Mangrove||Methods||Academic||Historical reconstruction of mangrove expansion in the Gulf of Mexico: Linking climate change with carbon sequestration in coastal wetlands|
There has been considerable interest in a recently recognized and important sink in the global carbon pool, commonly referred to as “blue carbon”. The major goal of this study was to determine the historical reconstruction of mangrove expansion (Avicennia germinans) into salt marshes (Spartina alterniflora) and its effects on carbon sequestration and soil chemistry in wetland soils of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. We used bulk stable isotopic, chemical biomarker analyses, and aerial imagery analysis to identify changes in OC wetland sources, and radiotracers (137Cs and 210Pb) for chronology. Soil cores were collected at two sites at Port Aransas, Texas (USA), Harbor Island and Mud Island. There has been considerable interest in a recently recognized and important sink in the global carbon pool, commonly referred to as “blue carbon”. The major goal of this study was to determine the historical reconstruction of mangrove expansion (Avicennia germinans) into salt marshes (Spartina alterniflora) and its effects on carbon sequestration and soil chemistry in wetland soils of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. We used bulk stable isotopic, chemical biomarker analyses, and aerial imagery analysis to identify changes in OC wetland sources, and radiotracers (137Cs and 210Pb) for chronology. Soil cores were collected at two sites at Port Aransas, Texas (USA), Harbor Island and Mud Island. Stable isotopic values of δ13C and δ15N of all soil samples ranged from −26.8 to −15.6‰ and 1.8–10.4‰ and showed a significant trend of increasing depletion for each isotope from bottom to surface soils. The most depleted δ13C values were in surface soils at the Mud Island (Mangrove 2) location. Carbon sequestration rates were greater in mangroves and for the Mud Island Mangrove 1 and the Marsh 1 sites ranged from 253 to 270 and 101–125 g C m−2 yr−1, respectively. Lignin storage rates were also greater for mangrove sites and for the Mud Island Mangrove 1 and the Marsh 1 ranged from 19.5 to 20.1 and 16.5 to 12.8 g lignin m−2 yr−1, respectively. Τhe Λ8 and Λ6 values for all cores ranged from 0.5 to 21.5 and 0.4 to 16.5, respectively, and showed a significant increase from bottom to surface sediments. If regional changes in the Gulf of Mexico are to persist and much of the marsh vegetation was to be replaced by mangroves, there could be significant increases on the overall storage and sequestration of carbon in the coastal zone.
Coastal wetlands, climate change, carbon sequestration, biomarkers, Gulf of Mexico, isotope analysis
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science
|USA & Canada||USA||Journal Article||No|
T.S. Bianchi, M.A. Allison, J. Zhao, X. Li, R.S. Corneaux, R.A. Feagin, R. Wasantha Kulawardhana
|Mangrove||Methods||Academic||Sediment transport and carbon sequestration characteristics along mangrove fringed coasts|
Mangroves play an important role in sequestering carbon and trapping sediments. However, the effectiveness of such functions is unclear due to the restriction of knowledge on the sedimentation process across the vegetation boundaries. To detect the effects of mangrove forests on sediment transportation and organic carbon sequestration, the granulometric and organic carbon characteristics of mangrove sediments were investigated from three vegetation zones of four typical mangrove habitats on the Leizhou Peninsula coast. Based on our results, sediment transport was often "environmentally sensitive" to the vegetation friction. A transition of the sediment transport mode from the mudflat zone to the interior/fringe zone was often detected from the cumulative frequency curve. The vegetation cover also assists the trapping of material, resulting in a significantly higher concentration of organic carbon in the interior surface sediments. However, the graphic parameters of core sediments reflected a highly temporal variability due to the sedimentation process at different locations. The sediment texture ranges widely from sand to mud, although the sedimentary environments are restricted within the same energy level along the fluvial-marine transition zone. Based on the PCA results, the large variation was mainly attributed to either the mean grain size features or the organic carbon features. A high correlation between the depth and δ^sup 13^C value also indicated an increasing storage of mangrove-derived organic carbon with time.
Mangroves, grain size distribution, sedimentary organic carbon, Leizhou Peninsula, sediment, carbon sequestration
|2015||Acta Oceanologica Sinica||Asia||China||Journal Article||No|
Q. Tu, S. Yang, Q. Zhou, J. Yang