Acronyms: COSS=Commercial Open-Source, a type of company that would not exist without a given FOSS core. FOSS=Free/Open-Source tech.
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FROG$8$5099/16/20Public64.7845.591211590270127-$4,516$11,463$9,395$16,34212867.72%$4,00050.17%31496.0615.8% - Yossi Sela + Gemini Israeli Ventures | 10.8% - Andy Vitus + Scale Venture Partners | 9.8% - Jeff Horing + Insight Partners | 9.8% - Yoav LandmanJFrog Artifactory is at the core of our business and any decline in demand for JFrog Artifactory occasioned by malfunction, inferior performance, increased competition or otherwise, will impact our business, results of operations, and financial condition. | A limited-functionality version of JFrog Artifactory is licensed under an open source license, which could negatively affect our ability to monetize our products and protect our intellectual property rights. This competition can develop without the degree of overhead and lead time required by traditional proprietary software companies, due to the permissions allowed under AGPL. It is also possible for competitors to develop their own software based on our open source version of JFrog Artifactory. Although this software would also need to be made available for free under the AGPL, it could reduce the demand for our products and put pricing pressure on our subscriptions. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to compete successfully against current and future competitors, some of which may have greater resources than we have, or that competitive pressure or the availability of new open source software will not result in price reductions, reduced operating margins, and loss of market share, any one of which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. | Our open source version is intended to increase visibility and familiarity of our platform among the developer communities. We invest in developers and developer communities through multiple channels, including the introduction of new open source projects, as well as through our annual developer conference, swampUP, and other community-centered events. There is no guarantee that such events will translate into new customers, or that freemium and open source users will convert to paying subscribers. | Importantly, we’ve never sold [Artifcatory]. It’s always been bought, and to this day we haven’t made a single field sales outbound call to a prospective customer. | Our subscription structure is aligned with the way we have built our product platform, with JFrog Artifactory at the core of each subscription and a portfolio of adjacent products and services that differ by subscription tier. Our pricing model is based on number of servers for self-managed deployments or consumption of storage and data transfer for SaaS deployments at each subscription tier, which reduces friction of adoption and aligns the value we deliver with our customers’ needs as they scale. | Our customers can start with an open source version of JFrog Artifactory, freemium product offerings, or free trial subscription options, or land directly with one of our paid subscription tiers. Our open source, freemium, and free trial options provide low-friction entry points for customers, who often upgrade to paid and higher-tiered subscriptions as they increase their usage of our products through the identification of new use cases, the need for additional functionality, or the adoption of our products by new teams or in new geographies. Once a user has decided to use our products beyond what is available in open source or freemium versions, or at the end of a free trial, they can upgrade to one of our paid subscriptions, which are priced based on number of servers or usage to align the value we deliver with our customers’ needs as they scale. 2020
ESTC$10$2529/5/18Public70108.57689941,442171-$57,235$22,296$46,660$11,7216854.39%$4,86079.07%28421.0521% - Steven Schuurman + CMXI BV | 17.8% - Peter Fenton + Benchmark Capital Partners | 15% - Shay BanonOur origins are rooted in open source, which facilitates rapid adoption of our software and enables efficient distribution of our technology. Developers can download our software directly from our website for use in development and production environments. Since January 1, 2013, our products have been downloaded over 350 million times. These downloads include both free and paid products. Open source also fosters our vibrant community of developers who help improve our products and build on top of them. As of July 31, 2018, our community included over 100,000 Meetup members across 194 Meetup groups in 46 countries. Meetup members are individuals who opt into an Elasticsearch Meetup group on, an independent third-party website. | Unlike some open source companies, we do not build a separate enterprise version of an original open source project. Instead, we develop and test one robust codebase, over which we maintain control. We believe that maintaining full control over the source code enables us to develop better products for our users and customers. Our sales and marketing efforts start with developers who have already adopted our software and then evolve to departmental decision-makers and senior executives who have broad purchasing power in their organizations. All of these actions help us build a powerful commercial business model on top of open source. | We work with many of the major cloud providers to increase awareness of our products and make it easy to access our software. We partner with Google to offer our Elasticsearch Service (part of Elastic Cloud) on Google Cloud Platform, or GCP. We partner with Alibaba to provide the Alibaba Cloud Elasticsearch service in China and the rest of the world. We also have relationships with Microsoft and IBM to offer Elastic Stack deployment templates on their clouds. Through these partnerships, customers of these companies may access Elastic’s support engineers and may use our free and paid proprietary features. In addition, we make our Elasticsearch Service available on Amazon Web Services, or AWS, for direct purchase via our website. Elastic’s Elasticsearch Service is a different offering than Amazon Elasticsearch Service. We do not partner with Amazon, provide support for Amazon Elasticsearch Service, or provide Amazon or customers of Amazon Elasticsearch Service with access to any of our free or paid proprietary features. | 2018
FSLY$8$1805/16/19Public23.9972.4281344966079-$29,138$4,079$0-$25,059-31720.25%$1,43040.61%18101.2720.4% - David Hornik + August Capital | 15.6% - Artur Bergman | 12.9% - Iconiq Strategies PartnersMoreover, our platform is highly technical and complex and relies on the Varnish Configuration Language (VCL). Potential developers may be unfamiliar or opposed to working with VCL and therefore decide to not adopt our platform, which may harm our business. | We started with open source software like Varnish and Linux, then rewrote it to support the use cases of a multi-tenant, high-performance edge cloud. | When I asked the legacy CDN providers for a solution that could meet the needs of my massive, rapidly changing content base, I was told it was “impossible.” When I hear the word “impossible,” I see an opportunity. Great companies aren’t manufactured, but born out of necessity to provide immensely valuable solutions. Enter Fastly. Open source software and improvements in hardware inspired me to do something that had never been done before: empower developers to build innovative software and eliminate the pain of choosing between scale, security, and speed of delivery. No growing business can afford to de-prioritize even one of those elements. | We also support a growing number of great nonprofit organizations and open source projects powered by our platform for free. We make the web more beautiful through our work. | Grow our developer community and continue our open source commitment. Our edge cloud platform is built on Varnish, a powerful open source caching software currently used by 3.4 million websites worldwide. Developers are familiar with this technology, which makes adopting our platform easier.2019
CLDR$3$2254/27/17Public18.110.4891214703,000261-$187,339$43,288$59,249-$84,802-32491.19%$2,69057.20%10306.5122.0% - Intel Corporation | 16.3% - Ping Li + Accel | 12.5% - Greylock PartnersWe have developed the leading modern platform for data management, machine learning and advanced analytics. We have achieved this position through extensive collaboration with the global open source community, continuous innovation in data management technologies and by leveraging the latest advances in infrastructure including the public cloud for “big data” applications. Our pioneering hybrid open source software (HOSS) model incorporates the best of open source with our robust proprietary software to form an enterprise‑grade platform. | Our HOSS model also meaningfully differentiates our solutions from those of our competitors, including open source “free riders” who take from, but do not contribute to, the open source community at large. This differentiation also builds long‑lived customer relationships and generates the revenue to support sustained innovation. | The first organizations confronted with this combination of volume, complexity and analytic challenges were web‑scale consumer internet companies like Google, Facebook and Yahoo. Those web pioneers created a new software architecture and a collection of open source software projects to solve their data problems. That software was sophisticated and powerful, but demanded exceptional technical and operational skill of its users. | Our business relies on the ASF, a non‑profit corporation that supports Apache open source software projects. We do not control nor can we predict the decisions the ASF will make with respect to the further development and enhancement of open source technologies which may impact our business. For example, the reduction or elimination of support of Hadoop, Spark or other technologies by the ASF, the migration of Hadoop, Spark and other open source data management technology to an organization other than the ASF, or any other actions taken by the ASF or the Hadoop project may impact our business model. Moreover, if the ASF is subject to claims, disputes or otherwise suffers reputational harm, our business, results of operations, financial condition and growth prospectus could be harmed if customers perceive our solutions to be risky or inferior to data management solutions which do not rely on the ASF for continued development and enhancement of open source technologies. | Cutting and Cafarella hoped to initiate a vibrant open source community around their work, so they donated the code to the Apache Software Foundation in 2005. Now known as “Apache Hadoop,” this software project has spawned a rich ecosystem of open source and proprietary software for next generation data management.
Hadoop was originally designed to provide high performance, low‑cost processing of complex data at scale. It comprised the open source technologies known as HDFS and MapReduce. Since then, an open source data management ecosystem has developed that now comprises more than 40 major projects, including those two original Hadoop projects, as well as Spark, Impala, Kudu and Kafka. As the ecosystem has grown, so have complexity and risk. These projects tackle complementary problems in collecting, processing and analyzing data. Together, they offer unprecedented power and flexibility. Their proliferation, though, increases the challenge for enterprises that need to use them, as they are sometimes overlapping, competing or inconsistent in approach. In addition, some projects may not be enterprise quality or accepted as open source standards. With the consistent and on‑going expansion of the open source data management ecosystem, driven by the rapid innovation of the global open source community, enterprises can spend significant time and resources understanding, deploying and using these technologies. | Extending our position as the leader in hybrid open source software. We intend to continue to pioneer the HOSS model, innovating in our proprietary software concurrently with our work in open source. We believe that creating differentiation in both dimensions is a significant competitive advantage. We dedicate substantial engineering resources to collaborate with the community in open source software development and innovation. We play a central role in founding and popularizing open source projects that go on to become industry standards. Cloudera engineers have founded 18 open source data management projects, including many of the most commercially significant ones and the original Hadoop technologies. Our HOSS model allows us to deliver more value to our customers, achieve meaningful product differentiation, and make it more difficult for competitors to “free ride” on open source innovation.
HDP$2$10010/10/14M&A26.38--395243,000------------------19.6% - Yahoo! | 8.7% - Peter Fenton + Benchmark Capital | 9.5% - Michelangelo Volpi + Index VenturesOur mission is to establish Hadoop as the foundational technology of the modern enterprise data architecture.

We seek to advance the market adoption of Hadoop and provide enterprises with a new data management solution that enables them to harness the power of big data to transform their businesses through more effective and efficient management of their valuable data assets. A Hadoop cluster combines commodity servers with local storage and an open source software distribution to create a reliable distributed compute and storage platform for large data sets scalable up to petabytes, or PBs, with thousands of servers or nodes.

Our solution is an enterprise-grade data management platform built on a unique distribution of Apache Hadoop and powered by YARN, the next generation computing and resource management framework. We continuously drive innovation in the Apache community with a mission to further Hadoop’s development for enterprises of all types and sizes. Our platform deeply integrates with key data center technologies to support best-of-breed data architectures and enables our customers to collect, store, process and analyze increasing amounts of existing and new data types in a way that augments rather than replaces their existing data center infrastructure.

We employ a differentiated approach in that we are committed to serving the Apache Software Foundation open source ecosystem and to sharing all of our product developments with the open source community. We support the community for open source Hadoop, and employ a large number of core committers to the various Enterprise Grade Hadoop projects. We believe that keeping our business model free from architecture design conflicts that could limit the ultimate success of our customers in leveraging the benefits of Hadoop at scale is a significant competitive advantage. We are recognized as a leader in Hadoop by Forrester Research based on the strengths of our current offering and our strategy | Partnering with the Apache Hadoop community, Yahoo! led major innovations in the technology to help tackle big data challenges and operate its business at scale. The traditional Hadoop offering (i.e., Hadoop Version 1.x) is largely a batch system that enables users to manage data at scale, but requires siloed computing clusters by application with pre-selected data sets, thus limiting accessibility, interoperability and overall value. Incremental attempts to improve traditional Hadoop focused on bolting on data warehousing and analytics functionality as well as basic levels of security and operations management. This innovation demonstrated the early promise of Hadoop in enabling enterprises to address their big data requirements, but traditional Hadoop still lacks the breadth of functionality and resiliency that would enable it to be deployed more broadly by enterprises in production use cases.

To improve on this early functionality, Hortonworks engineers created the initial architecture for YARN and developed the technology for it within the Apache Hadoop community, leading to the release of YARN in October 2013. This technology advancement transformed Hadoop (i.e., Hadoop Version 2.x) into a platform that allows for multiple ways of interacting with data, including interactive structured query language, or SQL, processing, real-time processing and online data processing, along with its traditional batch data processing. YARN eliminates the need to silo data sets and enables a single cluster to store a wide range of shared data sets on which mixed workloads can simultaneously process with predictable service levels. YARN is designed to serve as a common data operating system that enables the Hadoop ecosystem to natively integrate applications and leverage existing technologies and skills while extending consistent security, governance and operations across the platform. With these capabilities, YARN can facilitate mainstream Hadoop adoption by enterprises of all types and sizes for production use cases at scale. | We believe that an enterprise-grade Hadoop solution must meet certain requirements to create and accelerate widespread market adoption and enable the modern data center architecture. We refer to this set of requirements as Enterprise Grade Hadoop | We intend to grow our business by focusing on the following strategies: continue to innovate and extend Hadoop’s enterprise data platform capabilities; establish Hadoop as the industry standard for the modern enterprise data architecture and Hortonworks as the trusted Enterprise Grade Hadoop provider; continue to support and foster growth in the Hadoop ecosystem; | The market for Hadoop and open source distributed data platforms is relatively new, rapidly evolving and unproven. Our future success will depend in large part on Hadoop’s ability to penetrate the existing market for open source distributed data platforms, as well as the continued growth and expansion of the market for open source distributed data platforms. | We face substantial competition from Hadoop distribution vendors such as Cloudera and MapR Technologies, as well as enterprise software and infrastructure vendors that offer Hadoop distributions such as IBM Corporation, Oracle Corporation and Pivotal Software, Inc. Further, other established system providers not currently focused on Hadoop, including traditional data warehouse solution providers such as Teradata Corporation, SAP SE and EMC Corporation, or open source distributed data platform providers, including non-relational NoSQL database providers such as MongoDB Inc. and DataStax, Inc., may expand their products and services to compete with us. Additionally, some potential customers may elect to implement and support Hadoop deployments internally. Some of the companies that compete with us, or that may compete with us in the future, have greater name recognition, substantially greater financial, technical, marketing and other resources, the ability to devote greater resources to the promotion, sale and support of their solutions, more extensive customer bases and broader customer relationships and longer operating histories than we have. | If open source software programmers, many of whom we do not employ, do not continue to develop and enhance open source technologies, we may be unable to develop new technologies, adequately enhance our existing technologies or meet customer requirements for innovation, quality and price. We rely to a significant degree on a number of independent open source software programmers, or Hadoop committers and contributors, to develop and enhance Apache Hadoop and its related technologies. Additionally, members of the corresponding Apache Software Foundation Project Management Committees, many of whom are not employed by us, are primarily responsible for the oversight and evolution of the codebases of Hadoop and its related technologies. If the Hadoop committers and contributors fail to adequately further develop and enhance open source technologies, or if the Project Management Committees fail to oversee and guide the evolution of Hadoop-related technologies in the manner that we believe is appropriate to maximize the market potential of our offerings, then we would have to rely on other parties, or we would need to expend additional resources, to develop and enhance our offerings. We cannot predict whether further developments and enhancements to these technologies would be available from reliable alternative sources. In either event, our development expenses could be increased and our technology release and upgrade schedules could be delayed. Delays in developing, completing or delivering new or enhanced offerings could cause our offerings to be less competitive, impair customer acceptance of our offerings and result in delayed or reduced revenue for our offerings. | Risk Factor: the reduction or elimination of support of the Apache Hadoop Project by the Apache Software Foundation, migration of Hadoop technology to an organization other than the Apache Software Foundation, or any other actions taken by the Apache Software Foundation or the Apache Hadoop Project that may impact our business model; | Hadoop itself is technically very complicated, and it is not easy to maximize the value of the Hortonworks Data Platform without proper implementation and training. We often must assist our customers in achieving successful implementations for large, complex deployments. If our customers are unable to implement the Hortonworks Data Platform successfully, or in a timely manner, customer perceptions of our company and the Hortonworks Data Platform may be impaired, our reputation and brand may suffer, and customers may choose not to renew their subscriptions or increase their purchases of our support subscription offerings or professional services. | ompetition for such personnel in the San Francisco Bay Area, where our headquarters is located, and in other locations where we maintain offices, is intense, especially for engineers experienced in designing and developing software and Apache Hadoop applications and experienced sales professionals. The Apache Hadoop Project relies on Hadoop committers for the project’s technical management. While we currently employ a large number of Hadoop core committers and innovators, one becomes a committer by invitation only. As a result, the market to hire such individuals is very competitive. If our employees who are Hadoop core committers terminate their employment with us, we could lose our ability to innovate the core open source technology, define the roadmap for the future of Hadoop, distribute predictable and reliable enterprise quality releases, and provide comprehensive support to our customers. We have, from time to time, experienced, and we expect to continue to experience, difficulty in hiring and retaining employees with appropriate qualifications. Many of the companies with which we compete for experienced personnel have greater resources than we have. If we hire employees from competitors or other companies, their former employers may attempt to assert that these employees or we have breached legal obligations, resulting in a diversion of our time and resources. In addition, job candidates and existing employees often consider the value of the equity awards they receive in connection with their employment. If the perceived value of our equity awards declines, it may harm our ability to recruit and retain highly skilled employees. If we fail to attract new personnel or fail to retain and motivate our current personnel, our business and future growth prospects could be harmed. | Apache Hadoop is a freely available open source based software platform. While it has emerged as an enabling technology for the modern data center architecture, there are limitations related to the traditional Hadoop offering that may inhibit broad adoption by enterprises. Our software development efforts are thus focused on creating an enterprise-grade Hadoop platform by working in concert with the Apache community to develop the Hortonworks Data Platform (HDP). |
RXT$3$7038/4/20Public2117.8422106,8006,5003-$106,100$31,600$17,000-$57,500-1916666.67%$2,359-0.64%786222.3978.3% - Apollo Funds | 13.4% - ABRY | 7.2% - SearchlightIn 2016, our sales process was focused on the sale of a narrow group of point products, most notably our OpenStack Public Cloud and Single Tenant (managed hosting) offerings. We no longer actively market our OpenStack Public Cloud service, which once was competitive with hyperscale public cloud platforms and was highly capital intensive, in order to focus our resources on growing our multicloud services portfolio. | In addition to our integrated services portfolio described above, we also offer our customers our OpenStack Public Cloud solution, our third reporting segment. This offering appeals to customers who (i) want to run applications on a public cloud that is built on open-source technology with no risk of vendor lock-in; (ii) value the expertise and exceptional customer service for which we are renowned; and (iii) want their public cloud and managed hosting platforms to work smoothly together, through technologies such as our proprietary RackConnect tool. While we expect to continue to offer our OpenStack Public Cloud solution, we ceased to actively market it to customers in 2017. |2020
RPD$4$1037/17/15Public25.2869.9615125542,00084-$28,031$2,206$17,432-$8,393-9991.67%$83040.84%9880.958.18M Shares - Technology Crossover Ventures | 8.05M Shares - Bain Capital Venture Partners | 3.29M Shares - John DevineOur solutions allow our customers to test their defenses by simulating real-world attacks on their IT environments, using the same techniques and exploits as attackers. Our attack simulation solutions leverage our security data and analytics expertise as well as the insights from our community of thousands of active Metasploit users, who provide us with real-time, real-world insight into attacker behavior across the global IT attack surface. | We maintain the Metasploit open source framework, which is used to simulate attacks and test an organization’s defense against real-world threats. Our ties to the security research community through Metasploit provide us with real-time insight into new attacks and exploits. The size and accuracy of our exploit database and the speed at which our threat exposure management offerings are updated provides significant value to IT professionals looking to secure their networks in a dynamic and evolving threat environment. | Our robust and comprehensive data collection capabilities, deep understanding of the attacker, analytics-driven approach and industry leadership through our Metasploit community position us to fundamentally change the way that organizations approach cyber security. | Additionally, our products may falsely detect vulnerabilities or threats that do not actually exist. For example, our Metasploit offering relies on information provided by an active community of more than 45,000 security researchers as of April 2015, who contribute new exploits, attacks and vulnerabilities. If the information from these third parties is inaccurate, the potential for false indications of security vulnerabilities increases. These false positives, while typical in the industry, may impair the perceived reliability of our offerings and may therefore adversely impact market acceptance of our products and professional services and could result in negative publicity, loss of customers and sales and increased costs to remedy any problem. | Our Metasploit product relies on information provided by an active community of more than 45,000 security researchers as of April 2015, who contribute new exploits, attacks and vulnerabilities. We expect that the continued contributions from these third parties will both enhance the robustness of Metasploit and also support our sales and marketing efforts. | Our ties to the security research community through our Metasploit framework, an open source project with an active community of contributors and users that was downloaded over 200,000 times in 2014, provides us with real-time insight into new attacks and exploits. The size and accuracy of our exploit database and the speed at which our threat exposure management offerings are updated provides significant value to IT professionals looking to secure their networks in a dynamic and evolving threat environment. 2015
MDB$15$19210/19/17Public30.68248.671088202,000124-$86,502$18,092$45,752-$22,658-18272.58%$53050.69%4274.1916.9% - Roelof Botha + Sequoia Capital | 11.6% - Charles Hazard + Flybridge Capital | 9.7% - Union Square VenturesWe believe we have a highly differentiated business model that combines the developer mindshare and adoption benefits of open source with the economic benefits of a proprietary software subscription business model. To encourage developer usage, familiarity and adoption of our platform, we offer Community Server as an open source offering, analogous to a "freemium" offering. Community Server is a free-to-download version of our database that does not include all of the features of our commercial platform. This allows developers to evaluate our platform in a frictionless manner, which we believe has contributed to our platform's popularity among developers and driven enterprise adoption of our subscription offering. Community Server has been downloaded from our website over 30 million times since February 2009 and over 10 million times in the last 12 months alone. Unlike software companies built around third-party open source projects, we own the intellectual property of our offerings since we are the creators of the software, enabling our proprietary software subscription business model. Subscription revenue accounted for 90% and 91% of our total revenue in fiscal year 2017 and the six months ended July 31, 2017, respectively. The economic attractiveness of our subscription-based model is driven by customer renewals and increasing existing customer subscriptions over time, referred to as land-and-expand. | The database software market, for both relational and non-relational database products, is highly competitive, rapidly evolving and others may put out competing databases or sell services in connection with existing open source databases, including ours. The principal competitive factors in our market include: mindshare with software developers and IT executives; product capabilities, including flexibility, scalability, performance, security and reliability; flexible deployment model, including in the cloud, on-premise or in a hybrid environment; ease of deployment; breadth of use cases supported; ease of integration with existing IT infrastructure; robustness of professional services and customer support; price and total cost of ownership; adherence to industry standards and certifications; size of customer base and level of user adoption; strength of sales and marketing efforts; and brand awareness and reputation. If we fail to compete effectively with respect to any of these competitive factors, we may fail to attract new customers or lose or fail to renew existing customers, which would cause our operating results to suffer. | In addition to Community Server, we contribute other source code to open source projects under open source licenses and release internal software projects under open source licenses, and anticipate doing so in the future. Because the source code for Community Server and any other software we contribute to open source projects or distribute under open source licenses is publicly available, our ability to monetize and protect our intellectual property rights with respect to such source code may be limited or, in some cases, lost entirely. | We have embraced the trend toward open source software in order to drive developer awareness of, engagement with and adoption of our platform. We created our Community Server offering to let developers use, experiment and evaluate our platform frictionlessly, which we believe has contributed to our platform's popularity. We believe that developers are often advocates for us because of our developer-focused approach. As a result, our direct sales prospects are often familiar with our platform and may have already built applications using our technology. In order to assess the most likely commercial prospects, we employ a process-oriented and data-driven approach to sales. We also utilize advanced marketing technologies and processes to drive awareness and engagement and educate and convert prospects into customers. As customers expand their usage of our platform, our relationships with them often evolve to include technology and business leaders within their organizations and our goal is get organizations to standardize on our platform. Once our customers reach a certain spending level with us, we support them with customer success advocates to ensure their satisfaction and expand their usage of our platform.

Canvas LMS
INST$2$8111/13/15M&A18.07--776511,291------------------23.1% - Adam Marcus + OpenView Venture Partners | 22.0% - E. Nicholaus Efstratis + Epic Ventures | 12.4% Byron Deeter + Bessemer Venture PartnersWe make a substantial portion of the source code for Canvas available under the terms of an open source license, and accept contributions of modifications to that source code, each of which could negatively affect our ability to offer our learning management platform and applications and subject us to possible litigation.

To promote our open platform philosophy, we make available a substantial portion of the source code for Canvas available to the public on the “GitHub” platform for no charge, under the terms of the AGPL. An individual or entity with the appropriate technical and human resources may choose to use this open source version of Canvas to try to self-host the platform to avoid paying any fees to us. In addition, some individuals or entities may try to use the open source version of Canvas for commercial purposes and directly compete with us for customers. We are aware of a few entities that currently self-host the platform and are aware of some entities that are currently selling hosting and support services. If more customers decide to self-host or other entities use the base code to compete with us, we may experience lower revenue and our business may be harmed.

We accept modifications of the source code for Canvas from contributors who agree to the terms of our contributor agreement. Our contributor agreement provides for assignment of joint ownership in the copyright to the contribution, and a license to any patent rights of the contributor. Contributors must also represent that it is an original work and that the contribution does not violate any third-party intellectual property right. However, we cannot ensure that any of these contributions is free of all third-party rights and claims of intellectual property infringement or misappropriation. By incorporating any contribution into our code base, we may be subject to intellectual property infringement or misappropriation claims, which as discussed elsewhere, are costly to defend and could require costly re-writing of our code base or licensing of replacement third-party solutions. Third party alternatives may not be available to us on commercially reasonable terms. | We utilize a modern technology stack to take advantage of advancements in web-design, open source technologies, scalability, and security. | Our platform is built on underlying open source technologies, taking full advantage of advancements in scalability and flexibility. We utilize Linux and React operating systems, Postgres and Cassandra databases, and Redis value store. Our platform also provides an API that third-parties can use to add new features and functionality. | Openness. Instructure is built on openness—it’s part of who we are. Open doors. Open office. Open source. We have created an open work environment without offices to increase collaboration and transparency—and to reflect the open learning platform environment we provide to our customers. |
RHT$32$848/11/99M&A43.43--6814013,000------------------22.5% - Frank Batten Jr | 13.7% - Marc Ewing | 13.6% - Robert F. Young We are a leading developer and provider of open source software and services, including the Red Hat Linux operating system. Unlike proprietary software, open source software has publicly available source code and can be copied, modified and distributed with minimal restrictions. Our web site, REDHAT.COM, is a leading online source of information and news about open source software and one of the largest online communities of open source software users and developers. In addition to offering extensive content for the open source community, REDHAT.COM serves as an important forum for open source software development and offers software downloads and a shopping site. Our broad range of professional services includes technical support, training and education, custom development, consulting and hardware certification. We are committed to serving the interests and needs of open source software users and developers and to sharing all of our product developments with the open source community.

Red Hat Linux is our principal product. Since its introduction in 1994, we believe Red Hat Linux has emerged as the most popular Linux-based operating system in the world. Red Hat Linux represented approximately 56% of new license shipments of Linux-based server operating systems in 1998, according to International Data Corporation. Our web site had 265,000 unique visitors and approximately 2.5 million page views during March 1999. A unique visitor is an individual visitor to our REDHAT.COM web site. Page views are the total number of complete pages retrieved and viewed by visitors to REDHAT.COM. We generated approximately $10.8 million in revenue for the fiscal year ended February 28, 1999, primarily from the sale of Official Red Hat Linux. Our products are also generally available via free download from REDHAT.COM and other sites across the internet, but do not include technical support or printed user documentation in these instances. Companies with which we have strategic alliances or investment relationships include Compaq, Dell, IBM, Intel, Netscape, Novell, Oracle, SAP and Silicon Graphics. | Operating systems based on the Linux kernel are some of the better known open source products. Linux-based operating systems represented 17% of new license shipments of server operating systems in 1998, according to International Data. Despite strong initial market acceptance, these operating systems have been slow to penetrate large corporations at the enterprise level due in part to the lack of viable open source industry participants to offer technical support and other services on a long-term basis. | We seek to enhance our position as a leading provider of open source software and services by: continuing to enhance our web site to create the definitive online destination for the open source community, expanding our professional services capabilities to capture large corporate business on an enterprise basis, increasing market acceptance of open source software, particularly through technology alliances and sharing our development efforts and resources with third-party developers, continuing to invest in the development of open source technology and, enhancing the Red Hat brand through targeted advertising and public relations campaigns. | We may not be able to release major product upgrades of Red Hat Linux on a timely basis because the heart of Red Hat Linux, the Linux kernel, is maintained by third parties. Linus Torvalds, the original developer of the Linux kernel and a small group of independent engineers are primarily responsible for the development and evolution of the Linux kernel. If this group of developers fails to further develop the Linux kernel or if Mr. Torvalds or other prominent Linux developers, such as Alan Cox, David Miller or Stephen Tweedie, were to join one of our competitors or no longer work on the Linux kernel, we will have to either rely on another party to further develop the kernel or develop it ourselves. We cannot predict whether enhancements to the kernel would be available from reliable alternative sources. We could be forced to rely to a greater extent on our own development efforts, which would increase our development expenses and may delay our product release and upgrade schedules. In addition, any failure on the part of the kernel developers to further develop and enhance the kernel could stifle the development of additional Linux-based applications. | Anyone can download a free copy of Red Hat Linux from the internet. However, because this download can take up to 36 hours using a standard telephone connection, many of our users choose to buy the shrink-wrapped version of Official Red Hat Linux. If hardware and data transmission technology advances in the future to the point where increased bandwidth allows users to more quickly download our products from the internet, users may no longer choose to purchase Official Red Hat Linux. This could lead to a significant loss of product revenue. | Some members of the open source software community have criticized the expansion of our strategic focus in online chat rooms, electronic bulletin boards and articles posted on the web. These critics argue that our strategy could fragment the Linux community into a variety of competing factions, resulting in a less cohesive and cooperative development process. Others have suggested that by expanding our focus, we are trying to dominate the market for Linux-based operating systems and the open source community in the same way that some companies have been able to dominate the traditional software markets. This type of negative reaction, if widely shared by our customers, developers or the rest of the open source community, could harm our reputation, diminish the Red Hat brand and result in decreased revenue. | In the new and rapidly-evolving market for Linux-based operating systems, we face intense competition from a number of other suppliers of Linux-based operating systems. We also face competition to a lesser extent from developers of non-Linux-based open source operating systems such as BSD-based operating systems. BSD-based operating systems such as FreeBSD, NetBSD and OpenBSD are open source operating systems produced by communities of developers working together via the internet, and which are published and distributed by Walnut Creek CD-ROM, among others. We expect competition in broader open source operating systems and the Linux-based operating systems market to intensify |
LNUX$1$13212/9/99M&A30--4815330------------------25.1% - Douglas Leone - Sequoia Capital | 19.4% - Larry Augustin | 10.4% - Intel Corporation As an open source operating system, the source code for Linux is available
to the user. As a result, Linux is being rapidly customized for a wide range of
functions and applications. This customizability poses a challenge for
traditional business models that separate systems providers from software
expertise providers. We believe successful Linux vendors must combine in-depth
knowledge of Linux and other open source software with system design expertise
and close ties with the open source developer community in order to maximize the
benefits of Linux for customers. | Our strategy is to enhance our position as a leading developer and provider
of advanced Linux and other open source solutions by: continuing to demonstrate technical leadership in Linux and other open source technologies, utilizing our direct distribution model;, continuing to leverage the Internet and our Internet site, accelerating development of the open source market and community, continuing to apply open source practices within our business and products; and increasing our brand awareness. We are firmly committed to supporting the continued growth and success of the open source model and developer community. We believe that our integrated approach and our close ties to the open source developer community enable us to offer a superior solution to our customers. | Even if Linux is widely accepted, the Linux operating system is an open
source software product, which users are licensed to freely copy, use, modify
and distribute. Accordingly, anyone may download the Linux operating system and
numerous related software applications from the Internet, or otherwise copy,
without cost and run it on an existing Linux compatible product. Our success
depends on customers purchasing new systems which integrate and are optimized to
LINUX-BASED APPLICATIONS, OUR BUSINESS WILL BE HARMED. We may not be able to introduce new products or product enhancements on a
timely basis because our products run the Linux operating system. The heart of
the Linux operating system, or the Linux kernel, is maintained by third parties.
Linus Torvalds, the original developer of the Linux kernel, and a small group of
independent engineers are primarily responsible for the development and
evolution of the Linux kernel. Mr. Torvalds is not our employee. If Mr. Torvalds
and other third-party developers fail to further develop the Linux kernel or if
the development community does not continue to improve the functionality of the
operating system or introduce new open source software or software enhancements,
our ability to market our existing and future Linux products would suffer. In
this event, we may also be forced to rely to a greater extent on our own
development efforts or the development efforts of third-party consultants, which
would significantly increase our costs. Any failure on the part of the kernel
developers to further develop and enhance the kernel could stifle the
development of additional Linux-based applications for use with our products,
which would harm our product sales.
| We intend to encourage the development of
additional applications that operate on Linux-based operating systems by
attracting third-party developers to the Linux platform and by maintaining our
existing relationships with open source developers. If we are not successful in
achieving these goals, however, our products will not gain mainstream business
and consumer acceptance and we may not be able to maintain our product sales
growth. | | As an open source solution provider, our ability to offer customers
high-quality products and services is dependent to a large degree on our ability
to leverage the talents of open source community members. In order to foster and
expand existing ties with the open source community, we have established the web site to provide a neutral forum for Linux information and links to
other web sites frequented by members of the open source community. We have also
developed other special purpose web sites, such as In attracting
open source community members to our sites, we face competition from a number of
web sites that cater to the same community. Some of these sites, such as's web site,, have a larger following than and Since the quality of our brand promotion is tied to the
effectiveness and focus of and, our failure to increase
traffic on these sites could weaken our ties to the community and our efforts to
promote our brand and connect it to Linux and the open source movement. If our
web site strategy fails, our brand could be diluted, which would harm our
ability to market our products and services.
Cloud Foundry
PVLT$2$5554/20/18M&A15--59251824,000------------------Our platform leverages open-source technology, including Cloud Foundry and Spring, the most popular Java application development framework for the enterprise. Our leadership and integration of open-source projects allows us to innovate faster and gain enterprise acceptance. We also make PCF available for free download for evaluation purposes. In addition to promoting wide adoption, we have an enterprise sales force that often provides us with access to C-level executives because the decision to use PCF and Labs is often a strategic transformative one. We believe that our bottoms-up developer adoption and our top-down strategic access differentiates us from our competitors and helps us gain significant traction in the enterprise. | Maintain open cloud-native platform advantage. We have played a central role in founding and popularizing application infrastructure- and development-related open-source projects, including Cloud Foundry, Spring and RabbitMQ. We intend to continue to partner with technology leaders and third-party software vendors to continue to offer the latest technologies for our customers. For example, we recently collaborated with Google and VMware to create our Kubernetes-based PCF offering called PKS. We intend to maintain our open approach and grow the participation of our ecosystem. | PCF leverages Cloud Foundry open-source software and adds enterprise-grade qualifications and capabilities such as platform enhancements, infrastructure automation, application enablement, cloud-native enablement, security and enterprise support. | Pivotal supports open-source projects and communities for collaborative innovation such as: Cloud Foundry, Spring, Kubernetes, ODPi, Apache Geode, Apache HTTP Server, Apache MADlib, Apache Tomcat, Redis, RabbitMQ, Eclipse Foundation and various others. | In December 2014, we established the Cloud Foundry Foundation, an independent nonprofit, open-source project. The Cloud Foundry Foundation now has more than 65 members comprised of leading technology providers and global enterprises. The Cloud Foundry Foundation develops and maintains a number of programs and work groups designed to help advance awareness and adoption of the Cloud Foundry platform. Cloud Foundry is an open-source, cloud-agnostic application deployment platform. We believe that the Cloud Foundry Foundation helps promote Cloud Foundry as a leading PaaS open-source technology with an expansive ecosystem. The Cloud Foundry Foundation hosts Cloud Foundry Summits in North America and Europe every year. We are a major sponsor of the Cloud Foundry community and a leading contributor to the project. | Spring is the leading open-source framework for developers building modern Java applications and microservices. Millions of developers use Spring regularly. Spring simplifies complexities of application development so that developers can focus on building features and business value. Spring Boot, introduced in the fiscal year ended January 30, 2015, is an extension of Spring designed to simplify the bootstrapping and development of cloud-native applications and is particularly popular for building microservices. The Spring Boot framework applies an opinionated approach to configuration, eliminating the need to define or implement boilerplate configuration before starting to build an application. Spring Cloud, built on top of Spring Boot and Netflix Open Source, provides components that enable common patterns in microservices application architectures, such as distributed configuration management, service discovery, circuit breakers, intelligent routing and micro-proxy. Using Spring Cloud, developers can quickly build and deploy a complex application that is highly available, resilient to failure and easily configured. PCF includes Spring Cloud as an integrated component of PAS, making it simpler for developers to deliver microservice applications on the platform. Spring has a large and active community that provides continuous feedback and contributions based on diverse real-world use cases. We are the primary sponsor of the Spring Community and leading contributor to the project. | Competition - open-source based offerings supported by vendors such as RedHat; alternative Cloud Foundry-based offerings such as IBM Cloud and SAP Cloud Platform, which have proprietary features that are unique to their offerings; or potential customers' internally-developed, integrated and maintained efforts; and | In addition, one of the characteristics of open-source software is that, subject to specified restrictions, anyone may modify and redistribute the existing open-source software and use it to compete in the marketplace. Such competition can develop with a smaller degree of overhead and lead time than required by traditional proprietary software companies. New open source-based platform technologies and standards are consistently being developed and can gain popularity quickly. Improvements in open source could cause customers to replace software purchased from us with their internally-developed, integrated and maintained open-source software. It is possible for competitors with greater resources than ours to develop their own open-source software-based products and services, potentially reducing the demand for our solutions and putting price pressure on our offerings. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to compete successfully against current and future competitors, that competitive pressure or the availability of new open-source software will not result in price reductions, reduced operating margins or increased sales and marketing expenses or that we will increase our market share, any one of which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. | Enterprise-grade software platform integrating open source. We designed PCF to use open source while also meeting the exacting performance, availability, security and management requirements of large organizations. We engage with and often lead open-source communities to influence and integrate with the latest technologies while concurrently innovating using proprietary software to deliver an enterprise grade solution to our customers. The combined approach allows us to deliver more value to our customers, achieve meaningful software differentiation and make it more difficult for others to "free-ride" on open-source innovation. In addition, we enable developers to use many of the modern and popular developer tools that are available in the open-source community. For example, we integrate PCF with leading open-source projects such as Kubernetes, as well as popular Pivotal-led open-source projects such as Spring Boot framework and Spring Cloud tools.
MULE$8$2253/17/17M&A17--11118411,250188-$48,385$6,552$51,931$10,0985371.28%$2,90070.29%15425.5316.8% - Ravi Mhatre + Lightspeed Venture Partners | 15.5% - Ann Winbald + Hummer Winbald Venture Partners | 14.0% - New Enterprise AssociatesWe also intend to continue to cultivate the MuleSoft developer community and our partner ecosystem of systems integrators, or SIs, and independent software vendors, or ISVs. | Some aspects of our platform are built using open source software, and we intend to continue to use open source software in the future. From time to time, we contribute software source code to open source projects under open source licenses or release internal software projects under open source licenses, and anticipate doing so in the future. The terms of certain open source licenses to which we are subject have not been interpreted by U.S. or foreign courts, and there is a risk that open source software licenses could be construed in a manner that imposes unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to monetize our platform. Additionally, we may from time to time face claims from third parties claiming ownership of, or demanding release of, the open source software or derivative works that we developed using such software, which could include our proprietary source code, or otherwise seeking to enforce the terms of the applicable open source license. These claims could result in litigation and could require us to make our software source code freely available, purchase a costly license or cease offering the implicated services unless and until we can re-engineer them to avoid infringement. This re-engineering process could require significant additional research and development resources, and we may not be able to complete it successfully. In addition to risks related to license requirements, use of certain open source software can lead to greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide warranties or controls on the origin of software. Additionally, because any software source code we contribute to open source projects is publicly available, our ability to protect our intellectual property rights with respect to such software source code may be limited or lost entirely, and we may be unable to prevent our competitors or others from using such contributed software source code. Any of these risks could be difficult to eliminate or manage, and if not addressed, could have a negative effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. 2017
Talend CE
TLND$2$957/29/16Public25.541.5911115661,50082-$21,277$2,575$14,973-$3,729-4547.56%$54033.54%6585.3725.4% - Toro Acquisition | 20.1% - Idinvest Partners | 20.0% - Balderton Capital We offer Talend Data Fabric as a subscription license based primarily on the number of users of our platform. Individual developers often discover Talend through our open source offerings and introduce our solutions more broadly within their organizations. Many of these organizations choose to license our commercial products for enterprise deployment. After an initial deployment, organizations often purchase additional subscriptions or expand their usage to additional modules within Talend Data Fabric. The unified code base and modularity of our products allows organizations to enable additional functionality with just a license key, significantly reducing software deployment and training costs. | Open source model providing go-to-market leverage. Our free open source solution generates qualified leads for the licensing of our enterprise-grade subscription solution. Our open source products have been downloaded more than two million times. | Powerful network effects from our Talend Data Fabric Platform. With over one thousand pre-built connectors and components, the breadth of our platform continues to attract new developers to our community, who in turn develop new connectors and components that they contribute back to our open source community. Our pre-built connectors enable our customers to easily integrate data from various data sources and applications without expert knowledge about each data system and without hand coding a connector to access data. Easy integration with a broad range of systems is a critical decision factor for potential customers as it allows our solution to address a wide variety of data use cases. This creates a powerful network effect whereby we and our community keep each other at the forefront of innovation. | Grow our customer base. We plan to grow our customer base by continuing to expand our sales organization, develop our channel relationships, and convert open source users into paying customers. | Cultivate our open source community. We will continue to release open source versions of our product to increase our exposure among developers and enhance our community to develop additional components and connectors for our integration platform, some of which we will commercialize. | Because of the characteristics of open source software, there are few technological barriers to entry into the open source market by new competitors and it may be relatively easy for competitors, some of whom may have greater resources than we have, to enter our markets and compete with us. | We are dependent upon lead generation strategies, including our marketing strategy of offering free open source and trial versions of our products, to generate sales opportunities. These strategies may not be successful in continuing to generate sufficient sales opportunities necessary to increase our revenue. Many users never convert from the free open source or trial versions to the paid versions of our products. To the extent that users do not become, or we are unable to successfully attract, paying customers, we will not realize the intended benefits of these marketing strategies and our ability to grow our revenue will be adversely affected. | One of the characteristics of open source software is that anyone may obtain access to the source code for our open source products and then modify and redistribute the existing open source software and use it to compete in the marketplace. Such competition can develop without the degree of overhead and lead time required by traditional proprietary software companies. It is possible for competitors to develop their own software, including software based on Talend Open Studio, potentially reducing the demand for our solution and putting price pressure on our subscription offerings. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to compete successfully against current and future competitors or that competitive pressure or the availability of new open source software will not result in price reductions, reduced operating margins and loss of market share, any one of which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. | 2016
FIRE$3$863/2007M&A15--6917476,000------------------28.8% - Sierra Ventures | 18.1% - New Enterprise Association | 8.8% - Inflection Point The Intrusion Sensors utilize open source Snort® and our proprietary technology to monitor network traffic. | The traffic inspection engine used in our intrusion prevention products is the open source technology called Snort. Martin Roesch, our founder and Chief Technology Officer, created Snort in 1998. Our employees, including Mr. Roesch, have authored all major components of Snort, and we maintain control over the Snort project, including the principal Snort community forum, Snort, which has become a de facto industry standard, has been downloaded over 3 million times. We believe that a majority of the Fortune 100 companies and all of the 30 largest U.S. government agencies use Snort technology to monitor network traffic and that Snort is the most widely deployed intrusion prevention technology worldwide. The ubiquitous nature of the Snort user community represents a significant opportunity to sell our proprietary products to customers that require a complete enterprise solution. | The Snort user community, with over 100,000 registered users and over 3 million downloads to date, has enabled us to establish a market footprint unlike any other in the industry. We believe the Snort open source community provides us with significant benefits, including a broad threat awareness network, significant research and development leverage, and a large pool of security experts that are skilled in the use of our technology. We believe that Snort’s broad acceptance makes us one of the most trusted sources of intrusion prevention and related security solutions. | With over 3 million downloads of Snort and over 100,000 registered users, we believe Snort is the most ubiquitous network intrusion detection and prevention technology. We seek to monetize the Snort installed base by targeting enterprises that implement Snort but have not yet purchased any of the components of our Sourcefire 3D security solution. We will continue to target large enterprises and government agencies that require advanced security technology and high levels of network availability and performance in sectors including finance, technology, healthcare, manufacturing and defense. | We spend substantial amounts of time and money to research and develop new products and enhanced versions of Snort, the Defense Center and our Intrusion Sensors and RNA products to incorporate additional features, improved functionality or other enhancements in order to meet our customers’ rapidly evolving demands for network security in our highly competitive industry. When we develop a new product or an advanced version of an existing product, we typically expend significant money and effort upfront to market, promote and sell the new offering. Therefore, when we develop and introduce new or enhanced products, they must achieve high levels of market acceptance in order to justify the amount of our investment in developing and bringing the products to market. | While we created a majority of the current Snort code base, a portion of the current Snort code was created by the combined efforts of the Company and the open source software community and a portion was created solely by the open source community. We believe that the portions of the Snort code base created by anyone other than by us are required to be licensed by us pursuant to the GNU General Public License, or GPL, which is how we currently license Snort. There is a risk, however, that a third party could claim some ownership rights in Snort, and attempt to prevent us from commercially licensing Snort in the future (rather than pursuant to the GPL as it is currently licensed) and claim a right to licensing royalties. Any such claim, regardless of its merit or outcome, could be costly to defend, harm our reputation and customer relations and result in our having to pay substantial compensation to the party claiming ownership. | We are a leading provider of intelligence driven, open source network security solutions that enable our customers to protect their computer networks in an effective, efficient and highly-automated manner. We sell our security solutions to a diverse customer base that includes over 25 of the Fortune 100 companies and over half of the 30 largest U.S. government agencies. We also manage one of the security industry’s leading open source initiatives, Snort. | Furthermore, we may attempt to create new customer conversion and up-sell opportunities by releasing select future product developments and enhancements under an open source licensing scheme, similar to the up-sell opportunities for our current products created by releasing Snort under the GNU General Public License. | Our products are generally sold as dedicated hardware appliances that are pre-configured with our proprietary network security technology, along with open source software, including Snort | We communicate with our customers and the open source community when considering product improvements and enhancements, and we regularly release new versions of our products incorporating these improvements and enhancements. | This team operates from our corporate headquarters in Columbia, Maryland and relies upon interactions with the open source Snort community to learn of new vulnerabilities and exploits. The Vulnerability Research Team also coordinates and shares information with other security authorities such as The SANS Institute, CERT-CC (Computer Emergency Response Team), iDefense (Verisign), SecurityFocus (Bugtraq; Symantec) and Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (Mitre). Because of the knowledge and experience of our personnel comprising the Vulnerability Research Team, as well as its extensive coordination with the open source community, we believe that we have access to one of the largest and most sophisticated groups of IT security experts researching vulnerability and threats on a real-time basis. 2007
HEL: QTCOM$1$775/26/16Public3.754.582220934028.520.7% - Ingman Development Oy Ab | 14.6% - Ilmarinen Mutual Pension Insurance Company | 7.4% - Jyrki Hallikainen2016
Digital Ocean
26.56% - AI Droplet Holdings LLC | 17.53% - Andreessen Horowitz Fund III, L.P. | 16/57% - IA Venture Strategies Fund II, LP