Vitamin A deficiency and vitamin A fortification [2019]
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Country (data in this spreadsheet is nationally-representative, unless stated otherwise)Year of most recent VAD surveyVAD prevalence among children aged 6-59 months in most recent surveyVAD prevalence severity levelVitamin A biomarker used in surveyWere vitamin A biomarkers adjusted for inflammation in most recent survey?Vitamin A-fortified foodsYear fortification beganHousehold or market-level survey of fortified foods implemented?Results of survey of fortified foodsVAD prevalence among children aged 6 to 59 months, calculated using 2017 GBD data
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Burkina FasoN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AOil (mandatory)2012None foundN/A31%
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Cameroon200935%Severe
Retinol-binding protein
YesOil (mandatory)2011None foundN/A31%
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Cameroon - cities of Yaoundé and Douala only201227%Severe
Retinol-binding protein
YesOil (mandatory)2011Yes; 201244% of oil samples in surveyed households contained detectable levels of vitamin A-
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Côte d'Ivoire200724%Severe
Retinol-binding protein
YesOil (mandatory)2007
Yes; 2014 (city of Abidjan only)
98% of oil samples in surveyed markets were fortified with vitamin A30%
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Democratic Republic of the Congo1998-9961%SevereSerum retinolNoNoneN/AN/AN/A33%
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GuineaN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AOil (mandatory)2012None foundN/A28%
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Kenya20129%Mild
Retinol-binding protein
YesOil (mandatory); sugar (voluntary)2012None foundN/A36%
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MaliN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AOil (voluntary)UnclearNone foundN/A31%
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NigerN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AOil (mandatory); sugar (mandatory)UnclearNone foundN/A32%
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Nigeria200130%SevereSerum retinolNoOil (mandatory); wheat flour (mandatory)
Oil: 2002; wheat flour: unclear
Yes; 2015 (Kano and Lagos states only)
7.6% of oil samples in surveyed households were fortified in Kano state, and 7.2% of oil samples were fortified in Lagos state. 22.7% of wheat flour samples in surveyed households were fortified in Kano state, and 5.4% were fortified in Lagos state.25%
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