WAS Certification Prep
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WCAG 2.1
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PrinciplesGuidelinesSuccess CriteriaConformanceTechniques
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Perceivable:
Content & interface must be perceivable
1.1 Text alternatives1.1.1 Non-text contentAShort text alternative
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Long text alternative
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Alternatives for controls & inputs
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Alternatives for time-based media, exams, or specific sensory experiences
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CAPTCHA
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Decorations or items meant to be ignored by AT
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1.2 Time based media1.2.1 Audio-only & video-only
(pre-recorded)
A
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1.2.2 Captions
(pre-recorded)
A
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1.2.3 Audio description or media alternative
(pre-recorded)
A
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1.2.4 Captions
(live)
AA
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1.2.5 Audio description
(pre-recorded)
AA
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1.2.6 Sign Language
(pre-recorded)
AAA
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1.2.7 Extended audio description
(pre-recorded)
AAA
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1.2.8 Media alternatives
(pre-recorded)
AAA
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1.2.9 Audio-only
(live)
AAA
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1.3 Adaptable1.3.1 Info and relationshipsASemantic structure (markup)
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Text formatting
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1.3.2 Meaningful sequencesADOM order == visual order
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Logical reading order
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1.3.3 Sensory characteristicsACouple text with other operational cues
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1.3.4 OrientationAAAllow landscape and portrait
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1.3.5 Identify input purposesAAHTML5 input types
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1.3.6 Identify purposeAAALabels for icons
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1.4 Distinguishable1.4.1 Use of colorA
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1.4.2 Audio controlAVolume control; play/pause
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1.4.3 Contrast (minimum)AA
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1.4.4 Resize textAAClear at 200% zoom
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1.4.5 Images of textAA
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1.4.6 Contrast (enhanced)AAA
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1.4.7 Low or no background audioAAA
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1.4.8 Visual presentationAAA
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1.4.9 Images of text (no exception)AAA
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1.4.10 ReflowAA
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1.4.11 Non-text contrastAA
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1.4.12 Text spacingAA
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1.4.13 Content on hover or focusAATooltips are dismissable and persistent
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Operable:
User interface components and navigation must be operable.
2.1 Keyboard accessible2.1.1 KeyboardATab order
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keyboard event handlers
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2.1.2 No keyboard trapAUser shouldn't get trapped in a component
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2.1.3 Keyboard (no exception)AAA
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2.1.4 Character key shortcutsA
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2.2 Enough time2.2.1 Timing AdjustableAUser can extend time with a keystroke (spacebar)
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2.2.2 Pause, Stop, HideAUser can stop, pause, or hide scrolling content (carousels, feeds, etc)
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2.2.3 No timingAAA
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2.2.4 InterruptionsAAA
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2.2.5 Re-authenticatingAAASave user's data to be added during re-authentication
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2.2.6 TimeoutsAAAWarn user before timeout to avoid data loss
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2.3 Seizures and physical reaction2.3.1 Three flashes or below thresholdA
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2.3.2 Three flashesAAA
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2.3.3 Animation from interactionsAAAUser can disable any motion animation that happens after an interaction
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2.4 Navigable2.4.1 Bypass blocksASkip to main link
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2.4.2 Page titledAEach page needs a unique title
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2.4.3 Focus orderALogical tab order
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DOM order == visual order
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2.4.4 Link purpose (in context)AUse text within a hyperlink, and not an ambiguous URL
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2.4.5 Multiple waysAASearch
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Table of contents
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Site map
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Related resources links
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2.4.6 Headings and labelsAAHeadings are unique and descriptive
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2.4.7 Focus visibleAAVisible keyboard focus on links and inputs
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2.4.8 LocationAAABreadcrumbs
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Active tab on navigation bar
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Sitemap
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2.4.9 Link purpose (link only)AAALink purpose is clear when taken out of context (like a link list presented by a screen reader)
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2.4.10 Section headingsAAAHeadings for each section
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2.5 Input modalities2.5.1 Pointer gesturesA Offer simplified alternatives for complex pointer gestures
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2.5.2 Pointer cancellationA
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2.5.3 Label in nameA
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2.5.4 Motion actuationAAllow alternatives to motion gestures
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2.5.5 Target sizeAAAMake interactive controls big (> 44x44px
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2.5.6 Concurrent input mechanismsAAAAllow for keyboard use
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Understandable
Information and the operation of user interface must be understandable.
3.1 Readable3.1.1 Language of PageAUse lang attribute
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3.1.2 Language of PartsAAUse lang attribute
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3.1.3 Unusual WordsAAALink to definitions or glossary
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3.1.4 AbbreviationsAAAUse abbr element
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3.1.5 Reading LevelAAAProvide text summary or simplify all of text
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3.1.6 PronunciationAAAUse ruby markup
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3.2 Predictable3.2.1 On focusAAvoid using "focus" change to submit a form. Use a means to activate/submit.
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3.2.2 On inputAProvide a submit button for forms
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3.2.3 Consistent navigationAAKeep repetitive components in the same order
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3.2.4 Consistent identificationAAKeep labels, names, alt text consistent
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3.2.5 Change on requestAAAProvide control to request content updates, rather than forced to use autoupdates
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3.3 Input Assistance3.3.1 Error identificationAAfter error occurrs, identify the error (required, invalid, etc)
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3.3.2 Labels or instructionsAProvide labels with additional description
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3.3.3 Error suggestionAAUse more descriptive error messages to pinpoint what corrections need to happen
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3.3.4 Error prevention (legal, financial, data)AAAllow user to review and correct before final submission
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3.3.5 HelpAAAProvide text instructions or help link
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3.3.6 Error prevention (all)AAAAllow user to review and correct before final submission
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Robust
Content must be robust enough that it can be interpreted by by a wide variety of user agents, including assistive technologies.
4.1 Compatible4.1.1 ParsingAValid HTML
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4.1.2 Name, role, valueACustom widgets have name and role assigned
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4.1.3 Status messagesAAAT can receive status messages without focus
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