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AristotleBenedict Anderson - Imagined CommunityTH MarshallCharles TillyMichael MannJudith ShklarSasskia SasenOverview of Immigration History in the UShistoric Jewish Immigration Experiencehistoric Italian Immigration Experiencehistoric Chinese Immigration Experiencehistoric Mexican Immigration experienceWong Wing vs. US Bill of Rights
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Citizen should only be for people who are involved in politics and serve their communities. Aristotle doesn't consider residents to be citizens. The working class people do contribute to the state, but don't have time to engage in politics.Benedict Anderson considered Nations to be "Imaginary Communities" There's no possible way for such large populations to be connected since there are many barriers. Not everyone knows each other and there are different dialects. Marshall proposed to divide citizenship by three elements which are civil, political and social. Marshall focused on how citizenship helped the working class move closer to equality and exercise their buying power.Tilly agrees with more about rights being a result of revolution and class struggles.Citizen rights were formed from bargains between the state and subjects. The bargains usually consisted of goods and money for protection and rights. That historically in certain parts of Europe certain groups were denied polity membership.Mann share similar views to Marshall when it pertains to citizenship and capitalism. Mann wanted to deviate from Marshalls model because he felt it was it was nationalistic and evolutionary. Liberalism strengthen civil and political citizenship in the US and Britain. Countries use the divide and conquer tactic a lot which caused for there to be many different groups of subjects.Shklar's went through the many ideas of the requirements to be a citizen. She points out America has been known for rejecting the belief of having to prove their righteousness in order to be considered a citizen. She goes on to point out the contradictions in America granting "equality" but, then proceeding to deny equality based on race, gender, and economic status. Sassen points out that most models for citizenship require the subject or person to have a connection to the state.Globalism has contributed to post-nationalism through the means of internet. Denationalized Citizenship has increased due to globalization and is the evolved form of nationalism. Struggle with human rights has played a role in destabilizing the rulers and their power. Nationalism has dim down and now people embrace multicultural integration.Overall historically America only wants immigrants when they are needed to work. Certain ethnic groups have discriminated against their own kind if they don't live up to their expectations. The fear of immigrants has been propogated.The first wave of Jewish immigrants didn't like the second wave of immigrants. Russian Jews migrated to America due to a bad government in Russia. Certain Jews resorted to crime while other leaders unified some of them and helped them develop skills to progress positively.Italians were received well in the beginning, but when the second wave arrived there were rumors and lies spread about them being inferior. They had signs and stereotypes about them being illiterate so they started limiting how many could migrate. The Americans then started requiring that they learn english and are educated in order to enter America.Chinese immigrants were labeled as workaholics. Their drive and work ethics cause a fear with the first wave of immigrants to the point that unjust bills and laws were passed to slow down their progression. The Chinese Exclusion Act was placed to stop them from entering since their numbers in population grew quickly.Certain Mexicans after being defeated were labeled Americans. Stereotypes were spread about them.Wing Wong was sentenced and deprived of his life liberty and property without being given a fair trial. So he wasn't treated as a person and then denied his freedom which was unconstitutional. He won the case since his punishment was unjust.
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Only those who are involved in office should be citizens. When people bond over something, like nationalism, they feel a connection and form a group.Social rights were a natural evolution to prevent class conflict.We must bargain with the state for what we want.Marshall is right but there are five more strategies that can be used.Voting rights and work are the two things that separate us from the slave.Dual citizenship takes away loyalty.Immigration History in the US has been expansive because people can become citizens simply by being born in US soil.The first Jews that came were German and they did not get along with the second wave of Jews that came later on who were eastern european Jews.Italians came as single men, the wife and kids stayed in Italy, and they planned on going back to Italy once they had enough money.The Chinese were racially discriminated against by the Chinese Exclusion Act. They were only relevant when they were helping the US build railroads but once that was over they were targeted negatively by the government and other nonchinese americans.Mexicans were robbed of their identity after the Mexican American war because once places like California were taken by the US, they were suddenly Americans.This case left a legacy which now protects illegal aliens because of the part of the constitution that says that anyone under the jurisdiction of the republic is entitled to the same rights that legal Americans are entitled to.
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Aristotle believed that those who had a place in office should be the only citizens. During this time, only rich white men were involved in office, they were the elites.Benedict Anderson believed that a nation is built by a group of people who think they are part of that community simply because they identify themselves as part of that group.TH Marshall believed that citizenship is divided into three elements; civil, political, and social. These three elements embody the rights for individual freedom, the right to participate in politics, and the right to live the life of a "civilised being" according to societal standards.Charles Tilly believed that by bargaining with the state we would get what we wanted, like our rights. We have rights because of collective action.Michael Mann believed TH Marshall's ruling class strategy was correct but that there were five other strategies as well.Judith Shklar believed that working and voting is important to Americans because is separated the citizen from the slave. She addressed many debates that were happening in the 18th century regarding the right to vote based on social status, race, and sex.Saskia Sassen believed that since the 1980s, post national conceptions of citizenship were created after various forms of globalization and the emergence of multiple actors. She also thinks that the national state is responsible for creating the conditions that facilitate key aspects of post national and denationalized citizenship.After WW1, immigration to the US was very high so the US started using quotas to limit the amount of eastern and southern Europeans that were arriving to the country. These "new immigrants" were seen as nothing like the "old immigrants" because of many social biases so they were discriminated against. German Jews arrived in the 19th century and Eastern European Jews arrived in the 20th century. The German Jews were more educated than the Eastern European Jews and this made the "old immigrants" think differently about the "new immigrants." They did not like each other. Most of the Jews resided in lower Manhattan, NYC.Italians didn't arrive in groups like the Jewish. They came as single men who planned to go back to Italy once they earned enough money so they could go support their wives and kids who remained in their native country.The Chinese were by far the most discriminated against. They were only wanted by the US when they were helping us build the railroads. After the passing of the Chinese Exclusion Act, Chinese immigration to the US was declining very rapidly and the Chinese who were still in the US were being murdered, robbed, and deprived of their citizenship.After the Mexican American War, many Mexicans felt like they got their identity stolen from them. Since the US acquired many lands, like California, those who lived there were now "Americans." However, they weren't welcomed that easily to the American society.The Wong Wing case was about a couple of Chinese illegal immigrants who entered the US through the Canadian border but were caught. They were going to be deported to china after they completed hard labor without due process. This case was won by the Wong Wing men and has left a legacy. It is used now to protect the rights of illegal aliens.
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Aristotle said that man was a social animal, and that participation in the government made a person a citizen. He also viewed that the goal of life was for happiness and not money, but that educated men were the elite political leaders. The idea of nationality or nationalism is a creation of culture and the people. People within the nation believed that they were part of a community, but it was imaginary because in reality no one could actually know everyone in the country. There were three paradoxes, the first being that the concept of nationality is new but people continue to keep their views. The second paradox is that while nationality is a developed view, people still have a sense that they have always belonged to a group or place. The third paradox is that there have been no "great thinkers" of the topic because it has been an idea with no foundation. There are three parts of citizenship acquired through class struggle: civil, social and political aspects. The people are given basic civil rights in order for the government to maintain order and peace. They are taught to be viewed with equality, but remain separate within social classes as the way society is set in its standards based on race, wealth and more. Politically, the idea of universal citizenship was the extension of rights and opportunities, like women getting the right to vote. Like Michael Mann, he believed that people struggled on the national scale for their rights, in a struggle of bargaining after assisting in war and later placing obligations from the state to the citizens. He counters Marshall's ideas by focusing on the ruling class's dominance and adaptation to the demands of the people for the survival of the state. How the ruling class reacted to demands affected how social movements would survive when the people had to decide how far they were willing to go for what they wanted or needed. In order to be a full citizen, a person has to have the rights to vote and opportunity to work. Racism and sexism contradict the concept of American citizenship because they allow for people to be separated by barriers in society, like blacks being seen as less virtuous and therefore less likely to be seen as good people or citizens. Having the right to vote is an important privilege because it allows people to play a part in determining who gets to be part of the government to work on behalf of the people. Sasen questions whether the ideas of nationality and nationalism are still prevalent in current times given the amount of rights and issues around citizenship, and that people have gained rights outside of the normal territory of the state. People in the 21st century now have rights against unfair treatment by others included in things like the United Nations Charter and rules against how foreign nationals and diplomats are to be handled in other countries. There was discrimination from the very beginning due to language barriers and the fact that the people arriving weren't English, they were Italian, Irish, Jewish, German and more. There was a question of whether the new immigrants would assimilate into American culture, and the United States government made matters worse with a series of laws that promoted and restricted immigration. Older generations of whites and the immigrants who had already settled into the American way of life protested the continuing waves of immigrants and demanded the government to take action, which they did in order to prevent the states from trying to develop immigration laws and risk losing control of the people. The massive migration of Jews entering the United States fleeing from the conflicts of Europe overwhelmed the communities in New York City, pushing out of the congested areas Italians and Irish that had arrived earlier. The German-Jews feared the views and disliked being grouped together with Eastern European Jews, and created groups like the Educational Alliance to influence the eastern Jews on how to be more American. The Lower East side of Manhattan was overrun with Jews that it fostered criminal activity like mugging and prostitution despite efforts of the Jewish community to make programs to keep people educated and occupied. Unlike the Jews, the Italians were really the largest group arriving, but lacked the skills and literary to resembled more of the Irish who arrived before them, but mainly the men came alone at first in search of work opportunities. By the 1910's and 1920's several hundreds of thousands of Italians had immigrated to New York, this time including their families. They dealt with their share of discrimination and settled in areas close to their job opportunities. The Chinese were viewed as being unable to assimilate and attacked by the public and the government for being different. Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, with the follow-up legislation of the Geary Act to stop the incoming amount of Chinese, particularly laborers and even violated the citizenship rights of children born to immigrants. the Chinese needed documentation to show proof of their nationality and in some cities in the West Coast, they were literally dragged outside the city limits and forced out of their homes and businesses. Many incoming people were forced to wait at a place called Angel Island where they were interrogated and given either clearance to join society or deportation back to China, but not before having a sentence of hard labor for "illegally" entering the country. Using ideas from the "Manifest destiny", the United States sought to expand it territory to the west, eventually coming into war with Mexico, who at the time was struggling to keep control after its independence from Spain. Mexico lost the territories of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. The opinion of the court served to acknowledge that while Congress had the right to decide which groups of people were allowed into the country and whom to be removed for the well being of the country, it did not have the right to force hard labor before deportation of individuals, and that it did not have the right to remove constitutional rights from foreign nationals according to the 5th amendment in the Bill of rights. The Bill of Rights guarantee that individuals within the territory have rights to due process and to a trial before receiving punishment even with Congress's efforts to regulate immigration. The ruling applied to everyone, not just the Chinese who were being persecuted the most at the time.
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To Aristotle, citizens are those who are able to participate in the deliberate and judicial areas of the government. He believed a mechanic was not suitable to be a citizen, and that no man could practice virtue living the life of a laborer. He also believed a state was made from its citizens, and those who compose it. Lastly, Aristotle taught the role of a state was to achieve the supreme good for its citizens, and that their true well-being was of preeminence. To Anderson, the nation state was not destined. He compared nations to myths, or stories and claimed that a fictitious sense of loyalty or patriotism was what defined, and was rooted in "imagined communities." Anderson attributed print capitalism to the rise of a nation's state, he described a nation as interchangeable, and claimed that it wasn't set in stone.Marshal strongly recognized citizenship as the institutionalization of class conflict. He believed that citizenship rights were attained through struggle, and social progression. He spoke about how the evolution of social rights began with lowering the income gap, extending common culture, and enlarging citizenship gaps and rights, which created cultural diversity. Marshall promoted strong educational advancements as well. Tilly believed that rights were developed and advanced through centuries of bargaining with the state leaders to grant its citizens the inherent rights humans should've already been afforded. Tilly's emphasis was that rights were attained through collective action, which can be defined as a group of people who gathered together, collectively to enhance their social status and rights which were afforded to them.Michael Mann believed in 5 strategies that would institutionalize class conflict. Liberal, reformist, authoritarian monarchist, fascist, and authoritarian socialist. Man mentions the impact the elites had on social structure, and believed that strategy derived from strength and cohesion from the working class.Shklar believes that the 2 main components to becoming a citizens in the US is the right to earn, and the right to vote. In her writings, she defends the rights of voting particularly in the middle class. She mentions how the poor, blacks, and women fought for the privilege of voting and having a voice in the nation’s government.Sasen focused on denationalized citizenship. She, like Shklar, mentioned how excluded parties , inbcluding the poor, and women made claims against the nation state in order to promote social advancement of rights which were obligated to each of its citizens. An example of a denationalized citizenship in modern times is the EU.Immigration in the US is a highly sensitive and controversial subject, and began in the late 1700's. The 3 major periods in US immigration History was the 1780's-1880's, late 1800's-early 1900's, and mid 1900's to present times. The 1st wave included Irish, Italians, Dutch, Swiss, Germans, Polish, and Chinese. The 2nd wave, commonly referred to as the "New Migration," included Blacks, Italians, and Eastern European Jews. Lastly, through the past decade, we have seen people from all races, cultures and walks of life travel to settle in the US, and claim allegiance to America as their new homes. In the early 1920's, the US already had over 2,000,000 Jews transition to the US, and settling here with families. The Jews contributed significantly to society as businessmen, medical professionals, skilled laborers, and highly educated elites. Despite global persecution of the Jewish race, they have always been an educated people contributing to society in innumerable ways. In the early 1920's, the US consisted of roughly 4,000,000 Italians, many whom resided in NY. Unlike the Jews, the Italians were much less educated, and illiterate. Despite educational challenges, many Italians contributed to society as fisherman, stonemasons, and some owned small businesses. The Chinese initially flocked to California was were attracted to the US due to the gold rush. Eventually, they served in society opening businesses varying from restaurants, laundry services, and personal service concerns. Post gold rush, Chinese immigrants worked as farm laborers, and low paying industrial jobs. The US Mexican war played a significant role in early Mexican immigration experiences. The US Mexican war lasted from 1846 through 1848, and stripped many Mexican elites of their homes, land, prestige in society, and wealth which they had worked so long and hard for. The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo added over 525,000 square miles to the US expansion, giving the US Texas, and turning the citizenship status of Mexicans who resided in those lands as Americans. This lead to a tremendous loss suffered by the Mexican people, who would later adopt US views, and lead to over 600,000 Mexican immigrants by 1930. In the case of Wong Wing v. US, illegal immigrants were granted the right of a court hearing before serving in US prisons, and used for labor. On the premise of the Constitution, the 5th and 6th amendments stated ". . . it must be concluded that all persons within the territory of the United States are entitled to the protection guaranteed by those amendments, and that even aliens shall not be held to answer for a capital or other infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law."
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According to Aristotle, Citizenship belonged to the elites who participate in government. Aristotle considered those who part-take in the government real citizens excluding women, slaves and children. A state according to Aristotle is every citizen rules and helps make laws. He describes a state as "a body of citizens sufficing for the purposes of life." Benedict Anderson main focus is to define nationalism, how it came into historical being and how it changed over time. He argued that "imaginary communities" exist because it's a form of social constructionism. Sociologically constructed communities. Anderson also argues that nationality is a social-cultural construct and the rise of nation-state is linked to rise of capitalism.Marshall's main point is that citizenship is about institutionalization of class conflict. Marshall's divides citizenship in three different parts: civil (own land), political (vote), and social (right to work and education). Charles Tilly's main point was to examine political, and social change in the history of Europe. He speaks on "collective action" explaining the struggles of specific groups. Citizenship expanded because people started bargaining, they wanted rights to participate in the mandatory military services. Tilly also mentions that rights are usually enlarged through slow process of negotiation and socia movements. Mann had two keys to understand modern citizenship, the rise of the bourgeoisie and then, the development of the proletariat. He argues that ruling class are those who combine wealth, political ruling and military power. Judith Shklar's main point is that the two main components to be a full citizen in America are voting and earning. Voting signifies standing and without voting rights they were social slaves. Meanwhile, paid labor separated the free man from the slave man. Both unemployment and unavailability to vote threatened social standing and public respect. Sabia Sassen describes citizenship as the legal relationship between the individual and the polity. Sassed's main point is that citizenship grew in important with the rise of modern nation-states and diverse populations. Sasses mentions that voting occurs because the people are interest in the country's standing.Immigration has made America what it is and what it will become. Americans are so focused in studying the experiences of African Americans in the United States but, there are many other groups that experience discrimination and inequality. The first ice age caused the pacific ocean to lower and exposed a land bridge between Asia and North America an immigrations began. Immigrants were broken into "old immigrants" and "new immigrants", and this expanded discrimination against the newcomers. Between 1881 and 1914 two million jews left Europe for the United States. In 1910 Jews from Russia were the largest immigrant group. This Group arrived with skills and included a highly educated elite class. Italians arrived to the United States mostly between 1900-1914 in New York City. Italians were less educated than jews, they occupied low-skills work and affected the education of children. The Chinese immigrants are mainly peasant farmers who left China because of economic and political troubles in China. They were hard workers and maintained their culture. The Chinese were still considered inferior an most Americans believed they were too different to ever assimilate successful into American Culture. The Chinese were excluded from entering the United States in 1882 by the Chinese Exclusion Act.The Mexican-American War marked the first U.S. armed conflict fought on foreign soil. The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends war in 1948. Mexican lost land and many Mexicans woke up in American land overnight. Wong Wing versus United States was a Supreme Court case; Wong Wing got arrested along with his compatriots in Detroit on July 15, 1892. They were sentenced to sixty days at hard labor, followed by deportation to China. Wong Wing filed a habeas corpus petition to be brought before the court to determine if his imprisonment was lawful. The case got to the Supreme Court and invalidated a federal immigration statute and the first to hold that the bill of rights protects aliens against the federal government and to confirm the constitutional rights of illegal aliens.
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- Citizenship should be restricted to elites/those who can rule and obey.
- Women should be at home (Aristotle is no a progressive thinker).
- Nations are imagined constructs perceived by those who exist in them.
- Cultural roots of nationalism include religion and vernacular.
- According to historians, nationalism is a recent construct.
- According to nationalists, nationalism is an ancient ideology.
- There are three components of citizenship and the struggle towards it: civil (exercising freedom), political (participating in government), and social (making a living).
- Some freedoms are useless to people who have no knowledge on how to use them (free speech is useless to those without a voice).
- Capitalism is linked to citizenship because it allows one to make a living which constitutes the social component.
- Citizenship promotes equality, but capitalism skews this equality.
- Social progress requires stronger civil rights that endorse individuality in the capitalist economy.
- Rights are a result of bargaining between people and the government (ideology of "fight for us (the government) and we will give you citizenship rights").
- Rights are also a result of the uproar and struggle of the disenfranchised.
- Marshall did not consider class struggle beyond Great Britain; it was merely an evolutionary approach.
- There are five other approaches to institutionalizing class conflict (uses examples of multiple nations).
- Working class held a lot of power when united.
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- There are two elements to citizenship: voting and the opportunity to earn.
- Those without these two elements feel powerless and disenfranchised.
- Includes several theorists' definition of citizenship (citizen-soldiers, citizen-proprietors).
- Disenfranchised people include the poor, African Americans, and women.
- When considered a natural right, citizenship should be openly inclusive of these people (or have a good reason as to why it is not inclusive).
- Europe: Nationality involved a strong bond between an individual and his or her country.
- This bond weakened due to mass migration.
- Dual nationality is incompatible with nations with absolute rulers.
- Qualifications to citizenship replace allegiance to one's country because there was no need for allegiance without war.
- Dual nationality has become more accepted and will continue to be accepted.
- There are several eras with different border policies (peaked at the beginning of the 20th century).
- Immigration was a result of people searching for better lives and freedom.
- There was discrimination against non-English people.
- The government altered immigration requirements (including residency intervals).
- Newer wave of immigrants discriminated by the old waves.
- There are different branches of Jews, such as Eastern European Jews and German Jews.
- The wave of Jewish immigration peaked in the first few decades of the 20th century.
- They arrived to the US with strong educations and handy skills.
- Eastern European Jews were frowned upon by the German Jews.
- Italians clustered mostly in NYC.
- They arrived to the US with weak educations and skills as they were former peasants or laborers.
- Mostly included young men.
- They had a relatively high return rate (over 50%).
- They took up construction jobs, contributing to the shaping of the city as an architectural landmark.
- The Chinese were specifically targeted by the Chinese Exclusion Act and the Geary Act.
- They faced a lot of oppression and violence as a result of such acts.
- Their specific clusters, such as several Chinatowns, were targeted with violence as well.
- The peak of Mexican immigration followed the Mexican-American War.
- With America acquiring Mexican land, some Mexicans technically became Americans.
- Families were separated as a result of the war (artificial borders were established on whatever land changed hands).
- The case of Wong Wing v. United States arose when a few Chinese immigrants were arrested and subject to punishment without trial before deportation (as per the Geary Act).
- According to the 13th Amendment, one would have to have a trial before being subjected to hard labor as a punishment.
- The argument against this was immigrants are not protected by the Constitution because entering the country illegally already shows disregard for the law.
- The court ruled that Congress could control immigration but without violating any Amendments.
- They also ruled that immigrants did fall under the jurisdiction of the Constitution.
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He believe that citizenship should only be granted to the wealthy and well-educated like the people who hold a seat in public office show be the citizens and have the right to vote.He questions, how does a nation-state engender suck loyalty and devotion to its citizens. The notion of citizenship and nation came to exist due to a fallout of religious communities link by languages and believes and fallout of kingdoms that that focused on centralize communities and not borders. He said that a nation is imagined because one cannot know all its members, so a community larger than a village can not be real. Also, that nationalism goes deep into the soul of citizens holding an immense power, but in reality it lacks philosophical coherence, so nations relay on symbolism like patriotic monuments to justify nationalism.TH Marshall argues that citizenship consists in the development if 3 elements what work as parallels with each other. First is the Civil element which gives people that human necessity of freedom. The Political element that constitutes the right for individuals to participate in political process and become members and lastly the Social element, which covers a whole rage of rights from economic welfare and security, to the right to live a descent live. He also believes that citizenship requires a direct sense of community membership based on loyalty for a civilization.Argue that social rights came to exist not as a result of natural evolution, but they were granted to individuals by people taking organizing and taking collective action to obtain their rights.He mostly agreed with Marshal and that it was important to understand him and improve upon his theory of citizenship.She discusses the implementation of voting rights and the right to get paid for work as essential components for what constitutes been a full citizen in America. Shklar exposes many of the philosopher's points of view in the era, like Aristotle elites view of citizenship and Hobbes View that citizens were protected by justice and defense as long as they were under the power of another's command. There were always barriers to be a full citizen, barriers ruled by sexism and racism. Americans felt that voting was a central right because that way their standing may also be recognize and their interest defended. In addition, woman argue that if inferior men in both education and in wealth eared the right to vote, woman should also share that right.She breaks down the institution of citizenship as multiple dimensions, only some of which some might be intimately link to the national state. She believe in global citizenship and that citizenship was basically the legal relation between individuals and their country's policies. Also, that globalization and international institution suck as EU ,World Bank and International Human Rights now have influence over foreign nations so that people can go directly to them to get representation in a international fora, rather than going to their nation-state.According to scientists it all began after the last great ice age, when sea level lowered enough for Asians to cross to North America trough the Pacific Ocean. 116 centuries later explores from Spain, Portugal, France ,England,among others embark on journeys that lead them to the '' New World''. These nations began colonizing this lands in most cases by force, imposing the culture on the native Indians. By the end of the 18th century most European colonies had been defeated in North America it became clear that the English influence would prevail. Jews were offered refuge and economic opportunities since the nation's origin, they always migrated in groups to the USA, they became skilled works and a wide range of industries. Also the felt they were different that the second big wave of immigrants.like most new wave of immigrants they were considered different, but Italians men actually assimilated very well in New York, they were strict on keeping their agreements, always paid their rent, and other bills. Moreover they became business owners and musicians.what it stood out for me was the inhumane treatment that Chinese immigrant had to experience in the beginning of the 1900's. Chinese immigrants were only wanted to help build railroads and refine mines after that they were not wanted. Later legislators introduced that Chinese Exclusion Act that would bar new Chinese from entering to the USA. Their treatment towards Chinese was so horrible that their communities were vandalized and even created the Angel Island, where Americans torture,bribe , interrogated, and incarcerated incoming Chinese immigrants. What i understood was that America has been taking advantage of Mexico since conquering their Northerner territory, taking advantage from a already battled Mexico in their quest for a independence of Spain. It talks about the decision that came of the Geary Act, a bill proposed by Thomas J Geary a congress man that was not satisfied with the Chinese Exclusion laws and insisted on discouraging future arrivals by imprisoning Chinese deportees for a period of 5 years of hard labor. The senate stated that a simply deportation of Chinese men was not punishment enough and that this penalty will discourage future immigrants from returning to America.
The Wong Wing case involved 4 men sentenced to 60 days of hard labor followed by deportation. Attorneys of this case argue that the Geary Act was in direct violation of the 5th Amendment, as a result the congress issued an unanimous decision in favor of Wong Wing. For the first time in history, the court expressly invalidated a federal statute for violating its history and for violation of the constitutional rights of an alien.
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Aristotle focuses on what are the mechanics to becoming a citizen. He states that in order to be a citizen one should be participating in the government and their society. The aim of citizens is to regulate human society, and make up the state.
In Anderson's reading we see how nationalism was a way to replace religions and changed the way people view the country. Such as creating more pride to our country because of capitalism.Marshall compares capitalism to citizenship though they can contradict themselves and speaks about the freedom, and political rights that are guaranteed to citizens when exercise of political power and social rights.
Charles Tilly is focused on what rights are given to citizens and where do the rights come from. He mainly focuses on why certain rights such as voting and the benefits that are given for being citizens in addition to moving freely from frontiers and states.
Michael Man introduced his readers to five political organizations such as liberal, reformist, authoritarian monarchist, fascist, and authoritarian socialist. In addition that social power depends on power.
Judith Shklar talks about very important stuff such as the idea that citizens should be voting and working at all time. The idea of racism is one of the very interesting things she speaks about, the fact that certain rights are excluded from certain people create racism against the people who aren’t given those right.
Though many of these authors’ focus on why there is such segregation and why some people receive citizenship and not Sassen is focused on what happened after and the actions taken away from people from certain races.
The first wave of immigration began in the early 1900's where it consisted of Irish, Germans, German Jews, English, Wales, & Scots, French and a smaller group of Italians, Swiss, Dutch, Bohemia, Scandinavians, Greeks, Polish, Chinese. Many immigrants came to the United States looking for a better life, and escaping their very harsh conditions back home and some were forced to become Americans when brought into the country like African Americans and Mexicans who's land became part of the US.

Jews were escaping the conditions in Germany, and they were one of the largest groups of immigrants part of the first wave. Many had many skills and they also had high levels of education. Italian immigrants arrived to this country between 1900-1914 looking for a better life. However, many of them had little to no education and had many little skills that they can apply. Chinese Immigration has been one of the most complicated. There was a rise of Chinese immigrants in the late 1800's when many were leaving their Communist country. In 1882 the Chinese Exclusion Act was passed preventing them to enter the country.The Mexican American War in 1846 - 1848 were pretty much the reason why immigration of Mexican began. When the United States took land from Mexico many Mexicans remained in the land. These people were taken their home away which became the places like Arizona, Texas and California and they remained here later becoming Americans. Wong Wing was a Chinese immigrant who were not allowed in the country because of the Chinese Exclusion Act. This pretty much showed that congress was allowed to exclude certain groups of people from getting into the United States.
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Aristotle believed that a citizen was someone who served in government. He preferred the wealthy who had a lot of free time to rule/participate in government. This excluded poor people, slaves, women and even children from being citizens and having those rights
Anderson states that nationalism took the place of religion during the enlightenment period when people were turning away from religion. Nationalism created loyalty and pride to one's country or state. People became united through language. This was aided by the print market which spread written text further than ever before.

Marshall states that capitalism is linked to citizenship. However citizenship is about equality while capitalism promoted inequality. Citizenship fails to create any social, political or economical change. However it was successful at being a contract that united people regardless of social class.
Tilly states that citizenship is based on military service. People were able to negotiate with ruling governments by promising to serve in the military in exchange for citizenship. Rights exist when one party is able to guarantee, enforce and protect the rights of another party. There is a shift from direct to indirect rule. Before the creation of national armies, the state depended on magnates to deliver resources and keep autonomy. Through the expansion of their armed forces, they had to take on the cost, risks, and efforts. Mann States citizenship was the answer to dealing with class struggle. He gives five ways that different have dealt with this, through liberal reform, authoritarian monarchy, fascism, and authoritarian socialism. The United States took a liberal approach. landowners, merchants, small farmers, and Artisans "fought" and earned their right to vote which leads them fifty years later into the labor movement. The British were a mix of reformist case and liberal. Through their reformist system they did not actively attempt to include the lower class but in terms of social citizenship surpassed the United States in including the lower class. France, Spain and Italy used a monarchist system the lower class was denied political citizenship which left the, rejecting and embracing the state.Judith Shklar’s states the various ideas of citizenship. Aristotle believed in an elitist citizenship, Machiavelli the citizen soldier, Bodin and Hobbes people are protected by a government in exchange for obedience, Rosseau, citizens legislate but do not rule and Locke beliefs, similar to Rousseau were that people should have self ownership. White male suffrage movement claimed that women were too weak to vote and black people are conditioned to their natural state of slavery. They fought for their rights by excluding women and African Americans. Sassen states that the growth of international rights regime and the growth of internet and technology has strengthened the notion of community of membership. Citizenship surpasses the lines of just the national state. National citizenship determines who the state will recognize as a citizen and guarantee certain rights to. Undocumented immigrants through national loyalty and civic involvement shows ties to their community. They move through the channels or level of citizenship. At first the United states had an open door policy for immigration because as a new country the needed immigrant workers. A change in immigration policy happened after the treaty of Paris. They limited the amount of years needed to live in the country before attaining citizenship and started to record the information immigrants coming off boats. They targeted the Irish, Jews, Asians and later on Hispanics. They set up quota caps to limit the amount of people coming from certain areas in order to increase the amount of "favorable immigrants coming into the country. From 1881 to 1914 over 2 million Jews came to the United States. 1.4 to New York alone and resided in the lower east side. German Jews believed the Eastern European Jews were having difficulty assimilating due to their mannerisms and culture. They created the educational alliance for citizenship. Jews created mutual aids to help with burial and other needs of the Jewish community. Jews leaned towards socialism in politics to represent their needs and ideas.They came in out in huge forces for the labor strikes and were supported by unions. Many Italians came to the country illiterate, poor, with little skills. 250,000 Italians made up little Italy, the biggest Italian colony. The Pedronis profited off of the already poor Italian immigrants by charging them for access to jobs and terrible housing. Many of the houses were over crowded and unhealthy. They took the houses unwanted by the Germans. Initially the Italians worked for low pay without benefits but in time joined the Jews in the labor strikes. Also like the Jews they created mutual aids for their community and leaned towards socialism. Miller introduces a bill to bar the Chinese for twenty years from coming to the United States. They were believed to unemotional, unfit and inferior to whites. It was vetoed but a compromise bill came later which barred the Chinese for ten years excluding students, merchants and teachers. Violence broke out across the country. Chinatown was destroyed. Chinese men and women were killed and even the soldiers brought by the government took money from them. The Scott act increased the exclusion for twenty more years and when that expired they were excluded indefinitely by a new law. This changed and the laws were lightened when China boycotted all American goods and cancelled contracts with American companies. The United states lost 40 million dollars and President Roosevelt commanded that ill treatment of the Chinese with proof of residency be ceased. Between 1846 and 1848 the United States went to war with Mexico in order to gain control over the southern west between Texas and California. The US won and divided families living in those areas, left mestizos nation less by both sides, and erased their history. They also took away their language deeming it illegitimate, and their traditional catholic religion. We need to recognize what happened in the past or else there will be a continuation of war. the 1892 Geary act excluded Chinese migration to the US. Section 4 of the act required hard labor. Section violated 4th,6th and 13th amendment because it denied the right to a trial and forced servitude was illegal until proven guilty. The supreme decided that the state has a right to say who can or cannot stay but cannot force hard labor without a trial.
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Aristotle suggest that the right for citizenship is for someone who participates in judicial or government office. Also he said that the knowledge and wisdom in politics are important to become a good citizen. Benedict Anderson reflects the spread the nationalism and how the loyalty increase for the nation through the myths of be a good citizen. The print-languages connects ideas and knowledges with communities and it is nominated as rise of nation, like rise of capitalism. Anderson explains that to achieve a great a social connection, the community has to know well their neighbor. TH Marshall focus on 3 element: civil rights, political rights, and social rights. He focus in increasing citizen's rights to protect and to develop education and knowledge into the nation, but doing that he creates inequality and social classes, dividing the nation into different groups. Charles Tilly focus on where do rights come from? and he explains that the rights came from the collection of actions of the community how they fought for their rights, protection and privileges through negotiation an d social movements. Also he describes the inequality between bourgeois and middle class. Michael suggest 5 political models to deal with social problems. He also explains that the laws and the improvements of a nations depends of the power of the community. If the nation starts change or create new nation could have side effects. Judith Shklar explains why is very important the right to vote and earn is very important into the nation. She gives examples of black people, army people, women and immigrants are excluded to be a citizen, but to excludes that group from their right we should to explain as "we" and indicates the reasons. The rights to vote and earn into americans were very important because they are not part of slavery and the discriminated group. Having those rights they feel more independent and part of the community. Sassakia Sasen explains how the new immigration affects the nationalism of one nation and they are excluded to have the same rights as citizens. Having new immigrants causes problem between society, but through strikes and movements they got their rights and laws as human be. Also the transnational creates new culture ideas and new identification in the country US started to get new immigrants from Europe west around 1789.
Those new immigrants escape from their nation for social, political, economic or religion reasons.
Each immigrant incorporated into the same native neighborhood. These incorporation helped to form organizations to help the community in education, assimilation and work.
As all immigrants, they were excluded from the same rights as citizen.
These groups were the first to came to US and they were very skilled and high level of education. The assimilation for them was hard because they were well know as criminals and prostitutes. The religion was not to important to them, if not, the education for their children. These group were less educated and skilled and for that reason they got poor jobs. These group came from poverty communities that causes that they lived in crowed and bad conditions. They did not have any interest to be part of union or create organization because they thought to return to their nations. The religion was a problem between Irish and Italians. The role of the women were to stay in home doing housework. The Chinese Exclusion Act was a law, which prohibit to Chinese immigrants to enter into US and if they live in US, they can't work because they are stealing the jobs from americans. It also prohibits to get a citizenship. Mexico lost part of its territory by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Their experience was that at night in the morning, they were part of another nation. It was difficult for them because they already grew up with different culture and to adapt for another was hard for them.
Wong Wing was a court case, which the punishment was hard labor for those who violating immigration laws. That punishment violates the 5th and 6th amendments, because the Bill of Rights protects aliens against the federal government.
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Aristotle believed that in order to be a citizen one had to be politically involved, was for the elitists.Anderson criticized nationalism because individuals would have bonds that were superficial with eachother. He belived in the idea of an imagined community, it is not real.Marshall felt the ruling class should be prioritized. He felt social rights were the natural evolution to keep class conflict at bay.Tilly disagreed with Marshall. He felt social rights were not a natural evolution, but rights were gained and fought for through social action and demanding social rights. He felt you had to bargain with the state for rights. He believed in collective action.Mann agreed with Marshall, but felt there was more to it than Marshall explained.Shklar felt voting rights and the right to earn a wage were the basis for citizenship. Shklar felt that earning a wage and not simply working was what separated a slave and s citizen. Voting rights allowed people to protect their own property and their own interest.Sassen spoke on the rise of global citizenship, the idea that due to modern times an individual can claim more than one country. Sassen spoke on the idea that people felt having duel citizenship took away loyalties from one country.There was a quota of how many immigrants were allowed in the US. The quota was taken from a fraction of how many current immigrants there were.First German Jews immigrated and then less educated Eastern European Jews immigrated. There was a lot of conflict between the two groups of Jewish immigrants. Italians immigrated with the notion of coming over to earn money. They had the idea that they would send the money home and go back to Italy. Most Italian immigrants were single, young men. No woman immigrated by themselves.The Chinese faced a lot of discrimination. Chinese businesses were stolen and the Chinese community was vandalized. Americans felt that Chinese immigrants would never be able to fully assimilate, that it was not possible because the two cultures were so different. When American took the land that use to belong to Mexico, the borders changed not the actual residents. Many Mexicans consequently became American immigrants. They felt like strangers in their own land.It was illegal to inprison someone and force them to hard labor without due processing.
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Aristotle believed that the right to citizenship should only be giving to elites who owned property and had direct participation in government. He thought that only if you owned property you had reason to protect the land. He also thought that the laborers were not going to have the time to educate themselves about the issues that revolved around government so it was purposeless for them to participate. He suggested that instead the elites should maintain the power and that they would be responsible enough to provide security for the rest of the people. Benedict Anderson's theory is that the terms Nation and Nationality are imagined. He says that people create imagined state lines in order to identify their communities. After identifying a community they see themselves as belonging and being part of that community which they call Nationality. He suggested that the reason we do this is because as humans we have a need to identify themselves.He says that we previously used religion as a means to identify ourselves but that now we use nationality. According to Anderson if you have met everyone in your "community" or not is irrelevant because there is a general understanding that we all share the similar values and ideals. For this reason, at times of hardship and despair communities come together to defend their countries. Marshall discusses citizenship and the ideals on which they were built. According to Marshall the rights to citizenship have three main components which are civil, political and social. According to Marshall these ideals were suppose to promote equality but instead it created inequality. He says that the assumption that all people have equal right to pursuit their own well being and basically do as one please left some at a disadvantage. Not all started as being equal or with the same level of wealth, so not all could reach the same success. The reality is that social movements gave civic rights to people little by little but the system also protected inequality. if one man is believed to have the same liberties and opportunities as another then there is no reason for him not to achieve what we now days call "success". He also discuss the divide and rule tactic of using classes one against the other. When some gain rights they tended to suppress the rest and so they were played one against each other by the ruling class. Tilly's argument is that the expansion of citizenship rights can be understood by looking at European States. He says that European states instead of hiring mercenaries to fight wars for them started to use people from their own populations. This meant that those people had something to bargain with. They could ask for rights for the exchange of serving in the military. He said that mercenaries were a problem after warfare because they would become bandits and pirates. To avoid this problem it was better to hire from your own population. However he makes it clear that although the people who served in the military had gained rights they still had no control over government. They were only guaranteed the protection of having citizenship rights.Michael Mann argues that the social movements and class conflict are heavily influenced by the ruling class. He describes the ruling class as those who combine wealth, political influence and military power. He says that the ruling class has the power to either include or exclude others from gaining citizenship rights. He also argued that ultimately the groups that have gained rights have done so because they have negotiated with the ruling class when the ruling class needs support from the rest of the people either because they need workers or people to fight in wars. Shklar's argument is essentially about what citizenship right really means. She says that in America, citizenship is merely an illusion for most of the population. She says that most people having the right to vote and the right to work means they have equal rights. To Shklar this is not true. There is no political equality in America. She says that the working class does not have the necessary political involvement that could influence politics. She compares American society to the society Aristotle described except that people have the freedom to choose where they want to work and they get pay for it. However she says it is still a society of a ruling class. The notion of citizenship makes man feel protected, they abide by the laws but had hardly any influence in making those laws. Shklar's believes that in order to influence politics a citizenship needs constant education on the subject and that is nearly impossible for the working class. Voting then does not create a society of equality but of misrepresentation. She argues that in order to achieve real citizenship a man/woman should be a free worker, should be independent and be able to be more politically active. She says that self employment creates social independence, only then can we all achieve full citizenship. Sasen's article talks about an idea that we are moving into post nationalism. she says that because we are becoming more and more multicultural and some have dual citizenship the idea of nationalism is slowly loosing its value. She says that the internet and technology as a whole allow us to maintain connections across the world and we can identify with others who share similar interest across nations. She also argues that the development of technology allows us to participate in governments outside the boundaries of the nation-state where we reside. We are developing into a transnational civil society according to Sasen and it is all due to globalization and multicultural ties to others outside the nation-state lines.Due to the high volume of immigration patterns during the 19th century, many “old” immigrants found it easy to blame the “new” immigrants of bringing hostility, crime and disease to the US. The fear of these new “immigrants” was the origin of Immigration laws. The laws were meant to regulate who was allowed to enter and who was rejected from entering the United States. These new immigration laws excluded particular groups of people, especially from China. It gave preference to others from Western and Northern Europe. They were thought to be better able to assimilate and actually were considered an asset to society. Not all Americans agreed with these views; some saw these new held beliefs as a threat to what America was all about. America, some argued, would be violating the traditional political doctrine that “all men are created equal.” Restricting the immigration of certain ethnic groups into the US on the bases that they would be criminals was hypocritical of America, this land was made by immigrants. Others who opposed this new anti-foreigners sentiment noticed that the immigration laws highly preferred people from northern and western Europe. Indeed, some of the immigrant regulations included rules like being able to read and write English which was not possible for all people around the world, especially those from non-English speaking countries.Jewish came to America and to get through they often listed themselves as skilled workers and most of them were literate. Jews from Eastern Europe often found themselves dealing with anti sentiments from German-Jews. The typical argument was that they would bring disgrace to the land.They developed organizations, hospitals and communities that embraced all Eastern Jews regardless of their differences.They helped one another create better communities for themselves. Young Jewish immigrants did not rely on religion as much as their elders and instead had an increase desire for learning. Even though they most of them liked school they hardly ever made it past the eighth grade because they had to start working early on. The main language and culture that was advanced in NY Jewish neighborhoods was Yiddish. Jews often traveled as family and many of the woman came with the men and the children. Italians arriving to America were mostly men who came with the idea that they would gain enough money and then go back home. They often located near water where they gained employment. Religious differences caused Italians to locate in different areas of NY. Some located in Brooklyn, The Bronx and Lowered east side. Many Italians lived in cramped spaces and had poor living conditions. Sicilian Italians were accused of bringing crime to the city and of having many young delinquents and also Mafia connections. Italian family income were some of the lowest. The men usually worked as construction workers and were often laid off during off season. The woman generally stood at home to care for the home and family and rarely participated in the workforce. Second generations started to unify and became more political active and were able to advance their culture by working together and creating strong community ties.Even though Chinese had contributed to the development of society and were hard workers they were also victims of anti-Chinese sentiments. they were often targeted and accused of being inhumane. They were accused of being an inferior race and a 20 year ban was presented to dis-encourage Chinese immigration during the 19th century. Politicians were often arguing against or for the Chinese immigrants but either way they were affected by the anti-sentiments. They fell pray to the Chinese Exclusion Act and other laws that affected their communities and immigration patterns. The restrictive laws only allowed the well educated to enter the US and the numbers kept getting smaller and smaller. They were persecuted by Whites and many them had to leave their homes and belongings behind. Many Chinese were degraded and dehumanized when they arrived in America. Even those with legitimize rights were often deported because they were unable to produce certificates as prove after authorities confiscated them.some had to rely on corrupted officials to be able to stay or be admitted to the country. There is no doubt that the Chinese community was negatively impacted as a result of all the injustices they had to deal with.Mexicans are still today subject to the anti-sentiments of Mexican Immigration. Their struggles are more relevant as a result of the Mexican War. Because US won the war and took territory that previously belonged to Mexico they are still today the subject of many injustices and burden. The result of the War caused many families to be divided. Some families were on the side of Mexico and others on the side of the US which was there new government.The split of families and the sudden change of language caused Mexican to be forced to give up their culture but this has not been an easy process. Even today they are suffering the consequences o the war and also are the target of social injustices. It is similar to what the Chinese had to go through during the 19th century. unfortunately for Mexicans it is still an ongoing issue of anti-Mexican sentiments even though they are very hard workers and usually work for very low wages.The Wong Wing case was similar to the Fong Yue Ting case. For Wong Wing he was sentenced to being deported after serving a definitive period of hard labor. In the Fong Yue Ting case it was ruled that any foreigners even if they are here illegally are equally protected and subject to the law of the land. If they are arrested for illegal immigration the US has the right to hold them and impose imprisonment subject to hard labor for up to 1 yea before deportation. Specifically for Chinese men. At the time the argument was that the US should gain some value for the cost of sending illegal immigrants back to their countries if they were caught. This law only applied to Chinese men and seemed to be discriminatory towards Chinese men. This form of punishment is still relevant today.
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According to Aristotle, anyone who take part in the the government excluding woman and slave is a citizen. Benedict Anderson imagined communities theory, say that we will bond with people we do not know bases on our languages, history and culture. Marshall main point was that for you to be a citizen, you need to have the three major parts civil, political and social. He mention that one would not work without the other. Charles Tilly talked about how people obtained the citizenship. He says that people started to negotiated with the authority about how they supported the country and in return they should get the citizenship. Michael Man mentions that the rule you take as civil, political, and government is decided by the government.Judith Shklar believed that for you to be consider a citizen you need to vote and ear. She mentios a connection between globalization, government and citizen. She says if the government change the citizen will also changed. She also mentions Nationalism as were we born and citizenship as your internal relationship between you and the government. It talks about the changes that U.S immigration system have had since 1970. They just came to earn some money and go back to there country.They just came to earn some money and go back to there country.The government claimed that the chinese were delinquents, and they were bringing prostitution to the country. So they have to be deported. The U.S and Mexico when in a war were U.S won and took over Mexico territory and want the Citizen of these land to identify themselves as U.S citizen. He was forced to hard labor without the right to present his case in the court, so his case was pended to supreme court for review and he was not deported.
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- A citizen is anyone that serves the government.
- If parents are citizens, their children are automatically becomes a citizen
- "Everyone has a purpose, the world is rational and ordered."
- "Life is about happiness"
- Nationalism took place of religion
- Imaginary community: socially constructed community and imagined by the people that who perceive themselves as part of the group (engender loyalty).
- Historians believed nationality always existed, but it was socially constructed.
- Civil, political, and social
- Capitalism was linked to citizenship
- Citizenship is about institutionalization of class conflict
- Citizenship is about equality while competitive capitalism is about inequality
- Citizenship rights was based on military service
- Civil: rights for individual freedom (18th century)
- Political: individual participating in political power (19th century)
- Social: right to measure economic welfare and security (20th century)
- Rights came from collective action.
- Rights were established and went about through protests, movements, negotiation etc.
- Rights were about bargaining between people and the government.
- Uproar of disenfranchised.
-Believed ruling class strategies wasn't the only way of institutionalizing class problems.
- Marshall didn't confide class struggle beyond Great Britain/Revolutionary approach.
- 5 starting places: Liberal: U.S. & Britain, Reformist: France, Spain, Italy, Scandinavia (difficult times between groups and cooperation), Authoritarian Monarchist: Germany, Russia, Japan, Austria (Divide and rule), Fascist: Nazi Germany & Soviet Union Repressive, Authoritarian Socialist: Nazi Germany & Soviet Union.
- Two elements of citizenship: voting and labor
- Disenfranchised: poor African Americans and women
- Citizenship should be inclusive; natural rights
- Rise of nation-state
- People to the state
-Citizenship describes the legal relationship between the individual and polity
- Sharing aspects with the post national citizenship transforms the nation-state directly and indirectly which alters the aspects of the institution of citizenship
- Citizenship describes the number of discrete but related aspects in the relation between the individual and the polity
- Social contract that binds undocumented immigrants to their communities of residence
- Immigrants whose duties make them accepted in the community but aren't recognized such as housewives and women
- Diversity of national origins
- Establishment of tendency towards ethnic pluralism in the U.S.
- Refrain in the U.S. towards foreigners to prevent immigrants from coming in
- Revolution led to Americans having open arms towards immigrants because labor was needed, people were needed to strengthen the country and avoid being under foreign power
- Congress passed acts regulating naturalization
- New immigrants were too foreign than the old ones and Americans dislikes them because of new language, physiques, coloring, and culture
- Americanization program enrolled immigrants for them to assimilate
- Jews left Europe for U.S. for refuge and economic opportunities
- Came for economic, political and spiritual conditions
- Jewish were literate unlike Italians but came for better life
- Poverty, low paid unskilled laborer jobs, inadequate housing and prejudice were share by both groups
- Jewish valued education
- New bridges and subways opened up in Brooklyn to mass Jewish migration
- Italian men had the intention to come to America to make money and return to their homeland to purchase land
- "Little Italy" in lower Manhattan was populated by Italians
- Decline of immigration due to the outbreak of WW1 and restriction acts passed
- Italian women migrated to NYC by themselves as sisters, daughters or wives. If they were to be married and raise children and not participate in society as paid workers
- Italians were known for being Catholics and the Irish despised their religion
- Discriminated against the Chinese
- Chinese workers build the transcontinental railroad, developed industry and agriculture
- Bill passed to Chinese laborers out and permit selected groups of Chinese that are teachers, students, merchants, and household servants to come in the U.S.
- Barring of majority of how Chinese immigrants coming to the United States, the anti- Chinese campaign expelled the remaining Chinese from the U.S.
- "Driving Out" terror period became a period of violence and genocide of the Chinese communities
- U.S. had to pay back the Chinese for destroying their property when Chinese diplomats demanded proper action from the U.S. government
- Congress amended the act to make only Chinese laborers that lived in the U.S. to travel freely and reenter. But then Congress broke their promise by passing the "Scott Act": cancelling Chinese's reentry
- War led to U.S. discovering gold, gaining wealth and expanding
- Fought for Mexican's resources like for their soil but was intentionally fighting for territory
- U.S. won the war against Mexico
- Since U.S. won, U.S. gave Mexico the option to go back to Mexico or officially become a U.S. citizen
- If within a year they didn't declare their citizenship, they would be U.S. citizen automatically
- Mexicans that became U.S. citizens weren't given all rights as a U.S. citizen should
- If they wanted to own land, their rights would be taken away
- Treated unfairly for being 2nd class citizens
- Act prohibit the coming of Chinese people in the U.S.
- Wing Wong was charged under the Act and was sentenced 60 days at hard labor followed by deportation back to China
- Wong sought a court order to be seen by a judge but was denied
- Wong appealed to the Supreme Court
- Violates the 5th and 6th amendment
- Wong had no jury nor judge so his trial wasn't fair
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In Aristotle reading the main points the author was explaining he believes everything has a purpose in the world with rational and order. Citizenship is a master class, any citizenship belong to the elites who participate in the government. A citizen is anyone who served the government or you have to be a landowner.In Anderson reading the author was addressing imaginary community is socially constructed community and imaginary by the people who perceive themselves as part of the group. historians believed nationality always existed but it was socially constructed. Anderson theory of imagined communities is a central concept. A nation that is imagine political community is both limited and sovereign. Anderson believes cultural roots of nationalism can have so much power to inspire millions of people cultural roots of nationalism are based on languages, religions and races. According to Marshall reading citizenship is about institutionalization of class conflict. Marshall divide citizenship into three parts dimension civil which gives us the right for individual freedom such as valid contract. Political individual participating in political power and social right to measure economic welfare and security. Citizenship is about equality while competitive capitalism is about inequality. Capitalism was linked to citizenship.In Tilly article he talks about where do rights come from, Tilly believes rights are about bargaining between the people and government for their rights. Rights are usually enlarged through slow process of negotiation, social movements and negotiation. Citizenship was expanded because they started bargaining especially mandatory military service. Tilly also expresses about collective action the struggle by specific groups.In Mann reading he believes Marshall was right but there was more strategies. Mann believing ruling class strategies wasn't the only way of institutionalizing class problems. The five ruling class strategies were Liberal incorporation of proletariat and poor into system, Reformist the struggle between groups but also cooperation, Authoritarian Monarchist was divide and ruled, Fascist was repressive and Authoritarian Socialist were with Nazi Germany and Soviet Union. The political rights participate in the exercise of political power such as proletariat and bourgeoisie. In Shklar article the author states voting and opportunity to work able to earn were two main components to be a full citizenship. Americans felt voting was very important because voting signified standing, they wanted a voice in process. The people felt without voting right they felt they were slaves. As for the women they felt if poor and the blacks could vote they should be allowed to do the same. Also Shklar address the opportunity to work and make your own money was important because paid labor separated the free man from the slave. As well as unemployment threatens social standing and public respect. To become a citizen the qualification was to be a property owner, having to serve the military or being born or have contest.In Sassen reading the author argues about post-nationalism is beyond the nation state. Sassen main focus towards post-nationalism were human rights and denationalized. Sassen believes our society became more at diverse and they were going thru a break between nationality and citizednship. If the world history had build a better strength with the human state and citizens. Nation-state increase population on posing strength to the citizen. If citizen was to have more power it would be reaching to where they won't need nation-state, it wouldn't matter so much if they can make it right outside of the nation-state.During the 1789's through 1880's there was different racial groups of immigrants coming to America. The German's, German Jew's, French, English Irish, Wales and Scots were the largest groups compare to Bohemia, Scandinavians, Greeks, Polish, Italians and Chinese which was the smallest groups. During the 1880's through 1924's began the new migration for the rise of commercial agriculture for major groups as for the blacks, Italians and Eastern European Jews. During the 19th century so many immigrants came to the United States so rapidly it began to jeopardize the peace and tranquility of our citizens. It was easy to blame the immigrants began to arrival toward the end of the Revolutionary war, for each immigrant had to pass certain exams to become a citizen. During Immigration Act of 1924 they were able to establish the Consular Control System of immigration which divided each immigrant the responsibility between the immigration and naturalization Service and the State Department. Which mandated no alien is allow entering in the United States without a valid immigration Visa issued by an american Consular officer abroad.In the article about the Jewish immigration experience the author argues about how the Jews came to the United States in groups. As for the Jews they arrived with many skills including highly educated elites class. As the years went on the population for the Jews just kept growing.In the article about the Italian immigration experience the author argues about the Italian came to the United States to make some type of living earning and return back home. Only the Italians men were allowed to come to the united States while their wife and kids remained back at home. The Italians were much less educated then the Jews but were about the same average as the Irish. Since the Italians weren't that well educated it effect their job performance as well as it effect their children education if they did come to the United StatesThe article begins to discuss about the Chinese was only wanted for labor work such as railroads, but then they were not wanted because they wouldn't assimilate. There a point in time where thousands of Chinese people were being killed. Also the United States was the first state to deny a certain ethnicity from entering in the United States. This policy only applied to Chinese immigrants and not to the other unlawful immigrants. Any Chinese person accused of being unlawfully in the United States could be taken before a federal judge or commissioner.The conflict between the United States and the United Mexican States. The war was about land, labor and wealth. As well as language, race, cultural and religion. With the war it affected the Mexican identity for those Mexican origin or descent living those realities means constantly affirming their history. Their culture and language individually as a family as a collective and as a people. The violence wasn't just about the military or armed violence. The violence was removing people from their land. the violence was just trying to silence their language.Wong Wing and three others were sentenced under the Chinese Exclusion Act. Chinese Exclusion Act was the first law applied to prevent a specific ethnic group from immigrating to the United States. The law purpose to suspend Chinese immigration from entering the united States. Any Chinese person accused of being unlawfully in the US could be taken before a federal judge or commissioner. The consequence produces a maximum term of one year of hard labor before deportation. This policy only applied to Chinese immigrants and not to other unlawful immigrants. Wong Wing, Lee Poy, Lee Yan Tong, and Chan Wah Dong was arrested in Detroit on July `15,1892; only two months after the passage of the Geary Act. They were poor men and they had enter the US from Canada. Frank Canfield and Harrison Paul took an appeal to the Supreme Court. Wong Wing was free on bail and his deportation to China was postponed. The deportation provision of the Geary Act violated the 4th, 5th, 6th, and 8th Amendments. This case was the first Supreme Court decision invaliding a federal immigration statue. The first Supreme Court holding that the Bill of Rights protects aliens against the federal government and the first Supreme Court confirmation of the Constitutional rights of illegal aliens.
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Assumes that everything has a purpose, the world is rational and ordered.Everybody in a nation states are connected by language, culture and borders.There are three types of rights: Civil, Political and Social. Civil Rights comprised those protecting individual freedom. Political Rights those guaranteeing participation in the exercise of political power and Social rights those providing access to materials and cultural satisfactions.
Your answer

To protect demanding the right. Right to have you own property, The civil right to collect action. Enforcement claim from the states to the citizen. Three different right given a complete by Marshall, depend on regimen types citizenship and social class To obtain the right complete citizenship, people need to be able to vote because they want some one fight for their interest and earn work for living.Nationalism vs Citizenship. Globalization is warning the connection between people and the Nation States.Changes in immigration laws.Many arrived with skills, they are from educated elite class, and US think they can stay and work.Much less educated than Jews, they occupied low skilled work but the government want they stay and work.They didn't want the Chinese people here because they think the Chinese people taking their jobs. America belonged to white people and white people only.United States go over the Mexican territories to force Citizenship in to MexicansAliens have Constitutional rights and protections. The Bill of rights protect the immigrants.
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A major point in Aristotle's article is that in order to be consider a citizen, an individual must be politically involve. People who participate in the government are consider citizens. For example, if you are a mechanic and only have time for your job, then you will not be consider a citizen.
He believes that a nation is a community socially constructed, members within the same community cannot all know each other. He thinks It’s impossible to have only one nation in the world, so that the idea of only one nation is something strange. Anderson say that most members of one single nation will not know each other, but they are brought together by the image of their communion
One of Th Marshall principle point is that citizenship is procure through battles and social movement. As indicated by Marshall improvement of rights in Britain were obtained by means of citizenship, from social liberties in the eighteenth century, political in the nineteenth and social in the twentieth century. He additionally contended for correspondence of status instead of work market.Charles Tilly was influence by Barrington Moore’s Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy that claims that democracy lead to more rights. Tilly claims that rights are obtain through collective actions. Struggles by specific groups of subjects to enter the nation (blacks, women, immigrants, etc.) to help other groups enter the nation, or to exclude others from the nation. Charles Tilly believes that rights come from bargaining and negotiation.
Mann criticizes Marshall's theory of citizenship for being Anglocentric and evolutionist. He believes that TH Marshall perception of a citizen was too narrow. Man argues that Marshall’s description of ruling class strategies is NOT the only way of institutionalizing class conflict. According to Mann there at least five viable strategies for the institutionalization of class conflict. Theres is liberal, reformist, authoritarian monarchist, Fascist and authoritarian socialist.
The main components to be a citizen is the right to earn and the right to vote.
Shaklar felt that voting was very important to early Americans because it gave people a voice in the American democratic process. voting represented ones particular view on a political issue.
According to Sasskia Sasen the states recognizes those with Rights and responsibilities to be citizens. They are unapproved immigrants that cooperate in common society and makes them default individuals. They additionally have certain rights. Authorize, yet unrecognized immigrant are moms and housewives - bunches not normally perceived in conventional political talk of "citizenship"
One of the real times of relocation was From 1789-1780. Amid this time the came the bigger gatherings, for example, Irish, Germans, German Jews, English, Ridges, and Scots, French. The littler included Italians, Swiss, Dutch, Bohemia, Scandinavians, Greeks, Clean, Chinese. Migration diminish amid the 1880-1924. Amid this time Europe was commanded Eastern European Jews, Italians.

The Migration Demonstration of 1924 made changeless the confinements on movement into the Unified States. The demonstration set up the "consular control framework" of migration, which partitioned obligation regarding movement between the State Division and the Movement and Naturalization Benefit. It ordered that no outsider ought to be permitted to enter the Unified States without a legitimate migration visa issued by an American consular officer abroad.

Numerous Jews were extremely gifted and very taught upon landing to New York city. The main flood of foreigner separated the second rush of settlers because of the absence of training and class.Most Italian relocated to New York city between 1900-1914. Italian were less taught than Jews, many were ignorant like many Irish. They possessed low-gifted work which influenced the instruction of their kids. Chinese workers touched base on U.S. shores between the beginning of the California dash for unheard of wealth in 1849 and 1882, until the U.S. Congress ordered government law in 1882 intended to keep Chinese foreigners from entering or staying in the U.S., The Chinese exclusion act of 1882.This law confined movement into the Assembled Conditions of an ethnic working gathering. The prohibition demonstration gave a 10-year ban on Chinese work movement. It was hard for the Chinese to absorb to the new land. Most Chinese migrant were discriminated, they were contrasted with occupant of another planet. The Chinese Rejection Act was trailed by authority U.S. government approach that rejected or restricted by portion movement by Japanese, Filipinos, and the entire scope of people groups from Asian countries.The US Mexican War occurred between 1846 - 1848. The Settlement of Guadalupe Hidalgo closes war in 1848 Mexico surrenders Alta CA, what is currently Santa Clause Fe, and New Mexico, and acknowledges loss of Texas All of a sudden, numerous Mexicans overnight found they were Americans.The Wong wing versus US bill of right was an Incomparable Court case base on unjustifiably sentence migrants to hard work and quick expulsion. The choice made was illegal on the grounds that it disregarded the fifth and sixth amendment, not giving the Chinese outsiders a possibility for trial.
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Aristotle believed elites should have the rights to citizenship. Aristotle conception of a citizen excludes the mechanic class from citizenship and laborer because no man can practice virtue.Benedict Anderson definition of an imagined community, that is a community, the members of which are aware of each other's existence but, even for a lifetime do not meet or come to know a substantial number of the rest of the members of the community. He bases the rise of the nation on the emergence of printing press. TH Marshall analysised the development of citizenship, as a development of civil, political, and social. Marshall argues the social rights were limited by class. It wasn't until the emergence of public education, and use of a secret ballot to we begin to see the emergence of more equal social rights.Charles Tilly wrote a lot about social movement. According to Tilly, social movements seek to launch to a challenge against the people in our society who hold power by bringing attention to the claim by holding rallies or protests. Michael Man believed citizenship is primarily determined by the actions of the ruling class, who are a combination of the dominant economic class and the political and military rulers. Judith Shklar two component on citizenship, the the right to vote and the right to earn. She brings in the voices of those who were not allowed to vote. Believed in global citizenship and the idea of the dual citizenship. People did not like the idea dual citizenship because people the dual citizen will be loyal to their country. She also studied increasing general transnationals and globalization.After World War One lots immigrant wanted to come to America. America used quota allocations data on specific countries of intended destination of the emigrants.First wave of Jewish immigrants were the German Jewish and second wave were the eastern Jewish. German jewish were educated compared to eastern Jewish. They did not get alone because German Jewish had more class compared to poor and uneducated eastern Jews.Italians didn't come with family. They migrant as single male who wanted to work and sent money back home. Eventually these males plan to go back to Italy.Chinese faced a lot discrimination. Chinese exclusion act act stopped chinese from migranting to the USA. Chinese were only wanted for labor and they were not wanted because they felt the Chinese would not assimilate. After Mexican American war. Mexicans lost there identity. Because now the were part of America.Wong wing case protected the rights of the illegal immigrants. It brought special attention 5th and 6th amendments. It forbid imprisonment at hard labor without a jury trial for non citizen.
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Aristotle argued that only people who actively participated in government should receive citizenship and those who worked 'everyday' jobs were essential in a nation but should not be citizens and that to be a citizen a person did not need to be a 'good' person. Anderson argues that a community or the idea of a nation is imagined by the people as to feel connected or be part of something. We use communities as a form of identification. One of his arguments is that we the people fight for a nation or for people who we do not know.Marshall believed that citizenship is broken up into three parts. 1. Social, which is the right to work, education 2. Civil, which is the right to own land 3. Political, which is the right to vote. His argument was that social classes create class conflict and that it(social classes) was a system of inequality which favored the elite. Tilly argued that rights were received only after bargaining for them. Rights were basically enforced claims. An example of this would be that a person would fight in a war for the nation in return for rights. He also argued that suffrage movements were based on civil rights movements and that they fought for a similar cause. One cause helped the next. Mann responds to Marshall's writing and critics it by saying that there isn't only one way of institutionalizing class conflict but rather that there has been already other ways put in place. He does this by reflecting on the history of the world. The five strategies are liberal, reformist, authoritarian monarchist, fascist, and authoritarian socialist. Mann says that all of these have been used in order to ‘fix’ the already existent class struggle. One of his main arguments on why class conflict still exists is because the ruling class has always had power on the lower classes. He goes on further to explain that control is all about power and those who have power implement rules to continue having power over the proletariats and the poor.Shklar criticized Aristotle amongst other philosophers about their idea on citizenship. Her argument was that both work and voting played major roles in citizenship. This was important because it allowed for work to have value and making people have a voice in government. This allows more groups of people to have a voice. Sassen's main point is about rebuilding the nation state, into a place where more groups of people will feel included. Sassen argued that nationalism was loosing it's value because of the different groups of people coming into the country mainly because they feel connected to their own country. The nation has been a nation who has been restrictive and expansive. Restrictive when they see the outsiders as a threat and expansive when the political feel around the world favors certain immigrants.Jews were discriminated against because they had different beliefs than americans. Italians were perceived ass people who never accommodate to american lifestyle and were people with little class and education. Made communities in little italy downtown because it was closer to where they were let off the boat coming of of ellis island.Chinese were not allowed into the country and before even coming in they were placed into concentration like camps for further inspection. The chinese exclusion act did not allow chinese into the country.The mexican and us war caused mexico to lose almost half of their land. Which led to a lot of mexican to become citizens of the us from one day to another. This was important because it made known that the imprisonment in doing hard labor without a fair trial was illegal. The 5th and 6th amendmendments were violated in this case
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Aristotle main points are that citizenship is only for the elite. everyone wasn't considered equal, because the only ones that had the time to actually think about and come up with concepts of citizenship was the wealthy and elite. Anderson brings up the argument of what is imagined communities and how does it come about in the eighteenth century. Anderson goes to define “imagined” as members of even the smallest nation will never know most of their fellow-members, meaning that they may live amongst one another but never know each on a personal level, yet in their minds they each have the image of their communion. Anderson goes on to state that these that these members that, even though may never know each other on a personal level they will consider each other a community and a comradeship feeling amongst one another. They imagine this feeling to the point that they would essentially die and kill for this imagined community. Marshall concept has to do with citizenship and its effect on the social class. Marshall also talks about the social responsibility the state has to its citizens. Tilly argues on where rights come from. Tilly states that big groups people actually had to fight and struggle for their rights. Mann was one of many that criticized Marshall and his theories of citizenship. Man argues there are many theories of citizenship and its social classes.Shlar argues the rights of voting as key component of citizenship and the fight for inclusion in american citizenship.Sasen talks about denationalized citizenship which redefines traditional notions of citizenship.immigration to the US was mainly because certain groups either got exlied, they were looking for work, or was due to war and was forced to leave their countries.there were three waves of Jews to immigrate the Sephardic Jews, the Germans, and the eastern European jewsItalian immigration was primarily for a better life to go to the us to make money and to come back home that is why their was more men then women in this immigration.the Chinese experience was more of a challenging because for some reason the us felt the Chinese was better at everything due to their work ethic which brought a that to their jobs........
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