PoS Staking and Token Economics Comparison
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CategoryPropertiesHarmonyCosmosPolkadotEOSTezosEthereum 2.0
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ValidatorCommittee Size400 * 4 shards125 (up to 300)100 (up to 1000)21130111
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Committee SelectionThe top 1600 most staked validatorsTop 125 most staked validatorsTop 100 most staked validatorsTop 21 most voted block producersRandomly selected based on stake
Need at least 8k XTZ (1 roll)
Randomly selected
Need at least 32 ETH
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Voting powerWeighted by effective stakeWeighted by stakeEqual for all validatorsEqual for allWeighted by stakeequal for all
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Block proposerTakes turnsChance of being block proposer is based on stakesTake turnsTake turnsChance of being block proposer is based on stakesRandomly selected with equal chance
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Hot/Cold key separationYesYesYes (with additional control key to further separate cold key's functionality)YesYesYes
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RewardBlock rewards (validators)Proportional to validators' effective stakeProportional to validators' stakesEqual for all validatorsEqual for all validators
(0.25% inflation to BP - Fixed block rewards for all;
0.75% to standby BP distributed based on percentage of votes.
4% for development fund)
Proportional to validators' stakesEqual for all validators
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Block rewards (delegators)After commission fees, distribute the rest in proportion to delegated stakesAfter commission fees, distribute the rest in proportion to delegated stakesAfter commission fees, distribute the rest in proportion to delegated stakesN/AAfter commission fees, distribute the rest in proportion to delegated stakesN/A
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Reward CalculatorN/AlinklinklinklinkN/A
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Payout scheduleevery block (~5s)every block (~6s)Recorded every 5s, Payout every 1 hourevery block (~500ms)delegation become active after 7 cycles;
reward locked after another 5 cycles (15 days)
N/A
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Transaction FeeNormal Gas feeBlock proposer gets:
1% more if 2/3 signatures included;
5% more if 100% signatures included;
(2% of txn fee goes to reserve pool of cosmos)
N/ANo Explicit FeeNormal Gas Fee + storage feeN/A
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SlashingDouble Signing PenaltyMinimum 2% slash;
33% if 1/3 validators double sign;
66% if 2/3 validators double sign;
Half burn + half goes to reporter
5% penalty; all stakes are automatically unbonded and can't be rebond for 21 days; validator jailed foreverN/ANo SlashingSecurity deposit of 512 XTZ (per block) for baking and 64 XTZ for endorsement will be slashed;
half goes to reporter + half burned
Minimum 1ETH slashed;
Goes up linearly as the number of validators slashed at the same time
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Unavailability ConditionMissed all blocks for last 3 hours; 95% missed blocks in last 10k blocks (16hours)Offline for "offline_slash_grace + unstake_theshold" times (e.g. 4 + 10 = 14)didn't produce blocks for the last 24 hoursMissed all blocks for 5 cycles (15 days)offline for 18 days
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Unavailability Penalty1/4 voting power is leaked.
When all voting power got leaked. The validator becomes inactive and takes 0.1% slash on stake.
0.01% penalty; validator jailed for 10 minsSlashing on the stakeBP removed from consensusBecome passive (jailed) for 1 cycleif block is finalizing: the amount of block reward will be slashed;
if block is not finalizing: Upto 60.8% stake will be slashed in 18 days
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Validator Stake CentralizationNoSusceptibleNo (Equal power for all)SusceptibleSusceptibleNo (Equal power for all)
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StakingBond/UnbondEvery epochAnytimeEvery era (1 hour)AnytimeAnytimeAnytime
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Dynamic Staking AdjustmentYesNo (have to withdraw and re-delegateYesN/AYesN/A
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Stake Locking/Withdraw Delay7 day21 days12 weeksVote/staked tokens are locked for 3 daysSecurity deposit locked for 5 cycles (15 days)18 hours minimum or depending on the withdraw queue
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Token EconomicsAnnual Inflation Rate5-10% (to be finalized)7%-20% (~7% at current)2.5%-10% (10% at target)5% (fixed)5.51% (fixed)~1% (TBD)
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Annual Staking Return(to be finalized)~10% (current)2.5%-50% (20% at target)1.84%7% (now)~0.8-8.2%
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Target Staking Rate (at highest inflation)66%66%50%N/AN/AN/A
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