Social Movement Outcomes Database
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CitationType of OutcomeSpecific OutcomeMechanism/Factors Leading to Outcome/Conditions under which mobilization leads to outcomeTime PeriodLocationDataSource
Abramowitz, Stephen I, and Alberta J. Nassi. 1981. "Keeping the Faith: Psychosocial Correlates of Activism Persistence into Middle Adulthood." Journal of Youth and Adolescence 10(6): 507-523.biographicalenduring political radicals; more self expressive, sensitive and nonconformist; stronger family legacy of social concernactivist participation, family background1964-1979US- California (Berkeley)30 former students at the University of California, Berkeley who were arrested during the 1964 Free Speech Movement sit-inproject-generated
Almeida P, Stearns LB. 1998. Political opportunities and local grassroots environmental movements: the case of Minamata. Soc. Probl. 45:37–60politicallaw passed, favorable court verdict, compensation for victims, public apology, creation of new programNontraditional and institutionally disruptive tactics in time of expanded political opportunities1955-1974Japandata from newspapers on movement activity, data on financial support given to movement project-generated
Almeida, Paul D. 2006. “Social Movement Unionism, Social Movement Partyism, and Policy Outcomes.” Pp. 57-73 in H. Johnston and P. Almeida, eds, Latin American Social Movements: Globalization, Democratization, and Transnational Networks. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
PoliticalEconomic Policy/PrivatizationMovement Alliances with Oppositional Political Parties1990-2003El SalvadorArchival/Case Studyuser-submitted
Almeida, Paul D. 2008. “The Sequencing of Success: Organizing Templates and Neoliberal Policy Outcomes.” Mobilization 13(2): 165-187.
PoliticalPrivatization, Austeritylearning from the past, multi-sectoral alliances1990-2003Latin AmericaNewspaper Data, Interviewsuser-submitted
Amenta E, Caren N, Olasky SJ. 2005. Age for leisure? Political mediation and the impact of the pension movement on US old-age policy. American. Sociological. Review. 70:516–38.politicalbenefits increaseelectoral pressure1934-1950US-Nationalstate level data on political opportunities and movement activity over time
Amenta E. 2006. When Movements Matter: The Townsend Plan and the Rise of Social Security. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.politicalbenefits increaseelectoral pressure1934-1950US-Nationaldata on political opportunities and movement activity over time
Amenta, Edwin, Bruce G. Carruthers, and Yvonne Zylan. 1992. "A Hero for the Aged? The Townsend Plan, the Political Mediation Model, and U.S. Old-Age Policy, 1934–1950." American Journal of Sociology 98(2): 308–339. politicalelection of favorable candidatesSocial movement endorsement + strong membership + favorable political conditions1934-1950US-Nationalstate level data on political opportunities and movement activity over time
Andrews CJ. 1998. Public policy and the geography of U.S. environmentalism. Social. Science. Quarterly. 79:55–73.politicalfavorable state policiesgreater membership in movement organizations1994US-National; US-New Jerseystate level data on movement membership and relevant state policies
Andrews, Kenneth T. 1997. "The Impacts of Social Movements on the Political Process: A Study of the Civil Rights Movement and Black Electoral Politics in Mississippi." American Sociological Review 62: 800-819.politicalbroadening mobilization in the short term and limiting the acquisition of political power by Blacks in the long termviolent resistance1960s-1980sUS-Mississippicounty level data on black civil rights actions, resources, and political participation
Andrews, Kenneth T. 2001. "Social Movements and Policy Implementation: The Mississippi Civil Rights Movement and the War on Poverty, 1965 to 1971." American Sociological Review 66(1): 71–95.politicalpolicy implementationstrong movement --> access to decision-making bodies1965-1971US-Mississippidata on poverty programs over time and case study of interactions between movement and opponents
Andrews, Kenneth T. 2004. Freedom Is a Constant Struggle: The Mississippi Civil Rights Movement and Its Legacy. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press.politicalpolicy funding and contentdirect negotiation + persuasive and disruptive tactics1960s-1980sUS-Mississippicounty level data on outcomes (elections, antipoverty programs, school desegregation) and case studies of movement activity
Arthur, Mikaila Mariel Lemonik. 2008. "Social Movements in Organizations." Sociology Compass 2:1014-30.
organizationalgeneral review articlegeneral review articlen/an/an/auser-submitted
Arthur, Mikaila Mariel Lemonik. 2009. "Thinking Outside the Master's House: New Knowledge Movements and the Emergence of Academic Disciplines." Social Movement Studies 8:73-87.
organizationalnew academic disciplinesnew knowledge movements1970s-presentprimarily US/Canadasecondary datauser-submitted
Arthur, Mikaila Mariel Lemonik. 2011. Student Activism and Curricular Change in Higher Education. Surrey, UK: Asghate.
new academic programs in colleges and universities
organizational mediation model1970s-presentUnited Statesarchival and interview data purpose-collected for this studyuser-submitted
Astin AW, Astin HS, Bayer AE, Bisconti AD. 1975. The Power of Protest. San Francisco: Jossey-Bassinstitutional; biographicalnew educational offerings and liberalizing of rules; more discussion of politics and more liberal views disruptiveness; participation1966-1971US-Nationallongitudinal data from 22 colleges, including interviews, documents, and newspapers from each
Banaszak LA. 1996. Why Movements Succeed or Fail. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.politicallegislation passedresources + political opportunities + frames1920s; 1960-1971US-National; Sweden62 in depth interviews with activists; 8 group interviews, pooled time series legislative data, movement membership data
Bartley, Tim, and Curtis Child. 2011. "Movements, Markets and Fields: The Effects of Anti-Sweatshop Campaigns on U.S. Firms, 1993-2000." Social Forces 90(2): 425-451.targetanti-sweatshop campaigns had negative effect on sales, stock prices, shapes specialized ratings of corporate responsibility, diminished previously positive corporate reputations to a modest degreehigh intensity campaigns, recency1993-2000US-NationalA comprehensive database of labor-related movement activity; information on anti-sweatshop movement; coverage in The New York Times and either other large newspapers
Baumgartner, Frank, and Christine Mahoney. 2005. "Social Movements, the Rise of New Issues, and the Public Agenda." in Routing the Opposition: Social Movements, Public Policy, and Democracy. Edited by David S. Meyer, Valerie Jennes, and Helen Ingram, 65-86. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.politicalpolicy changesocial movements that interact closely with other groups within their organizational field have a long-term impact on policy change1947-presentUS-NationalThe Policy Agenda Project; which includes compilations of all congressional hearings; all public laws; all stories in the Congressional Quarterly Almanac; a sample of abstracts taken from the New York Times index; and a consistently coded, inflation-adjusted, time-series of the federal budget
Bernstein AE. 2001. The Moderation Dilemma: Legislative Coalitions and the Politics of Family and Medical Leave. Pittsburgh: Univ. Pittsburgh Presspoliticalagenda settingEffective framing of proposals1990sUS-National; US-Connecticut; US-Massachusetts; US-North Carolina; US-Tennessee128 interviews with legislators, staffers, interest groups
Bernstein, Mary. 2003. “Nothing Ventured, Nothing Gained? Conceptualizing Social Movement ‘Success’ in the Lesbian and Gay Movement.” Sociological Perspectives 46(3):353-379.Political, Mobilization, Cultural
The decriminalization of consensual sodomy between consenting adults in private; mobilizational outcomes; cultural challenges to heteronormativity and discursive impact
activists must make trade-offs between achieving cultural, mobilization, and political goals and that these three types of goals do not always line up in a one-to-one fashion.1961-1991U.S.Historical/archival data, interview datauser-submitted
Bordt, Rebecca L. (1997) How Alternative Ideas Become Institutions: The Case of Feminist Collectives. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 26:132–55.cultural subcultures (within movements)embeddedness in multiple environments1960s-1980sUS-Nationalqualitative historical analysis of feminist collective as an institutional form
Bosi, Lorenzo. 2006. "The Dynamics of Social Movement Development: Northern Ireland's Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s." Mobilization 11(1): 81-100.intra-movementThe civil rights movements in Northern Ireland changed from peaceful to reformist, then to militant insurgencyshifting political opportunities1960sNorthern Ireland27 semi-structured interviews with secondary sources and archival and newspaper research
Boudet, H.S. (in press). An “insiteful” comparison: Contentious politics in liquefied natural gas facility siting in the US. MIT Projections 11.
outcome of energy facility proposals
2000-2005U.S. (various locations)Newspapers, regulatory documentation, interviews, census datauser-submitted
Burstein, Paul, and April Linton. 2002. "The Impact of Political Parties, Interest Groups, and Social Movement Organizations on Public Policy: Some Recent Evidence and Theoretical Concerns." Social Forces 81(2): 380-408.politicalpolicy changeorganizational activities that respond to the electoral concerns of elected officials1990-2000
n/a (literature used as data vary)
All relevant articles in the three most prestigious sociology journals and three most prestigious political science journals
Burstein, Paul, and William Freudenburg. 1978. "Changing public policy: the impact of public opinion, War costs, and anti-war demonstrations on senate voting on Vietnam War motions, 1964–73." American Journal of Sociology 84(1):99–122.politicalincreased number of favorable Senate votesdemonstrations1964-1973US-Nationaldata on congressional voting, demonstrations, and other factors that might impact voting
Burstein, Paul. 1985. Discrimination, Job, and Politics: The Struggle for Equal Employment Opportunity in the United States since the New Deal.Chicago: Univ. Chicago Presspolitical favorable policiesincreased salience of issue1945-1980US-Nationaldata on public option, congressional voting, movement activity
Button JW. 1978. Black Violence. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Presspoliticalnew programsviolence (but only under some conditions)1963-1968US-Nationalinterviews, surveys, census data, and archival data on riots and govt agency response to the riots
Casquete, Jesus. 2006. "The Power of Demonstrations." Social Movement Studies 5(1): 45-60.culturalgroup solidarityritualized mass demonstrations1998-2001Basque Countrydata from Basque police
Clemens, Elisabeth S. (1998) To Move Mountains: Collective Action and the Possibility of Institutional Change. In Marco G. Giugni, Doug McAdam, and Charles Tilly (eds.), From Contention to Democracy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 109-123. institutional; cultural creation of new alternative institutions and practiceswithdrawn from dominant institutions and practices; disruption of dominant institutions and practicesn/a (theoretical)n/a (theoretical)n/a (theoretical)
Cornwall M, King BG, Legerski EM, Dahlin EC, Schiffman KS. 2007. Signals or mixed signals: why opportunities for mobilization are not opportunities for policy reform. Mobilization 12:239–54.politicallaw passage in one house of the legislaturesocial movement challenge is perceived as threat to careers of legislators1876-1918US-Nationaldata on state-level movement mobilization and on state-level law passage
Cortright, David. 1991. "Assessing Peace Movement Effectiveness in the 1980s." Peace and Change 16:46-63.politicalinternational treaty signedmedia attention; changed public opinion1980sUS-Nationaldata on media and public opinion
Costain, Anne N., and Steven Majstorovic. 1994. "Congress, Social Movements and Public Opinion: Multiple Origins of Women's Rights Legislation." Political Research Quarterly 47(1):111-35political legislation introducedmovement activity + favorable public option + congressional receptiveness1950-1986US-Nationalprotest event data from the NY; data on legislative activity and laws
Cress, Daniel M., and David A. Snow. 2000. "The outcomes of homeless mobilization: the influence of organization, disruption, political mediation and framing." American Journal of Sociology 105:1063–104.politicalsecuring rights and relief from government agenciesframing 1980sBoston, Denver, Detroit, Houston, Minneapolis, Oakland, Philadelphia, and Tucsondata on organizational, tactical, political, and framing variables and outcomes
d’Anjou, Leo, and John Van Male (1998) Between Old and New: Social Movements and Cultural Change. Mobilization 3:207–26.cultural values, beliefs and opinionsframing; cultural opportunities1787-1792Great Britainqualitative case study of movement campaign
d’Anjou, Leo. 1996. Social Movements and Cultural Change: The First Abolition Campaign Revisited. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.cultural values, beliefs and opinionsframing 1787-1792Great Britainhistorical case study, analysis of media discourse and framing
Demerath, N.J. Ill, Gerald Marwell, and Michael Aiken. 1971. Dynamics of Idealism. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.biographical
continued commitment to leftist attitudes but not necessarily political activism
radicalized by participation but disillusioned about prospect for change1969US-Nationallongitudinal sample, questionnaires
Diani, Mario. 1997. "Social movements and social capital: a network perspective on movement outcomes." Mobilization: An International Quarterly 2.2: 129-147. biographical; cultural social capital; subcultural; participation; conflictn/a (theoretical)n/a (theoretical)n/a (theoretical)
Edwards, Bob, and Sam Marullo (1995) Organizational Mortality in a Declining Social Movement: The Demise of Peace Movement Organizations in the End of the Cold War Era. American Sociological Review, 60, 908–27.intra-movement increased chances of organizational survivalties to other organizations 1988-1992US-Nationaldata on organization mortality of stratified, national longitudinal sample of peace movement organizations
Epstein, Barbara (1991)Political Protest and Cultural Revolution. Berkeley: University of California Press.inter-movementtacticsindividual activists with membership in more than one movement 1960s-1980sUS-Nationalunclear
Epstein, Steven (1996) Impure Science: AIDS, Activism, and the Politics of Knowledge. Berkeley: University of California Press.cultural; institutionalscience and scientific practicesmovement institutional insiders1981-1995US-Nationalpublished instances of claims-making found in scientific and medical journal articles, mass media news reports, articles in the gay and lesbian press, activist documents and publications, and government documents, extensive interviews with more than thirty of the principals in the story (researchers, activists, and government officials), conferences, meetings, forums, demonstrations, and other public events that I attended
Evans, Sara (1979) Personal Politics. New York: Knopf.inter-movementstart new movementdissatisfaction with movement1960s-1970sUS-Nationalunclear, historical case study
Eyerman and Jamison. 1998. Music and Social Movements: Mobilizing Traditions in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.cultural musicproduction of culture1950s-1970sUS-National; Swedencomparative case study tracing musical and movement development
Eyerman, Ron, and Andrew Jamison. 1995. Social Movements and Cultural Transformation: Popular Music in the 1960s. Media, Culture, and Society 17: 449–68.cultural musicmovements and markets1950s-1970sUS-Nationalanalysis of form and content of popular music
Eyerman, Ron, and Scott Barretta. 1996. From the 30s to the 60s: The Folk Music Revival in the United States. Theory and Society 25:501–43.cultural musicproduction of culture1930-1960sUS-Nationalcomparative case study of two waves of music and protest
Fantasia, Rick. 1988. Cultures of Solidarity: Consciousness, Action and Contemporary American Workers. Berkeley: University of California Press.cultural subcultures (within movements)contentious interactions1980s
US-National; US-New Jersey; US-Vermont; US-Iowa
three ethnographic case studies of local labor movement activity
Farrell, Amy. 1995. "‘‘Like a Tarantula on a Banana Boat’’: Ms. Magazine, 1972–1989." In Myra Marx Ferree and Patricia Yancey Martin (eds.), Feminist Organizations: Harvest of the New Women’s Movement. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 53–68.cultural literature (magazines)movements and markets1972-1989US-Nationalpublished and unpublished letters from readers to magazine, data on magazine's advertising and financing over time
Fendrich JM. 1993. Ideal Citizens: The Legacy of the Civil Rights Movement. Albany: State Univ. New York Pressbiographicalcontinued political engagement and oppositional political attitudesparticipation created identity as good citizen which required future engagement into order to maintain1960s-1980sUS-Florida; US-Texas10 and 25 year follow up surveys with white and black former activists
Fendrich, James M. 1974. "Activists Ten Years Later: A Test of Generational Unit Continuity." Joumal of Social Issues 30:95-118.biographical
concentration in teaching professions; continued commitment to leftist political attitudes
participation in activism1961-1971US-Floridapanel survey of former student activists and former non-activist students
Fendrich, James M. and Alison T. Tarleau. 1973. "Marching to a Different Drummer: Occupational and Political Correlates of Former Student Activists." Social Forces 52:245-53.biographical
continued commitment to leftist attitudes; occupational outcomes; continued participation in activism
participation1971US-Floridapanel survey of former student activists and former non-activist students
Fendrich, James Max and Ellis M. Krauss. 1978. "Student Activism and Adult Left-Wing Politics: A Causal Model of Political Socialization for Black, White and Japanese Students of the 1960s Generation Movements" Research In Social Movements, Conflict and Change, edited by Louis Kriesberg. Greenwich, CT: JAI.biographical
continued participation in activism or politics
1971data from Fendrich and Tarleau 1973 and Krauss 1974
Fendrich, James Max and Kenneth L. Lovoy. 1988. "Back to the Future: Adult Political Behavior of Former Political Activists." American Sociological Review 53:780-84.biographical
continued participation in activism or politics
1960s; 1986US-Floridapanel survey of former student activists and former non-activist students
Fendrich, James Max, and Robert W. Turner. 1989. "The Transition from Student to Adult Politics." Social Forces 67(4): 1049-1057.biographicalIncrease in political involvement of former activists and former uninvolved with age, overall increase in conservatismgenerational, period, and maturation effects1986US- Florida85 former students who had attended Florida State University
Flammang, Janet A. 1987. "Women Made a Difference: Comparable Worth In San Jose." In The Women’s Movements of the U.S. and Western Europe. Mueller, Carol, and Mary Katzenstein (eds.) Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.politicalpolicy changepolitical opportunity structure1980sUS-Californiainterviews with elected official and union members
Freeman, Jo. 1987. "Whom You Know Versus Whom You Represent: Feminist Influence in the Democratic and Republican Parties." In The Women’s Movements of the U.S. and Western Europe. Mueller, Carol, and Mary Katzenstein (eds.) Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 215-246.politicalshape party platformpluralistic orientation of party1972-1984US-Nationaldata on movement activity and party platforms
Frey, R. Scott, Thomas Dietz, and Linda Kalof. 1992. "Characteristics of Successful American Protest Groups: Another Look at Gamson's Strategy of Social Protest." American Journal of Sociology 98(2): 368-387.politicalacceptance and new advantagesmoderate goals; disruptiveness; centralized bureaucratic organization; historical crisis1800-1945US-Nationaldata on 53 protest groups gathered from historical sources
Gamson, William A. ([1975] 1990) The Strategy of Social Protest. Homewood, IL: Dorsey.politicalacceptance and new advantagesmoderate goals; disruptiveness; centralized bureaucratic organization; historical crisis1800-1945US-Nationaldata on 53 protest groups gathered from historical sources
Gamson, William A., and Andre Modigliani. 1989. "Media Discourse and Public Opinion of Nuclear Power: A Constructionist Approach." American Journal of Sociology 95(1): 1–37.cultural values, beliefs and opinions; discourseframing; media practices1950-1989US-Nationalmedia discourse analysis and public opinion survey data
Gamson. William A. 1998. Social Movements and Cultural Change. In Marco G. Giugni, Doug McAdam, and Charles Tilly (eds.), From Contention to Democracy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 57–77. cultural media coverage; discourseframe sponsorship; media practices; cultural resonances; narrative fitn/a (theoretical)n/a (theoretical)n/a (theoretical)
Gelb J, Lief Palley M. 1987. Women and Public Policies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press. 2nd ed.politicallegislation passedimage of broad-based support; moderate goals (narrow, less threatening to dominant values); existence of policy network 1960s-1980sUS-Nationalinterviews with leaders and congressional staffers, organizational records
Gelb J. 1989. Feminism and Politics. Berkeley, CA: Univ. Calif. Presspoliticallegislation passedseparation from institutional interests --> independent strategies and agenda1970s-1980sUS-National, United Kingdom; Swedeninterviews with feminist scholars and activists, as well as women active in political parties, unions, and civic groups and women in elective and appointive political positions
Gelb, Joyce. 1987. "Social Movement 'Success': A Contemporary Analysis of Feminism in the United States and the United Kingdom." In The Women’s Movements of the U.S. and Western Europe. Mueller, Carol, and Mary Katzenstein (eds.) Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 267-289.politicalpolicy changepolitical opportunity structure1970sUS-National; Englandunclear, comparative case study
Giugni, Marco. 2004. Social Protest and Policy Change: Ecology, Antinuclear, and Peace Movements in Comparative Perspective. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.politicalpolicy reformpolitical alliances and public opinion1975-1999US-National, Italy, Switzerlandcontent analysis of New York Times, Corriere della Sera, and Neue Zurcher Zeitung newspapers
Giugni, Marco. 2007. Useless Protest? A Time-Series Analysis of the Policy Outcomes of Ecology, Anti-Nuclear, And Peace Movements in the United States, 1977-1995. Mobilization: An International Quarterly 12(1): 53-77.politicalgovernment spendingmobilization + support from political allies + favorable public opinion1977-1995US-NationalNew York Times data on movement activity, public opinion data from NORC and Harris polls
Glenn, John K. 2003. "Contentious Politics and Democratization: Comparing the Impact of Social Movements on the Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe." Political Studies 51: 103-120.politicaldemocratizationmobilization and bargaining1989Poland and Czechoslovakiaarchival research, interviews, public proclamations and statements published in the media and primary literature in each country and secondary scholarly literature
Goldstone, Jack A. 1980. "The Weakness of Organization: A New Look at Gamson's The Strategy of Social Protest." American Journal of Sociology 85(5):1017-1042.politicalacceptance and new advantagesadopting non-displacement goals, incentives and bureaucratization for groups with a longer wait for attaining success1800-1945US-Nationaldata on 53 protest groups gathered from historical sources
Gupta, Devashree. 2009. "The power of Incremental Outcomes: How Small Victories and Defeats Affect Social Movement Organizations." Mobilization 14(4): 417-432.inter-movementbandwagoning, satiety, movement aid and supportrevenue streams and programmatic spending1997-2007US-Nationalrevenue and spending information for 105 organizations that are or have been involved in the anti-death penalty movement
Halebsky, Stephen. 2006. "Explaining the Outcomes of Antisuperstore Movements: A Comparative Analysis of Six Communities." Mobilization: An International Journal 11(4): 443-460.politicalsuccess and partial success preventing corporate siting.optional evidence, broad framing, media support, absence of countermovement, benefits from corporate blunders1990sUS-Washington, US-California, US-Michigan, US-Wisconsin, US-Ohiocase studies of superstore conflicts in six small cities
Hall, Stuart, and Tony Jefferson (eds.) (1976) Resistance through Rituals: Youth Subcultures in Post-War Britain. New York: Holmes & Meier.cultural subcultures (as distinct subcultures)contentious interactions1950s-1970sGreat Britainparticipant observation
Hasso, Frances S. 2010. "Feminist Generations? The Long-Term Impact of Social Movement Involvement on Palestinian Women's Lives." In Readings on Social Movements: Origins, Dynamics, and Outcomes." Doug McAdam and David S. Snow, eds, 662-675.biographicalchanged worldviews and greater self-efficacyparticipation created new networks and allowed activists to imagine new possibilities1989 and 1995Palestinetwo-wave panel study with activists
Hathaway,Will, and David S. Meyer (1994) Competition and Cooperation in Social Movement Coalitions: Lobbying for Peace in the 1980s. Berkeley Journal of Sociology, 38, 157–83.inter-movement creation of other movements; spillover (goals)social movement sector enabled recourses and legitimacy; coalitions1983-1990US-Nationalobservational, documentary, survey, and interview data from two coalitions
Hays SP, Esler M, Hays CE. 1996. Environmental commitment among the states: integrating alternative approaches to state environmental policy. Publius 26:41–58.politicalfavorable policy adoptiongreater membership in movement organizations1987-1991US-NationalGreen Policy Index's state composite score for sixty-seven policy initiatives= DV
Hebdige, Dick (1979) Subculture: The Meaning of Style. New York: Routledge.cultural subcultures (as distinct subcultures)contentious interactions1950s-1970sGreat Britainparticipant observation
Isaac, Larry, & Lars Christiansen. 2002. “How the Civil Rights Movement Re-Vitalized Labor Militancy.” American Sociological Review 67 (October): 722-746. inter-movement
worker strike militancy in private & public sectors
civil rights protests, ghetto rebellions, SMOs Mechanisms: formal channels, informal channels, overlapping personnel, cultural environment1948-81U.S.national time-series data
Isaac, Larry, and William R. Kelly. 1982. “Developmental/Modernization Political Class struggle Theories of Welfare Expansion: The Case of the AFDC ‘Explosion’ in the States, 1960-1970.” Journal of Political & Military Sociology 10(Fall): 201-35.political
welfare/relief expenditures, rolls, benefits
ghetto rebellions electoral instability Democratic party strength1960-70U.S.U.S state data
Isaac, Larry, and William R. Kelly. 1981. “Racial Insurgency, the State, And Welfare Expansion.” American Journal of Sociology 86 (May): 1348-1386.political
welfare/ relief expenditures & rolls
ghetto rebellion frequency & severity1947-76U.S.national time-series data
Isaac, Larry, Debra Street, & Stan Knapp. 1994. “Analyzing Historical Contingency With Formal Models: The Case of the ‘Relief Explosion’ and 1968.” Sociological Methods & Research 22 (August): 114-141.politicalwelfare/relief (AFDC rolls)poor peoples’ insurgencies & sequence of events in 19681950-88U.S.national time-series data
Isaac, Larry, Steve McDonald, & Greg Lukasik. 2006. “Takin’ it from the Streets: How the Sixties Mass Movement Revitalized Unionization.” American Journal of Sociology 112 (July): 46-96.inter-movement
worker strike & unionization militancy in public & private sectors
New Left insurgencies, New Left organizations, Union recognitions, Union bargaining laws1950-81U.S.national time-series data
Isaac, Larry. 2009. “Movements, Aesthetics, and Markets in Literary Change: Making the American Labor Problem Novel.” American Sociological Review 74 (December): 938-965.cultural
emergence & trajectory of a new literary genre--the labor problem novel
labor movement growth coupled with literary realism 1870-1919 U.S.national time-series data
Isserman, Maurice (1987) If I Had a Hammer: The Death of the Old Left and the Birth of the New Left. New York: Basic.inter-movement spillover (organizational forms)learned from failures of previous movement1940s-1970sUS-Nationalinterviews with former activists
Jacobs D, Helms R. 2001. Racial politics and redistribution: isolating the contingent influence of civil rights, riots, and crime on tax progressivity. Soc. Forces 80:91–121.politicalincreased tax progressivity; decreased tax progressivity Civil rights actions (especially during Democratic administration); Riots (especially during Republican administration)1950-1989US-Nationaltime series data on riots and tax progressivity
Jaynes A. 2002. Insurgency and policy outcomes: the impact of protest/riots on urban spending. J. Mil. Polit. Sociol. 30:90–112.politicalincreased spending on social programs; increased spending on social control (e.g. police)nonviolent protest; riots1952-1992US-NationalFiscal Austerity and Urban Innovation Project; Ethnic Collective Action in Contemporary Urban U.S. Project
Jennings, M. Kent and Richard G. Niemi. 1981. Generations and Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.biographical
continued participation in activism or politics
participation oriented protesters to deal with social problems in a particular way, an orientation that endured1964-1972US-Nationalsurvey data from random sample of 744 high school seniors and 932 of their parents
Johnson EW. 2008. Social movement size, organizational diversity and the making of federal law. Soc. Forces 86:967–93.politicalincrease the value of collective benefits included in bill; law passageLarger movement more supporters and resources; SMOs identify and problematize a diversity of new issues1968-1998US-NationalPolicy Agendas Project Public Laws Database
Kane, Melinda. 2010. "You've Won, Now What? The Influence of Legal Change on Gay and Lesbian Mobilization, 1974-1999." Sociological Quarterly 51(2): 255-277.intra-movementpost-movement activism after achieving goalspolicy change1974-1999US-Nationaldata collected from multiple sources including Gayellow Pages, the Council of City Governments, Human Sexuality Archive, NCES, Churches and Church Membership in the United States
Kanter, Rosabeth Moss (1968) Commitment and Social Organization: A Study of Commitment Mechanisms in Utopian Communities. American Sociological Review, 33, 499–517.cultural subcultures (within movements)internal movement dynamics1780-1860US-Nationalhistorical data on 91 utopian communities
Katzenstein, Mary Fainsod. 1995. Discursive Politics and Feminist Activism in the Catholic Church. In Myra Marx Ferree and Patricia Yancey Martin (eds.), Feminist Organizations: Harvest of the New Women’s Movement. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 35–52.cultural; institutionaldiscoursemovement institutional insiders1970s-1980sUS-Nationalunclear
Kerstin Hamann, Alison Johnston and John Kelly (2013) Striking concessions from governments: The outcomes of general strikes in Western Europe 1980-2009, Comparative Politics, 46(1): 23-41.Political, policy reformGovernment concessions to unions on welfare and labor policy reformsMobilization, protest, general strikes1980-2009Western Europe, EU15 plus NorwayPrimary data on strikes and outcomesuser-submitted
King, Brayden G. 2008. "A Political Mediation Model of Corporate Response to Social Movement Activism." Administrative Science Quarterly 53(3): 395-421.organizationalchange in corporate policymedia attention; decline in corporate reputation1990-2005US_NationalNew York Times, Washington Post, Wall Street Journal, Chicago Tribune, Los Angeles Times
King, Brayden G., Keith G. Bentele, and Sarah A. Soule. 2007. "Protest and policymaking: explaining fluctuation in congressional attention to rights issues, 1960–1986." Social Forces 86(1): 137–63.politicalCongressional hearing on issues (a measure of agenda setting)Protest greater attention from lawmakers 1960-1986US-NationalPolicy Agendas Project
King, Brayden G., Marie Cornwall, and Eric C. Dahlin. 2005. "Winning Woman Suffrage One Step at a Time: Social Movements and the Logic of the Legislative Process." Social Forces 83(3): 1211–1234.
politicalpolicy introduction (but not passage)SMO’s efforts at political lobbying, candidate campaigning, and cultural framing1848-1918US-Nationalprimary and secondary historical sources on legislation and movement activity collected by McCammon
Kitschelt, Herbert. 1986. "Political Opportunity Structures and Political Protest: Anti-Nuclear Movements in Four Democracies." British Journal of Political Science 16(1): 57-85.politicalchange in national policypolitical opportunity structure1974-1984US, France, Sweden, West Germanyraw data from Nuclear News, "The World List of Nuclear Power Plants
Klatch, Rebecca. 1999. A Generation Divided: The New Left, The New Right, and the 1960s. Berkeley: University of California Press.biographicaloccupational outcomes, lower incomecountercultural resistance to conventional occupations1960s-1980sUS-Nationaldata on seventy-four SDS and YAF activists "from their political awakenings into their involvement and commitment during the 1960s, and into their adult lives"
Knopf, Jeffrey (1997) The Nuclear Freeze Movement's Effect on Policy. In Tom Rochon and David S. Meyer (eds.), Coalitions and Political Movements: The Lessons of the Nuclear Freeze. Boulder, CO: Lynn Rienner, 127-161.political legislation passedchanging public opinion (mass electoral pressure); shifting elite coalitions; bureaucratic use of movement ideas1980sUS-Nationalunclear; seems to just bring together secondary sources
Kolb, Felix. 2007. Protest and Opportunities: The Political Outcomes of Social Movements. Frankfurt and New York: Campus Verlag.politicalprocedural change, intra-institutional change, state transformationdisruption, public preference, political access, judicial, and international politicsnot specifiedAustria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, U.S.anti-nuclear energy movements from 18 OECD countries
Kousis, M. (2005) “State Responses as Economic and Political Threats and Opportunities in Southern European Environmental Contention" in M. Kousis and Charles Tilly (eds) Economic and Political Contention in Comparative Perspective, Boulder, Colorado: Paradigm Publishers (pp. 202-225).political, economic and environmentalState concessions and nonconcessions (indifference, repression,economically costly, soft concessions, hard concessions)political and economic opportunities and threats to environmental protest cases; state-movement interactions1974-1994Greece, Spain, PortugalProtest Case Analysis using 4 national newspapers and 5 ecology magazines in Greece, Spain and Portugaluser-submitted
Krauss, Ellis S. 1974. Japanese Radicals Revisited: Student Protest in Postwar Japanbiographicaloccupational outcomespolitical socialization through participation1960-1970Japanlongitudinal study of former activists- 53 surveys and 23 interviews
Kriesi, Hanspeter and Dominique Wisler. 1999. "The Impact of Social Movements on Political Institutions: A Comparison of the Introduction of Direct Legislation in Switzerland and the United States." In Marco G. Giugni, Doug McAdam, and Charles Tilly (eds.), How Social Movements Matter. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 97–115.politicalnew political procedure institutionalizedpolitical opportunities1960s-1920U.S.-National; Switzerlandunclear
Linders, Annulia. 2004. "Victory and Beyond: A Historical Comparative Analysis of the Outcomes of the Abortion Movements in Sweden and the United States." Sociological Forum 19(3): 371-404.institutional, cultural, politicalpolicy changepolitical opportunities, movement-countermovement interactions1960-1980US-National, Swedenparliamentary and government documents, health statistics, medical journals, official criminal records, newspapers, secondary data (existing literatures), magazine articles
Lohman, Susanne. 1994. "The Dynamics of Informational Cascades: The Monday Demonstrations In Leipzig, East Germany, 1989-91" World Politics 47:42-101.politicalregime changeunpredictability1989-1991East Germanyhistorical case study of fall of GDR
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