To view corresponding The Century Foundation report "A New Wave of School Integration" visit
NameDistrict or charter?Homepage Link CityStateSocioeconomic Integration Policy Attendance Zone Boundaries District-Wide Choice PoliciesMagnet School AdmissionsCharter School AdmissionsTransfer PoliciesOtherYear ImplementedSocioeconomic Factors Considered# of Schools# of Students% eligible for free and reduced-price lunch% Black % Hispanic% White % American Indian% Asian Source for Enrollment DataSource for Policy Information
Alachua County Public Schoolsdistrict County Public Schools considers socioeconomic diversity in school enrollments as a factor when redrawing school attendance boundaries.X2007not specified7027,82649%36%8%46%0%4%NCES Data 2012-2013School Board of Alachua County, Bylaws & Policies, "5120 - District School Zones," Adopted 2007, Revised 2008, 2011,
Allen Independent School Districtdistrict Independent School District seeks to maintain similar percentages of "economically disadvantaged" students across middle school campuses and keeps this percentage in mind when drawing attendance boundaries.X2009free and reduced-price lunch eligibility2319,89416%10%13%57%1%14%NCES Data, 2012-2013"September 28, 2009 Board Meeting Summary," Allen Independent School District; emails with Halley Potter, March 24, 2011.
Amherst-Pelham Regional Public Schoolsdistrict Regional Public Schools redistricted its three elementary schools to balance students by socioeconomic status. X2009free and reduced-price lunch eligibility31,53327%7%12%63%0%10%NCES Data, 2012-2013Diane Lederman, “Amherst OKs School Redistricting,” The Republican, October 29, 2009; and Amherst, Pelham & Amherst-Pelham Regional Schools, "Year-End Update on System-Wide Goals 2010-2013," Page 22. 2011
Beaumont Independent School Districtdistrict Independent School District allows students attending a school where 65% or more of the students qualify for free and reduced-price lunch to transfer to a school where less than 65% of students qualify. X2008free and reduced-price lunch eligibility3019,85074%61%20%13%0%3%NCES Data, 2012-2013Beaumont ISD, "Notification of the 2015-2016 Campus-to-Campus Transfer Request Window," updated January 5, 2015,
Berkeley Unified School Districtdistrict Unified School District employs a controlled choice student assignment plan that considers information about parent income, education level, and race within neighborhoods to assign K-5 students to district schools.X2004Parent income and educational attainment at the neighborhood level199,78039%20%24%35%0%8%NCES Data, 2012-2013Berkeley Public Schools, "Information on Berkeley Unified's Student Assignment Plan," (accessed October 29, 2015).
Blackstone Valley Prep Mayoral Academycharter network Valley Prep Mayoral Academy reserves 50% of seats in their admissions lottery for low-income students and balances enrollment from urban and suburban districts.X2009free and reduced-price lunch eligibility376764%8%47%38%0%2%NCES Data, 2012-2013Halley Potter, Charters without Borders (New York: The Century Foundation, September 16, 2015,
Bloomington Public Schoolsdistrict Bloomington Public Schools redrew attendance zones for elementary neighborhood schools and considered socioeconomic factors when assigning boundaries.X2011free and reduced-price lunch eligibility2210,50140%17%14%55%1%9%NCES Data, 2012-2013Bloomington Public Schools, "2011 NSPRA Gold Medallion Award Entry,"
Boulder Valley School Districtdistrict Valley's Community Montessori magnet school reserves 20% of the open spaces each year for students eligible for free and reduced-price lunch.X2007free and reduced-price lunch eligibility5630,04119%1%17%70%0%6%NCES Data 2012-2013Boulder Valley School District, Community Montessori, "Frequently Asked Questions," (accessed October 29, 2015); and John Ingold, "Boulder Montessori Ahead of the Curve," Denver Post, January 2, 2007,
Brandywine Public School Districtdistrict Public School District considers socioeconomic composition when drawing attendance zone boundaries in order to keep most schools close to the district average for enrollment of students eligible for free and reduced-price lunch. X2001free and reduced-price lunch eligibility1710,85144%37%5%50%1%6%NCES Data 2012-2013Richard D. Kahlenberg, Rescuing Brown v. Board of Education (New York: The Century Foundation, 2007),
Brooklyn Prospect Charter Schoolcharter network Prospect Charter School offers a preference in the school's admissions lottery for students eligible for free and reduced-price lunch and offers priority in the waitlist for late admission to transient students who are also English Language Learners, who qualify for free and reduced-price lunch, or whose parent or legal guardian is a member of the United States Armed Forces currently deployed overseas.X2011free and reduce-price lunch eligibility, transient status142242%19%35%40%0%5%The Public Charter Schools Dashboard, 2012-2013, (data for middle school location only)Brooklyn Prospect Charter School, "Apply - Lottery Process," (accessed October 29, 2015).
Brunswick School Departmentdistrict School Department considered socioeconomic status when redrawing elementary school attendance zones. X2010free and reduced-price lunch eligibility52,32032%2%3%90%0%2%NCES Data 2012-2013Stephanie Grinnell, "Brunswick School Board considers impact of redistricting," The Forecaster, December 2, 2010, ; and Michelle Small, at-large school board member for the Brunswick School Department, telephone interview with Halley Potter, February 9, 2011.
Burlington Community School Districtdistrict Community School District considered socioeconomic factors when redrawing elementary school attendance zones. X2007not specified94,82756%14%5%72%0%1%NCES Data 2012-2013Craig T. Neises, “Book Hands Over Superintendent Post, Challenges,” Hawkeye, July 1, 2007; and Jane Evans, e-mail correspondence with Kristen Oshyn, March 9, 2009.
Burlington School Districtdistrict School District considers socioeconomic balance in both neighborhood school and magnet school student assignment policies.XX2011not specified103,99240%14%4%68%0%9%NCES Data 2012-2013Molly Walsh, "Burlington School Board Oks Assignment Policy Change," Burlington Free Press, June 8, 2011,
Burnsville-Eagan-Savage Independent School District 191district Burnsville-Eagan-Savage district gives preference to low-income students in magnet school admissions.X2010not specified209,75243%18%14%54%1%8%NCES Data 2012-2013Zac Farber, "District 191 Looks to Shuffle Students for Socio-economic Balance," Burnsville Patch, June 14, 2013, 2013.; and Telephone Communication between Kimberly Quick and Stacie L. Stanley, Director of Equity/Integrated Services on October 22, 2015.
Cambridge Public School Districtdistrict employs a controlled choice plan whereby every school in the district is required to fall within ten percentage points above or below the district-wide percentage of students eligible for free and reduced-price lunch. X2001free and reduced-price lunch eligibility176,22245%30%14%38%1%12%NCES Data 2012-2013Richard D. Kahlenberg, Rescuing Brown v. Board of Education (New York: The Century Foundation, 2007),
Champaign Community Unit School District Number 4district Champaign Community School District uses a controlled choice student assignment policy in which each school must fall within 15 percentage points above or below the districtwide percentage of low-SES students.X2009free and reduced-price lunch eligibility, parent or guardian's highest educational attainment level189,65657%34%10%40%0%10%NCES Data 2012-2013Jodie Heckel, "Income to be factor in Champaign school assignments," News-Gazzette, January 9, 2009, ; and Champaign Community Unit School District No. 4, Board Policy 705.09, "Attendance - Schools of Choice Seat Assignment," approved November 10, 2014,
Chapel Hill-Carrboro City Schoolsdistrict Hill NCThe Chapel Hill-Carrboro City Schools designed attendance boundaries to achieve socioeconomic diversity in schools. X2007Analysis of neighborhood disadvantage performed by social workers1912,32925%12%15%51%1%15%NCES Data 2012-2013Cheryl Johnston Sadgrove, "Board Poised to Consider Redistricting Plan," Raliegh News and Observer April 7, 2007; Telephone and Email Communications between Todd LoFrese, Asst Superintendent for Support Services, and Kimberly Quick on September 29, 2015; and email correspondance with Mike Kelley, Chair- School Board on September 16, 2015
Chicago Public Schoolsdistrict ILChicago Public Schools considers the socioeconomic factors of the neighborhood in which a student lives when determining admissions for selective high schools and magnet schools, ensuring that enrollment in these schools contains an even mix of students from four different tiers of census tracts with similar characteristics.Xselective programs2009Census-tract data on socioeconomic status (median family income, adult educational attainment, percentage of
owner-occupied homes, percentage of single-parent homes, and percentage of households where a language besides English is
spoken) and performance of the neighborhood schools within the census tract
664396,68386%39%46%9%0%4%Chicago Public Schools, "School Data," (2014-2015 data)Chicago Public Schools, "Chicago Public Schools Announce New policy for Admission to Selective Enrollment and Magnet Schools," 2010 ; and email correspondance between Karen Burroughs Hannsberry, Office of Access and Enrollment, and Kimberly Quick, Oct 17, 2015
Citizens of the World Charter Schoolscharter network AngelesCACitizens of the World Charter Schools offers a weighted preference in the admissions lottery for students who qualify for free and reduced-price lunch at some of their schools.X2013free and reduced-price lunch eligibility373731%6%25%49%0%18%Citizens of the World,, 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 data, (Note: Data for free and reduced-price lunch enrollment at Citizens of the World 3 - Mar Vista was not available.)Citizens of the World-Hollywood, "Admissions Information," (accessed October 27, 2015).
Community Roots Charter Schoolcharter school Roots Charter School reserves 40% of its seats for students who live in public housing. X2012residence in public housing135229%41%11%39%0%3%NCES Data 2012-2013Richard Kahlenberg and Halley Potter, "Diverse Charter Schools," The Century Foundation and the Poverty and Race Research Action Council, 2012,
Compass Charter Schoolcharter school Charter School gives added weight in the school's admissions lottery to students eligible for free and reduced-price lunch.X2014free and reduced-price lunch eligibility110828%32%9%38%8%0%Preliminary NYC DOE School Demographics and Accountability Snapshot 2014, Charter School Application for 2015-2016,
Davenport Community Schoolsdistrict considers socioeconomic status when reviewing requests for inter-district or within-district transfer, giving priority to transfer requests that improve socioeconomic balance among schools.X2008free and reduced-price lunch eligibility, student academic performance, and household economic survey fee waiver. 3316,76655%18%13%59%0%2%NCES Data 2012-2013Davenport Community School District, "District Diversity Plan," adopted February 11, 2008, amended January 12, 2015, ; and Davenport Community Schools, Board Policy 501.11, "Attendance Centers," revised June 10, 2013,
Denver Public Schoolsdistrict Public Schools has strategically created several open-access zones in areas that include both high- and low-income neighborhoods, replacing attendance boundaries with a choice-based enrollment in these areas to encourage integration. Some schools consider free and reduced-price lunch eligibility or prioritize a portion of seats for students from certain geographic areas in order to promote socioeconomic balance. The district also considers the potential for socioeconomic integration as one of the factors when evaluating school requests for district facilities.Xfacilities policy2014free and reduced-price lunch eligibility, neighborhood 19990,15072%14%57%22%1%3%Denver Public Schools, 2014-15 Public Schools Board of Education Policies, Facility Allocation Policy, no. AG, adopted February 19, 2015,$file/Facility%20Allocation%20Policy%20-%20DRAFT%20-%20January%202014.pdf. 2014.; Jaclyn Zubrzycki, "School board moves a step away from neighborhood middle schools in northwest Denver," Chalkbeat Colorado, June 18, 2015, ; and email correspondence between Brian Eschbacher, Director of Planning and Enrollment Services, and Kimberly Quick on Oct 8, 2015
Des Moines Public Schoolsdistrict MoinesIADes Moines Public Schools considers socioeconomic status when reviewing requests for within-district and between-district open enrollment, only approving transfers that help achieve the goal of having each school fall within 10 percentage points above or below the district average for enrollment of students eligible for free and reduced-price lunch. X2012free and reduced-price lunch eligibility6134,09269%17%23%47%0%7%NCES Data 2012-2013Des Moines Independent Community School District, "Diversity Plan," 2012, ; and email correspondance between Eleanor Shirley, Enrollment Supervisor, and Kimberly Quick on Oct 15, 2015
District of Columbia Public Schoolsdistrict of Columbia Public Schools approved a plan to require all district and charter schools that enroll 25% or less at-risk students to give priority to at-risk students for 25% of their seats. Selective schools in the district will also be required to give a priority to at-risk students who meet the school's admissions criteria.XXXselective programs2016"at-risk" students includes those who are homeless, students in foster care, those eligible for TANF or SNAP, and over-age high school students12944,17953%69%16%12%0%2%NCES Data 2012-2013District of Columbia Public Schools, "Implementation Chart: Working Draft," March 6, 2015, ; District of Columbia Public Schools, Fiscal Year 2016 District of Columbia Public Schools School Budget Overview, April 2015, p. 7,
DSST Public Schoolscharter network Public Schools uses a lottery system and reserves a portion (around 40-70%) of its seats for low-SES students. X2004free and reduced-price lunch eligibility103,36666%17%40%19%0%4%Colorado Department of Education, "SY2014-15 Charter School Free and Reduced Lunch by School," (Note: College View High not included in enrollment and demographic statistics.)Denver Public Schools, 2015-16 Individual Schol Priorities, (accessed October 27, 2015).
Duval County Public School Districtdistrict County Public School District considers socioeconomic status in its elementary magnet school admissions process, giving a priority to students zoned for Title I schools applying to magnet programs in non-Title I schools, as well as to students zoned for non-Title I schools applying to magnet programs in Title I schools.Xunclearzoning for Title I vs. non-Title I neighborhood school (with Title I schools defined as those with at least 75% of students elibile for free and reduced-price lunch)197125,68649%44%9%39%0%4%NCES Data 2012-2013Duval County Public Schools, "Priorities for the Magnet Lottery," (accessed October 27, 2015)
East Baton Rouge Parish School Systemdistrict RougeLAThe East Baton Rouge Parish School System has opened magnet elementary, middle and high schools that reserve 45% of spots for students who receive free and reduced-price lunch. Xunclearfree and reduced-price lunch eligibility 8142,98279%81%5%11%0%3%NCES Data 2012-2013East Baton Rouge Parish Schools, "2014-2015 Elementary Magnet Programs," ; and "Pick a Jewel of a School: 2014-2015 Middle & High Programs"
Ector County Independent School Districtdistrict Ector County Independent School District measures diversity based on a variety of factors including socioeconomic status and strives for each school to meet diversity targets. Diversity is also the primary consideration for transfers. XX2010not specified3929,64951%4%71%23%0%1%NCES Data 2012-2013"Unitary status brings changes to ECISD magnet courses, transfers," (accessed November 4, 2015); and "School Board in Texas Approves Definition of Diversity that Goes beyond Race and Ethnicity," Legal Clips, National School Boards Association, April 27, 2011,
Eden Prairie Schoolsdistrict PrarieMN Eden Prarie Schools redrew attendance boundaries to balance concentrations of poverty.X2010not specified88,92120%12%6%67%0%11%Minnesota Department of Education, "Public School List with Percentages of Free and Reduced Price Lunch Students Fall 2014," Smith, "Eden Prarie Oks changing School Lines," StarTribune, December 21, 2010, and Glenn E. Singleton, More Courageous Conversations about Race (Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, 2013), Chapter 11, 2010.
Eugene School District 4Jdistrict School District 4J uses an open choice policy that allows students to apply to any school in the district. At elementary schools that are below the district average for free and reduced-price lunch, the student selection process considers free and reduced-price lunch eligibility to encourage socioeconomically mixed enrollment. X2005free and reduced-price lunch eligibility3617,02936%2%13%70%2%4%NCES Data 2012-2013Eugene School District 4J, "School Choice Information," (accessed November 4, 2015).
Fairfax County Public Schoolsdistrict ChurchVAFairfax County Public Schools considers the socioeconomic characteristics of school populations when consolidating schools, redistricting school boundaries, or adopting pupil assignment plans.X2013free and reduced-price lunch eligibility218180,61626%10%23%43%0%19%NCES Data 2012-2013Fairfax County Public Schools, "Facilities Planning: Local School Boundaries, Program Assignments, and School Closings," 2013,$file/P8130.pdf
Franklin Special School Districtdistrict Franklin Special School District rezoned its attendance boundaries to achieve a balance of socioeconomic status in each school zone.X2012not specified83,86739%5%4%89%0%1%NCES Data 2012-2013Franklin Special School District, "A Parent's Guide to School Zones: Historical Perspective and Beyond," 2015,
Fresno Unified School Districtdistrict Unified School Board uses socioeconomic status as one of the factors in the lottery process for its magnet schools. X2006free and reduced-price lunch eligibilty 10773,78989%9%65%12%1%12%NCES Data 2012-2013Fresno Unified School District, Board Policy 5116.2, "Magnet Schools," last revised August 8, 2007,
Greenville County Schoolsdistrict Greenville County Schools attempts to reduce high concentrations of students living in poverty and low-performing students when determining student assignment areas. X2001free and reduced-price lunch eligibility, achievement 9673,64949%23%13%58%0%2%NCES Data 2012-2013Greenville County Schools, Board Policies, A - School District Organization, School Attendance Areas (no. AD), last revised October 26, 2010,
Guilford County Public School Districtdistrict County Public School District redistricted schools with an aim to improve socioeconomic balance and racial diversity. X2006students eligible for free and reduced-price lunch; students served by foster care, Head Start, SNAP, or TANF; homeless, or migrant students12374,16157%41%12%37%1%6%NCES Data 2012-2013"Right decision, but not a shared vision" [editorial], The News Record, February 23, 2006, ; and email correspondance between Nora K. Carr, Chief of Staff to Superintendent, and Kimberly Quick, Oct 14, 2015
Hamilton County Public Schoolsdistrict County Public Schools designed the admissions priorities for its downtown magnet schools to promote socioeconomic balance by reserving some seats for students living in the predominantly low-income downtown neighborhood and giving a preference for remaining seats to students whose parents work in that neighborhood (but may live in the suburbs). Xunclearfree and reduced-price lunch eligibilty 7943,70758%31%8%58%0%2%NCES Data 2012-2013US Department of Education, "Creating Successful Magnet Schools Programs," 2004, Hamilton County Public Schools, "Appication, Selection, and Admissions Processes for Lottery Magnet Schools,", (accessed October 27, 2015).
Hartford Public Schoolsdistrict Public Schools operates inter-district magnet schools designed to achieve racial and socioeconomic integration by balancing enrollment of students from Hartford and students from surrounding suburban districts. The district also participates in an inter-district open choice program designed to promote integration.XX1997home district (urban vs. suburban)5021,54585%32%50%11%0%3%NCES Data 2012-2013Greater Hartford Regional School Choice Office, "What You Need To Know - Information on Lottery Process," (accessed October 27, 2015).
High Tech Highcharter network DiegoCAStudents who apply to High Tech High and receive free or reduced lunch receive a statistical advantage in the lottery. The school's admissions lottery is also weighted by home zip code, seeking an even distribution of students from across San Diego.X2000free and reduced-price lunch eligibilty 134,69840%8%48%31%1%11%The Public Charter Schools Dashboard, 2012-2013, ; High Tech High,, 2013-2014, Tech High, "Admissions FAQs" (accessed November 4, 2015).
Hillsborough County Public Schoolsdistrict County School Board approved new attendance zones which factored socioeconomic diversity into their models. X2009not specified245200,46657%21%33%38%0%3%NCES Data 2012-2013Adam Emerson, "Hillsborough School Board Approves Boundary Changes," The Tampa Tribune, February 10, 2009,
Iowa City Community School Districtdistrict CityIAIowa City Community School District strives to balance the socioeconomic composition of schools when assigning attendance boundaries. X2014free and reduced-price lunch eligibility, participation in programs for migrants or the homeless2513,01929%16%10%64%0%6%NCES Data 2012-2013Andrew Phillips, "Iowa City School District Still Uses Lunch Data as Part of Determining School Boundaries," The Gazette, May 5, 2015, ; and email correspondance between Brian R. Kirschling, VP ICCSD Board of Education, and Kimberly Quick on Oct 15, 2015
Jefferson County Public Schoolsdistrict County Public Schools divides the district into "clusters" composed of diverse neighborhoods and allows families to rank preferences for schools within the district, asssigning students to schools based on their preferences and the district's diversity goals.X2008census block data on educational attainment of adults, household income, and percentage of minority residents173100,31659%37%7%50%0%3%NCES Data 2012-2013Alana Semuels, "The City that Believed in Desegregation," The Atlantic, March 27, 2015,
Kalamazoo Public Schoolsdistrict Public Schools redrew attendance boundaries to balance the distribution of low-income students across schools. X2009free and reduced-price lunch eligibility2512,45571%44%12%37%1%3%NCES Data 2012-2013Julie Mack. "Kalamazoo Public Schools trustees approve redistricting for this fall,", February 13, 2009, 2009 ; and email correspondance between Michael F. Rice, Superintendent, and Kimberly Quick, on Oct 14, 2015
La Crosse School Districtdistrict CrosseWIThe La Crosse School District has redistricted schools to improve socioeconomic balance mutliple times. Although recent redistricting has moved back toward neighborhood attendance zones, the district made an exception to give students from a high-poverty neighborhood access to a mixed-income school.X1979free and reduced-price lunch eligibility 206,73747%5%3%76%1%10%NCES Data 2012-2013Richard D. Kahlenberg, Rescuing Brown v. Board of Education (New York: The Century Foundation, 2007), ; and Mary Ann Zehr, "Socioeconomics Replacing Race in School Assignments," Education Week, May 7, 2010,
Lafayette Parish School Systemdistrict Parish School System allows economically disadvantaged students to transfer to schools with lesser concentrations of poverty and greater school performance than their home zone school.Xunclearnot specified4130,72360%44%5%49%0%2%NCES Data 2012-2013Lafayette Parish School System, "Student Educational Advantage Transfers," (accessed October 27, 2015).
Larchmont Charter Schoolcharter network AngelesCALarchmont Charter School's admissions lottery uses an algorithm that is updated each year to adjust the priority given to applications from students receiving free and reduced-price lunch in order to meet the school's goal for low-income enrollment that mirrors neighborhood census data.X2010free and reduced-price lunch eligibility, census tract data41,36239%8%23%46%0%22%California Student Poverty FRPM Data, 2014 The Public Charter Schools Dashboard, 2012-2013, Kahlenberg and Halley Potter, "Diverse Charter Schools," The Century Foundation and the Poverty and Race Research Action Council, 2012, p. 14,
Lee County Public Schoolsdistrict MyersFLLee County Public Schools uses a district-wide choice enrollment system with an explicit goal for each school to remain within 20 percentage points above or below the district average for enrollment of low-income students. The district monitors diversity in each of the schools and adjusts marketing strategy or program placement if needed.X2004free and reduced-price lunch eligibility12585,76565%15%34%46%0%2%NCES Data 2012-2013School District of Lee County, "Plan for Student Assignment, 2015-2016," 2014,
Lee County Schoolsdistrict County Schools considers socioeconomic diversity when determining attendance boundaries for the schools. X2010attendance area in a Title I school; achievement169,99465%21%31%43%1%1%NCES Data 2012-2013Lee County Schools, "School Assignment, Reassignment and Transfers," 2013,
Manatee County School Districtdistrict County employs controlled choice across the district and assigns students to schools based on family preferences and several demographic and performance factors (gifted, non gifted, low SES, and limited English proficiency). The student assignment process uses an algorithm to create schools that all fall close to the district average for each of the demographic and performance factors.X1998not specified8146,16555%14%30%51%0%2%NCES Data 2012-2013Manatee County School District, "Manatee County's School Choice Program, 2015-2016"; and Richard D. Kahlenberg, Rescuing Brown v. Board of Education (New York: The Century Foundation, 2007), p. 36,
McKinney Independent School Districtdistrict Independent School District adopted a policy that attendance zones should not be based strictly on neighborhood geographic lines but instead should strive to create socioeconomic diversity. X1995not specified3224,44329%13%27%54%1%3%NCES Data 2012-2013Richard D. Kahlenberg, Rescuing Brown v. Board of Education (New York: The Century Foundation, 2007), p. 37, 2007; and McKinney Independent School District, "Attendance Zones," 2015, (accessed October 28, 2015).
Metropolitan Nashville Public Schoolsdistrict Nashville Public Schools' diversity plan sets goals for racial diversity within each school and also calls for schools to reach at least two-thirds of the district average percentage for enrollment of at least two of the following groups: low-income students, non-native English speakers, and students with special needs. These goals are factored into all zoning decisions.

Xtransportation policy - students who qualify for free and reduced-price lunch receive free transportation to all choice schools2013free and reduced-price lunch eligibility14982,80673%44%20%31%0%4%Chamber Education Report Card Committee, "2014 Education Report Card," Nashville Public Schools, "MNPS Diversity Initiatives," (accessed October 28, 2015).
Miami-Dade Public School Districtdistrict Public School District requires its magnet schools to tailor recruitment strategies to reach underrepresented populations across a variety of dimensions: socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, gender, and exceptional educational needs. X2002not specified498354,26273%24%67%8%0%1%NCES Data 2012-2013School Board of Miami-Dade County, Bylaws and Policies, "2370 - Magnet Programs/Schools," adopted May 11, 2011, in effect July 1, 2011,
Minneapolis Public Schoolsdistrict Minneapolis Public Schools participates in an inter-district integration program that allows low-income students from Minneapolis to transfer to suburban schools. The district also reserves seats for low-income students at select magnet schools located in wealthier neighborhoods.XX2000free and reduced-price lunch eligibilty 9135,84264%36%15%36%5%7%NCES Data 2012-2013Minneapolis Public Schools, "'The Choice Is Yours' Minnesota Program," (accessed October 28, 2015); Mila Koumpilova, "St. Paul District: 'High-need' Areas among Changes Planned to School Choice,", December 2, 2012, ; and Richard D. Kahlenberg, Rescuing Brown v. Board of Education (New York: The Century Foundation, 2007), p. 37, 2007.
Montclair Public Schoolsdistrict Public Schools operates all schools as magnet schools in order to achieve racial and socioeconomic diversity. The district balances enrollment in each school to include students from all of the district's geographic zones, which are determined based on socioeconomic characteristics. X2010census data on neighborhoods, including household income and free and reduced-price lunch eligibility116,67416%32%9%51%0%5%NCES Data 2012-2013Montclair Public Schools, "Montclair's Magnets," April 2014, ; and Montclair Public Schools, "Freedom of Choice School Selection and Assignment Policy Explained," 2011,
Montgomery County Public School Districtdistrict County Public Schools considers the socioeconomic composition of a school's student body as one of the factors when drawing school boundaries or creating geographic choice plans. X2003free and reduced-price lunch eligibility207148,78033%21%27%33%0%14%NCES Data 2012-2013Montgomery County Public Schools, "Long Range Educational Facilities Planning," revised June 6, 2015,
Moorpark Unified School Districtdistrict Unified School District redrew school attendance boundaries and converted two schools into magnet schools to achieve more socioeconomic balance among schools.X2006not specified126,98433%1%42%46%0%7%NCES Data 2012-2013Sylvie Belmond, "Officials to Change School Boundaries," Moorpark Acorn, March 31, 2006, 2006.
Napa Valley Unified School Districtdistrict Napa Valley Unified School District works to balance enrollment in its schools while remaining mindful of the diversity and socio-economic status of its students.X2010free and reduced-price lunch eligibilty 3218,32643%2%52%31%1%8%NCES Data 2012-2013Jillian Jones, "Redrawing the lines for local high schools," Napa Valley, April 6, 2008, 2008.
New Haven Public Schoolsdistrict New HavenCTNew Haven Public Schools operates inter-district magnet schools that balance urban and suburban enrollment such that roughly 65% of students are from New Haven and 35% are from suburban districts.Xunclearhome district (urban vs. suburban)4721,15078%44%39%15%0%2%NCES Data 2012-2013Linda Conner Lambeck, "How to Apply to a New Haven Magnet School," Education matters, Connecticut News, December 4, 2013,
New York City Community School Districts 1, 6, 13, 15, and 17district YorkNYNew York City Community School Districts 1, 6, 13, 15, and 17 include eight non-zoned elementary schools (similar to magnet schools) that offer priority in admissions for a portion of their seats to students who are eligible for free and reduced-price lunch, English Language Learners, students from families impacted by incarceration, or students who are in the child welfare system.X2013English Language Learner status, free and reduced-price lunch eligibility, incarcerated parent, involvement in child welfare system229112,84870%37%40%11%0%10%NCES Data 2012-2013New York City Department of Education, "Chancellor Fariña Announces new Admissions Pilot at Seven Elementary Schools Designed to Promote Diversity," Press Release, November 20, 2015,; New York City Department of Education, Brooklyn 2015 Kindergarten Directory (2015),, p. 28; and Leslie Albrecht, "How a Park Slope School Is Fighting to Stay Diverse," DNAinfo, December 10, 2014,
Newark Public Schoolsdistrict employs a universal enrollment plan that gives additional weight to low-income students and students with special needs when they are underrepresented in the applicant pool for a school.X2013free and reduced-price lunch eligibility6632,09881%47%44%8%0%1%State of New Jersey Department of Education, "2014-15 Enrollment," ; and Newark Public Schools, "District Information," Enrolls, Universal Enrollment, "Frequently Asked Questions," (accessed October 28, 2015).
Omaha Public School Districtdistrict Omaha Public School District allows students to choose public and magnet schools outside their neighborhood schools, with an admissions preference given to students who would increase the socioeconomic diversity of the school. The district also participates in an inter-district initiative, The Learning Community, which promotes transfers between districts to increase socioeconomic diversity.XX1999free and reduced-price lunch eligibilty 10150,55972%26%31%32%1%3%NCES Data 2012-2013Omaha Public Schools, "Student Assignment Plan Summary," (accessed October 28, 2015); and Richard D. Kahlenberg, Rescuing Brown v. Board of Education (New York: The Century Foundation, 2007), p. 39, 2007.
Palm Beach County School Districtdistrict Palm BeachFLPalm Beach County School District considers the socioeconomic diversity of students within the district when drawing attendance boundaries and when considering intra-district transfers through the district's "Controlled Open Enrollment" program.XX2006free and reduced-price lunch eligibility258179,51454%29%30%35%1%3%NCES Data 2012-2013The School Board of Palm Beach County, "School Board Policies, Pupil Personnel, Student Assignment," Adopted May 15, 2013,
Papillion-La Vista School Districtdistrict Vista School District created greater socioeconomic balance among middle schools when redrawing attendance boundaries.X2015free and reduced-price lunch eligibility2010,73722%5%6%83%0%2%NCES Data 2012-2013Joe Dejka, "4th Try to Redraw Papillion-La Vista Middle School Boundaries Raises Fewer Hackles Than Previous Proposals,", May 12, 2015,; and Joe Dejka, "Papillion-La Vista School Board OKs 4th Version of New Junior High Attendance Boundaries,", May 19, 2015,
Pitt County School Districtdistrict County School District established school attendance areas with maintaining student diversity as a major factor in deciding how boundaries are determined. Schools with more than 60% of students who qualify for free and reduced-price lunch were placed under review. X2007free and reduced-price lunch eligibilty 3623,79158%48%10%38%0%1%NCES Data 2012-2013Pitt County Board of Education, "School Attendance Areas," 2007,
Pittsburgh Public Schoolsdistrict magnet schools admit students using a weighted lottery that considers socioeconomic status. X2009free and reduced-price lunch eligibilty 6026,29268%55%2%33%0%3%NCES Data 2012-2013Pittsburgh Public Schools, 2016-2017 Guide to the Offerings and Options in the Pittsburgh Public Schools, 2015, ; and Joe Smydo, "City Magnet School overhaul weighed,"Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 29, 2009,
Polk County Public Schoolsdistrict County Schools considers socioeconomic status in the student assignment process for magnet schools, sorting applicants into different pools based on geographically determined demographic similarilites and selecting applicants from different pools depending on enrollment at each magnet school. Xuncleargeographic data on free and reduced-price lunch eligibility, race, students with disabilities, and English language learners17196,93767%21%28%45%1%2%NCES Data 2012-2013Carolyn Bridges, Polk County Schools: Magnet/Choice Enrollment Plan, (accessed November 2, 2015).
Portland Public Schoolsdistrict Public Schools gives preference in inter-district transfers and in the lottery for its focus option schools (similar to magnet schools) to certain students when they would increase the socioeconomic diversity of the school.XX2009free and reduced-price lunch eligibility, Head Start attendance8646,74841%11%16%56%1%8%NCES Data 2012-2013Portland Public Schools, "PPS Resident Focus Option Lottery Round Order & Preferences," 2015,
Postville Community Schoolsdistrict Community Schools considers diversity within schools when reviewing requests for students to transfer into or out of the district, giving priority to requests that would further the goals of the district's diversity plan. Xunclearfree and reduced-price lunch, years enrollment in English Language Learner program 259973%7%48%45%0%1%NCES Data 2012-2013Postville Community Schools, "Open Enrollment-Procedures as a Receiving District," revised January 2008, ; and Postville Community Schools, "Open Enrollment Procedures as a Sending District," revised April 8, 2013,
Rapides Parish Schoolsdistrict Parish Schools considers students' free and reduced-price lunch eligibility in the selection process for its magnet schools, balancing eligible and non-eligible students in each school.Xunclearfree and reduced-price lunch eligibility5024,06568%43%3%52%1%1%NCES Data 2012-2013Rapides Parish School Board, "Student Transfer and Withdrawal," Policy JBCD, revised August 2010,
Redlands Unified School Districtdistrict Redlands Unified School District considered socioeconomic balance in schools when determining attendance boundaries. X2008not specified2521,37953%7%45%32%0%11%NCES Data 2012-2013Neal Waner, "Boundary committee's goal was educational opportunities for all," Redlands Daily Facts, July 10, 2008.
Robbinsdale Area Schoolsdistrict HopeMN Robbinsdale Area Schools gives priority to students eligible for free and reduced-price lunch in the admissions lottery for kindergarten seats in magnet schools.X2012free and reduced-price lunch eligibility3012,40949%26%13%47%1%7%NCES Data 2012-2013Independent School District 281, Robbinsdale Area Schools, "Administrative Procedure 599AP: Kindergarten Admission to Magnet Schools," revision approved December 1, 2014,
Rochester City School Districtdistrict Rochester City School District employs a managed choice policy that assigns students to schools based on family preference, proximity, and socioeconomic balance.X2002free and reduced-price lunch eligibilty 6730,14580%61%25%10%0%3%NCES Data 2012-2013Rochester School Board, "Parent Preference/Managed Choice Policy," Rochester School Board Policy Manual, 2008,
Rock Hill Public School District of York Countydistrict HillSCRock Hill Public School District considers student socioeconomic status, academic achivement, and race when drawing attendance boundaries. X2001free and reduced-price lunch eligibility2617,52455%37%7%51%2%2%NCES Data 2012-2013York 3/Rock Hill School District, "Policy JCR Reassignment of Students," issued October 26, 2009, ; The Associated Press, "STATE: Rock Hill schools work to keep schools integrated," The T and,May 16, 2004,
Salina Public Schoolsdistrict Public Schools used socioeconomic balance as a factor in drawing school boundaries. X2011not specified127,30559%6%15%69%1%3%NCES Data 2012-2013Bill Hall, e-mail correspondence with Halley Potter, November 8, 2011.
San Diego Unified School Districtdistrict DiegoCASan Diego Unified School district provides an enrollment preference for low-achieving and low-income students from schools in need of improvement who are applying to higher-achieving schools through the district's magnet school, Voluntary Enrollment and Exchange Program (VEEP), or Program Improvement School Choice (PISC) processes.XXunclearnot specified224130,27164%10%47%23%0%14%NCES Data 2012-2013San Diego Unified School District, "Neighborhood Schools and Enrollment Options: 2015-2016 Catalog," p. 3,
San Francisco Unified School Districtdistrict FranciscoCAThe San Francisco Unified School District uses a choice-based enrollment system that gives a small preference to students residing in neighborhoods with the lowest test scores. X2010neighborhoods with the lowest test scores12656,97057%9%26%11%0%39%NCES Data 2012-2013San Francisco Unified School District Board of Education Policy, "Student Assignment Redesign," March 9, 2010,
San José Unified School Districtdistrict JoseCAThe San Jose Unified School District weights admissions to magnet schools based on the socioeconomic characteristics of a student's neighborhood to create diverse enrollment reflective of the district. The district also provides a preference in elementary school transfers and the secondary school choice system for applicants requesting a "voluntary integrative transfer"--moving from a low-SES attendance boundary to a high-SES school or vice versa.XXX2004free and reduced-price lunch eligibility, neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics (geo-codes)4233,18444%3%52%26%0%14%NCES Data 2012-2013San Jose Unified School District, "Voluntary Integration Plan," approved June 19, 2003, revised February 11, 2010,
Santa Rosa City Schoolsdistrict RosaCASanta Rosa City Schools reserves seats for low-income students in the admissions lotteries for its charter schools.X2014free and reduced-price lunch eligibility3925,87840%5%5%80%1%2%NCES Data 2012-2013Kerry Benefield, "Dispute over new rules for Santa Rosa charter schools," The Press Democrat, February 5, 2014,
Seminole County Public Schoolsdistrict County Public Schools considers socioeconomic status when striving to create attendance zones that reflect the diversity of the community. The district also gives priority to intradistrict transfer requests that would bring the socioeconomic diversity of a school closer to the district average.XX2005free and reduced-price lunch eligibilty 7564,46344%14%22%56%0%4%NCES Data 2012-2013Seminole County Public Schools, "School Student Attendance Zones, Revision of Student Attendance Zones, and Inter-zone Transfers," revised July 31, 2012,
Springdale Public School Districtdistrict Springdale Public School District has redrawn school boundaries with an eye toward income integration.X1999parental education and income levels, siblings using special services2720,74167%2%45%40%1%2%NCES Data 2012-2013Shain Bergan, "Students Could Change Schools to Balance Poverty," Northwest Arkansas Democrat Gazette, October 29, 2015, ; Tracie Dungan, “Language Affect; School Boundaries,” Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, April 11, 1999, B1; and Telephone Communications between Gary Compton, Assistant Superintendent for Support Services, and Kimberly Quick on Oct 19, 2015.
St. Lucie County Public School Districtdistrict PierceFLThe St. Lucie County Public School District uses a controlled school choice plan, keeping each school within ten percentage points of the average enrollment of low-income students for the school's Choice Zone and grade level group. X2004free and reduced-price lunch eligibilty 5139,64161%30%26%39%0%2%NCES Data 2012-2013St. Lucie County Public Schools, "Choice Zones and Attendance Areas," 2013, (Search title).
St. Paul Public School District district PaulMN St. Paul Public School District uses a school choice process based on geographical zones that were determined with socioeconomic diversity as a factor. The student assignment process also reserves 20% of seats in the district's low-poverty schools (those with free and reduced-price lunch enrollment at least 20 percentage points below the district average) for students from high-need neighborhoods.X2013free and reduced-price lunch eligibility; English language learner status, reading/math proficiency by neighborhood9738,41972%30%14%22%2%32%NCES Data 2012-2013St. Paul Public Schools, "Integration Plan for St. Paul Public Schools 2013-2016," 2013,
Stamford Public Schoolsdistrict Public Schools establishes attendance boundaries for neighborhood schools and weights magnet school lotteries such that all schools in the Stamford Public School system will fall within +/- 10% of the district average enrollment of disadvantaged students (students receiving free and reduced-price lunch, English Language Learners, and students living in income-restricted housing). XXunclearfree and reduced-price lunch eligibility; English language learner status; residence in income-restricted housing2115,75849%20%36%34%0%8%NCES Data 2012-2013Stamford Public Schools, "Assignment of Students to Schools and Application and Admission to Magnet Schools," October 17, 2011, ; and telephone conversation between Judith Singer, Research Director, and Kimberly Quick on Oct 19, 2015
Topeka Public School Districtdistrict Topeka Public School District awards priority status in its magnet school admissions lotteries for students who will increase the socioeconomic diversity of that school. XunclearDifference between applicant's zoned school's residential population SES (determined by free and reduced-price lunch) and the magnet school's residential student population SES3014,01975%19%28%42%1%1%NCES Data 2012-2013Topeka Public School District, Board Policy 8045, "Admission to Elementary Magnet Schools," (accessed November 4, 2015)
Troup County School Districtdistrict County School District considers schools' socioeconomic composition when establishing attendance zones.Xunclearfree and reduced-price lunch eligibilty 2012,70964%40%4%50%0%2%NCES Data 2012-2013Troup County Schools, "Policy: Student Assignment to Schools," revised June 20, 2013,
University Place School Districtdistrict PlaceWAUniversity Place School District redrew elementary school attendance zones to more evenly distribute low-income students among schools. X2008free and reduced-price lunch eligibilty 95,67038%9%12%53%1%9%NCES Data 2012-2013Brent Champaco, "University Place Will Shift Students to Balance Enrollment," The News Tribune, June 24, 2008.
Wake County Public School Systemdistrict County Public School System has a goal of minimizing high concentrations of low performing students and students from low income families. Assignments for each family's "base school" and the lottery priorities for magnet schools are designed with this goal in mind.XX2013not specified169150,95634%24%16%49%0%6%NCES Data 2012-2013Wake County Public School System, "Board Policy, Student Assignment," revised May 21, 2013,
Waterloo Community Schoolsdistrict Community Schools divides its schools into "clusters" that reflect the overall demographics of the district and allows transfers within those clusters. The district also restricts inter-district transfers that negatively impact diversity in the district's schools.Xunclearfree and reduced-price lunch eligibilty 1911,28264%26%10%55%0%1%NCES Data 2012-2013Waterloo Community School District, "Diversity Plan," revised June 2012,
West Liberty Community School Districtdistrict LibertyIAThe West Liberty Community School District places restrictions on Iowa's inter-district open enrollment policy todeny requests that would exacerbate segregation in the district.X2008free and reduced-price lunch eligibility , English Language Learner status41,28656%0%50%46%1%1%NCES Data 2012-2013West Liberty Community School District, Code No. 606.1, "Diversity Plan," reviewed October 5, 2015, ; and Sara Sedlacek, "School district's diversity plan makes few changes to open-enrollment policy," West Liberty Index,February 6, 2008,
White Plains Public Schools district http://www.whiteplainspublicschools.orgWhite PlainsNYWhite Plains Public Schools uses a controlled choice program. School assignments are made based on parent preferences, space available, class size, socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity and language needs. Xunclearfree and reduced-price lunch eligibility77,07753%15%53%27%0%4%NCES Data 2012-2013White Plains Public Schools, "Controlled Parents' Choice Program," (accessed Ocotber 28, 2015).
Williamsburg-James County Public Schoolsdistrict County Public Schools redistricted schools to achieve socioeconomic balance.X2006free and reduced-price lunch eligibility1511,02430%18%9%64%0%3%NCES Data 2012-2013Gary Matthews, "Beating the Odds With 'Continuous Improvement," Daily, July 6, 2006,