Y-DNA Haplogroup K and its Subclades - 2019-2020
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Last revision date for this specific page: 1 January 2019
|Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and will be updated when possible.|
If the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page, then please:
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|Listing Criteria||SNP Index|
Y-DNA Tree Trunk
Newly confirmed in 2019 within subclade
Confirmed within subclade
^ Indicates a next-generation sequencing entry which does not yet meet quality guidelines for minimum number of reads.
^^ Indicates an entry which does not meet quality guidelines but may be helpful.
~ Indicates only an approximate location on the tree.
|The criteria for a representative SNP printed in bold for a subclade is: traditional usage, testing done in multiple labs, and/or found in the area of the chromosome used in recent research studies.|
|SNPs listed below in italics (colored black or red) are quality variants from next-generation sequencing reports consistently showing as representing that subgroup.|
|DID YOU NOTICE that the items in gray sometimes have a long name preceding their listing that is the same as just above? In this situation, evidence seems to indicate they also seem to belong to the same subgroup, but some confirmatory evidence is not yet available.|
P128/PF5504, P131/PF5493, P132/PF5480
|LT or K1|
|L or K1a||M20/PF5570|
|T or K1b|
<--This was previously classified as K(xLT), etc.
|NO or K2a|
|NO1 or K2a1|
|N or K2a1a|
|O or K2a1b||M175|
|K2b1||P399, P397^^, PR2099/Y25867, Z31091, Z31092, Z31109|
|S or K2b1a||B254, Z33335|
|M or K2b1b||P256, etc|
|P or K2b2|
MUTATION INFORMATION AT VERY BOTTOM HERE
Identical SNPs that were discovered separately are listed in alphabetical order, not necessarily in the order of discovery,
and separated by "/". Examples: M74/N12, M184/USP9Y+3178.
The Karafet et al (2008) paper made a major change to Haplogroup K. The subgroups formerly known as K1 and K7
was moved to M2 and M3, respectively, and K2 and K5 became Haplogroups S and T, respectively.
The 50f2(C) deletion in the AZFc region of the human Y chromosome has been observed in several different haplogroups
and is not a unique event polymorphism. It is notable, however, that it has been detected at relatively high
levels in subgroups of K in Melanesia - K* (21%), and K3 (14%).
P299 appeared in earlier K trees, but was omitted in 2014 Karafet study so its placement is uncertain.
The chromosome location for M-P256 shown in Karafet (2008) seems off by one chromosome position. All M samples
from next-generation sequencing show the same mutation at adjacent chromosome position
8685231. So this is the position tentatively listed in the ISOGG index. Listed 31 August 2016.
Y-DNA haplogroup K
is an old lineage established approximately 40,000 thousand years ago whose origins were probably in
southwestern Asia. K's structure is interwoven with other haplogroups downstream (refer to the main tree at
Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree)
The subclades restricted to K itself are found at low frequencies in
various parts of Africa, Eurasia, Australia and the South Pacific.
Geographical Distribution of ancestry of men in Haplogroup K (not complete):
K2c P261 Balinese Indonesia
K2d P402 Javanese Indonesia
K2e M147 India, Pakistan
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