Q No.Topic Q No.QuestionAnswerTopicSub topicBook SectionBook ChapterDivision
11What is a monomer?A single molecule that makes up larger molecules called polymers.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.1 - Monomers and polymers1Students have studied up to question:300
22What is a polymer?A large molecule made up of multiple smaller molecules called monomers3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.1 - Monomers and polymers1Start question of current topic:300
33Name examples of monomersMonosacharide; amino acids, nucleotides.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.1 - Monomers and polymers1End question of current topic:330
44What reaction joins monomers together?A condensation reaction.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.1 - Monomers and polymers1
55What happens in a condensation reaction?Two monomers are chemically bonded together, water is formed as a by product.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.1 - Monomers and polymers1
66What reaction takes place when biological molecules are separated?A hydrolysis reaction.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.1 - Monomers and polymers1
77What happens in a hydrolysis reaction?Two monomers are separated by breaking a chemical bond. Water is used up in this reaction3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.1 - Monomers and polymers1
88What are larger complex carbohydrates made from?Monosaccharides3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.2 - Carbohydrates1
99What are the common monosaccharides?Glucose, galactose and fructose3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.2 - Carbohydrates1
1010What reaction forms the bond between two monosaccharides?A condensation reaction.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.2 - Carbohydrates1
1111What bond forms when monosaccharides join?A glycosidic bond.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.2 - Carbohydrates1
1212What is a disaccharide?A molecule made from 2 monosaccharides3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.2 - Carbohydrates1
1313How is a disaccharide formed?A condensation reaction between 2 monosaccharides3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.2 - Carbohydrates1
1414What is maltose and what is it formed from?A disaccharide formed from the consation reaction between 2 glucose molecules.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.2 - Carbohydrates1
1515What is sucrose and what is it formed from?A disaccharide formed from the consation reaction between a glucose and a fructose molecule.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.2 - Carbohydrates1
1616What is lactose and what is it formed from?A disaccharide formed from the condensation reaction between glucose and a galactose molecule.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.2 - Carbohydrates1
1717What is an isomer?A variation of a particular molecule. The formula stays the same, but the structure is slightly different.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.2 - Carbohydrates1
1818What are the isomers of glucose?Alpha (α) and beta (β) glucose.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.2 - Carbohydrates1
1919What is the difference between alpha and beta glucose?3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.2 - Carbohydrates1
2020What is the difference between alpha and beta glucose?The OH group on carbon 1 of α-glucose is below the ring, on β-glucose it is above. ABBA - Alpha Below Beta Above.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.2 - Carbohydrates1
2121What is a polysaccharide?A complex carbohydrate formed from the condensation reactions of many monosaccharides.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.2 - Carbohydrates1
2222What is glycogen and what is it made of?A complex carbohydrate, a polysaccharide made from multiple α-glucose molecules.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.2 - Carbohydrates1
2323What is starch and what is it formed from?A complex carbohydrate, a polysaccharide made from multiple α-glucose molecules.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.2 - Carbohydrates1
2424What is cellulose?A complex carbohydrate, a polysaccharide made from multiple β-glucose molecules.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.2 - Carbohydrates1
2525What is the purpose of glycogen?It is an insoluble store of energy in animals.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.2 - Carbohydrates1
2626What is the purpose of starch?It is an insoluble store of energy in plants, and an energy source for animals3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.2 - Carbohydrates1
2727What is the purpose of cellulose?It is an insoluble structural molecule for plants, especially for their cell walls.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.2 - Carbohydrates1
2828What is the structure of glycogen?Heavily branched polymer of α-glucose molecules. Linked at 1-4 glycosidic bonds. Branched with 1-6 glycosidic bonds.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.2 - Carbohydrates1
2929how is glycogen's structure related to its functioninsoluble so no osmosis/insoluble so does not diffuse out of cells/compact so lots stored in small space/highly branched so can be acted on simultaneously by enzymes1
3030What is the structure of starch?Lightly branched polymer of α-glucose molecules. Linked at 1-4 glycosidic bonds. Branched with 1-6 glycosidic bonds.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.2 - Carbohydrates1
3131how is starch's structure related to its functioninsoluble so doesn't affect water potential and no osmosis/large so doesn’t diffuse out of cells/compact so lots stored in small space/hydrolysed to form a-glucose so easily transported and used for respiration/branched so more enzymes can act simultaneously1
3232What is the basic structure of cellulose?Straight lengths of polymers made of β-glucose molecules. Bonded with 1,4 glycosidic bonds.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.2 - Carbohydrates1
3333How are the monosaccharides in cellulose arranged?Alternative β-glucose molecules are turned upside down3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.2 - Carbohydrates1
3434how is cellulose's structure related to its functionmade up of B-glucose so form long, straight unbranched chains/chains run parallel to each other and are crossed linked by hydrogen bonds which add collective strength/molecules are grouped to form microfibrils which are also grouped to form fibres which provides more strength1
3535Based on the arrangement of cellulose molecules, explain why cell walls provide strength and support to plant cells.- cellulose molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other to make microfibrils
- microfibrils join to make macrofibrils
- macrofibrils join to make fibres
- fibres are insoluble and tough
3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.2 - Carbohydrates1
3636What are examples of reducing sugars?All monsaccharides - glucose, galactose, fructose. Also some disaccharides - e.g. lactose1
3737What is an example of a non-reducing sugars?Sucrose1
3838What does the Benedict's test test for?Reducing sugar3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.2 - Carbohydrates1
3939what is the test for reducing sugarsadd equal volumes of the sample and benedict's reagent, then gently heat for 5 minutes and if reducing sugar present then colour from blue thorugh to orange1
4040what is the test for non-reducing sugarsif the reducing sugar test presents no colour change, add another more sample to equal volume of HCl, then slowly add sodium hydrogencarbonate and re-test with benedicts reagent whislt gently heating for 5 minutes and if sugar is present then colour will turn to orange1
4141Explain how a positive result is formed in Benedict's test.Reducing sugar reacts with blue Cu2+ --> to make brick-red Cu+3.1.2 - Carbohydrates
4242How can we test for starch?Iodine solution turns from Orange to blue/black if starch is present.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.2 - Carbohydrates1
4343How can we use a colorimeter to do a quantitative Benedict's test?- Colorimeter measure the absorbance or transmission of light by a coloured solution
- More concentrated solution = more light absorbed / less light transmitted
- Compare to data table or calibration curve (known concentrations vs. abs/trans value)
3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.2 - Carbohydrates1
4444what is the role of lipids?source of energy/waterproofing/insulation/protection1
4545What are the 2 main groups of lipids?Triglycerides and phospholipids3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.3 - Lipids1
4646What are the components of a triglyceride?1 glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acids bonded with a condensation reaction.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.3 - Lipids1
4747how is the structure of triglycerides related to their propertieshigh ratio of energy storing C-H bonds so an excellent energy store/low mass to energy ratio so good stroage moelcules/large,non-polar so insoluble in water and does not affect osmosis in cells/high ratio of H to O atoms so release water when oxidised to provide a soiurce of water1
4848What reaction occurs to form a triglyceride?A condensation reaction.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.3 - Lipids1
4949What bond is formed when a fatty acid joins to glycerol?An ester bond.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.3 - Lipids1
5050What is an R-group?A long chain of carbon atoms with attached hydrogen atoms.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.3 - Lipids1
5151How can the R-group of a lipid vary?It could be saturated or unsaturated.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.3 - Lipids1
5252What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated R-groups?Saturated means single bond between carbons, and 2 hydrogens joined to each carbon. Unsaturated means there are some double bonds between carbon atoms, this limits the number of hydrogen atoms bonded.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.3 - Lipids1
5353How many water molecule(s) is/are needed when breaking down a triglyceride?33.1 - Biological molecules3.1.3 - Lipids1
5454What is another term for the condensation reaction that makes lipids?Esterification3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.3 - Lipids1
5555Why do oils contain unsaturated triglycerides rather than saturated?- Unsaturated fatty acids cause the molecule to kink/bend
- cannot pack closely together (ie. Cannot form more H bonds)
3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.3 - Lipids1
5656What does monounsaturated and polyunsaturated mean?Monounsaturated means that there is one carbon carbon double bond. Poly unsaturated means that there are many carbon carbon double bonds.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.3 - Lipids1
5757What does having a double bond do to the fatty acid chain / R-group?Puts a kink into it, so that it isn't straight.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.3 - Lipids1
5858What does having unsaturated R-groups do to the fluidity of the triglycerides?The kink caused by the double bond of unsaturation means the chains don't lie closely packed. They therefore can't make intermolecular hydrogen bonds and become solid.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.3 - Lipids1
5959What is the difference in structure between triglyceride and phospholipid?- phospholipid: 2 fatty acid chains + 1 phosphate group
- Triglyceride: 3 fatty acid chains
3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.3 - Lipids1
6060describe the structure of a phospholipida hydrophobic tail which orients itself away from water but mixes readily with fat and a hydrophilic head which interacts with water1
6161What does hydrophobic mean?Water fearing - will not dissolve, repels water.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.3 - Lipids1
6262What does hydrophillic mean?Water loving - will dissolve in water.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.3 - Lipids1
6363How do triglycerides react to water?They are hydrophobic - repel water.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.3 - Lipids1
6464How do phospholipids react to water?They have a hydrophillic head and a hydrophobic tail. Head is attracted and tail repels water.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.3 - Lipids1
6565What will a phospholipid do if placed in water.It will sit on the water, head down and tails up, or form a sphere with heads in the water and tails inside being protected.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.3 - Lipids1
6666Describe the phospholipid bilayer arrangement.- Hydrophilic heads point outwards into water
- Hydrophobic tails point inwards (shielded from aqueous environment)
3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.3 - Lipids1
6767Why is a phospholipid hydrophilic and hydrophobic?It has a hydrophilic phosphate head and a hydrophobic fatty acid tail.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.3 - Lipids1
6868Describe the steps in identifying lipids and state the positive result.- mix sample with ethanol
- mix solution with water and shake
- white emulsion layer formed = lipid present
3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.3 - Lipids1
6969What are the monomers of proteins?Amino acids3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.4 - Proteins1
7070List out the elements that make up proteins.C, H, O, N, S3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.4 - Proteins1
7171What are the components that make up an amino acid?Central carbon + H atom + Amino group (-NH2) + Carboxyl group (-COOH) + R(side) group - this is the variable part which makes the amino acids different.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.4 - Proteins1
7272What is the basic structure of an amino acid?3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.4 - Proteins1
7373What does NH2 represent in an amino acid?The amine group3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.4 - Proteins1
7474What does COOH in an amino acid represent?Carboxyl group.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.4 - Proteins1
7575What does the "R" represent in an amino acid?A side chain, mainly carbon and hydrogen, may also contain other groups.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.4 - Proteins1
7676What reaction causes two amino acids to bond together?A condensation reaction.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.4 - Proteins1
7777what bond holds two amino acids togetherpeptide1
7878What is formed when two amino acids bond by condensation reaction?A dipeptide.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.4 - Proteins1
7979What is formed when many amino acids bond by condenasation reaction?A polypeptide.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.4 - Proteins1
8080What is a functional protein?A protein which has a particular role, it is not involved in structure.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.4 - Proteins1
8181True or false, a functional protein can be made of more that 1 polypeptide?TRUE3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.4 - Proteins1
8282Name the bond formed between two amino acids.Peptide bond3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.4 - Proteins1
8383What is the primary structure of a protein?Amino acid sequence3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.4 - Proteins1
8484What is the secondary structure of a protein?alpha-helix + beta-pleated sheets3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.4 - Proteins1
8585What is an alpha-helix?A coiling of the polypeptide chain caused by hydrogen bonding between amino acids. This is in the constant region, it DOES NOT include the variable region.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.4 - Proteins1
8686What is the tertiary structure of a protein?Folding into a 3D shape3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.4 - Proteins1
8787What is the quaternary structure of a protein?multiple polypeptide chains with the additional prosthetic groups3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.4 - Proteins1
8888State the bond involved in the primary structure of a protein.peptide bond3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.4 - Proteins1
8989Stat the bond involved in the secondary structure of a proteinhydrogen bond3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.4 - Proteins1
9090State the bond involved in the tertiary structure of a protein.ionic, hydrogen, disulphide bridges3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.4 - Proteins1
9191Name the reaction that breaks down proteins.hydrolysis3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.4 - Proteins1
9292What is the solution used to test for the presence of proteins?Biuret solution3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.4 - Proteins1
9393what is the test for proteinsadd equal volumes of the sample and biuret reagent and mix gently, if protein is present then a colour change from blue to purple1
9494Describe a positive result for proteins.Using Biuret solution: Blue to purple3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.4 - Proteins1
9595What are prosthetic groups?non-protein component in a protein, e.g. iron containing haem group in haemoglobin.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.4 - Proteins1
9696What is thin layer chromatography?A technique to separate individual components of a mixture (eg. Amino acids)3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.4 - Proteins1
9797Based on what principles are the amino acids separated in TLC?Their solubility3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.4 - Proteins1
9898Why should the chromatography plate be only handled by the edges?To avoid contamination from proteins on your hands.3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.4 - Proteins1
9999What are the two maintypes of proteins?Globular, fibrous3.1 - Biological molecules3.1.4 - Proteins1