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ABCDE
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Important Scientists in BiologyNote: italics are ones not discussed in class but had some historical contribution
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Unit of studyScientist(s)Contribution
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LifeAristotleFirst to classify organisms; Abiogenesis: thought frogs came directly from mud
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GalenClassified organisms, used dissection
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RediAttempted to disprove abiogenesis with meat and maggot experiments
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NeedhamFirst broth experiments for abiogenesis; thought he proved spontaneous generation because of vital force
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SpallanzaniDisagreed with Needham. Did sealed and loose sealed broth experiments; concluded no spontaneous generation
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Louis PasteurDisproved spontaneous generation with use of swan neck flasks
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Carl LinnaeousFather of modern taxonomy; used Latin
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Origins of lifeOparinHypothesized 5 conditions of the young Earth necessary for life to begin
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FoxPredicted a method in which amino acids could form proteins abiotically
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Miller & UreyFirst experiment starting with Oparin's conditions to lead to the formation of 22 amino acids and other essential organic molecules for life
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EcologyRachel Carsonstarted the modern environmental movement; discovered harmful effects of DDT; wrote "Silent Spring"
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CellsRobert Hooke1665; wrote "Micrographia"; first to describe plant cells seen in cork, named for monk's rooms
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Antonie van Leeuwenhoek"layu-wen-hook"; builder of microscopes; great observer of living cells including: bacteria in teeth plaque, algae, rotifers, etc. 1700s
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Schleiden & Schwann1837; contributed to cell theory. All living things are composed of cells. 1st 2 pts of cell theory
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Virchow1858; All cells must come from other cells - contributed to cell theory
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Biochemistryvan Helmont
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Priestley
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MicrobiologyStanley
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Jennerdeveloped the smallpox vaccine
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Salk & Sabindeveloped the polio vaccine
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Pasteurrabies vaccine and pastuerization
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Flemmingdiscovered that Penicillium mold produced a chemical that destroys bacteria, called it penicillin, first antibiotic.
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TonegawaDiscovered how antibodies are made
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GeneticsBarbara McClintockdiscovered jumping genes
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SuttonChromsome theory of inheritance (studied mitosis/meiosis in grasshoppers). supported Mendal's laws
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MorganInheritance of sex ( studied fruit flies)
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Wilmutcloning (Dolly)
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DNAGriffethbactierial transformation (how dead bacteria could casue live ones to change from harmless to harmful
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Avery, Macleod & McCarthyDNA is the transforming factor
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Hershey & Chaseradioactive viruses(uisng S and P) to discover that it is DNA that is carrying information
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Rosalind FranklinX-ray chrystalography - took picture of DNA that led to discovery of double helix
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Maurice WilkinsWorked with Rosalind Franklin on structure of DNA
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Watson & Crickdetermined structure of DNA as double helix (won Nobel prize)
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EvolutionJean-Baptiste LamarckEvolutionary thinker that thought that traits would be passed down by use or dis-use.
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Charles DarwinDeveloped theory of evolution through natural selection. Went on voyage of the Beagle around the world. Famous for studying island biogeography of Galapagos Islands
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Steven Jay GouldDeveloped idea of punctuated equilibrium in evolution, which states that speciation can happen rapidly at times.
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GeneticsGregor Mendel"father" of genetics; developed laws of inheritance through work with peas
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