Articles with straightforward statistics that are good examples for teaching
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Utility of the example
link to paper
DisciplineTitle of PaperFirst authorYearName of Journal
Alternative link to paper
Contributor to spreadsheet
Additional notes
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Composite Measures
https://www.nature.com/articles/nature03254
Biology (behavior/nat hist)Directed aerial descent in canopy antsYanoviak2005NatureMcGlynn
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ANOVA, factorial design, Chi-squareStatistiBiology (eco/evo)The devil to pay: a cost of mutualism with Myrmelachista schumanni ants in ‘devil's gardens’ is increased herbivory on Duroia hirsuta treesFrederickson2007Proceedings B
http://web.stanford.edu/~dmgordon/old2/frederickson_gordon2007.pdf
McGlynn
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ANOVA, posthoc t-tests, factorial design, hypothesis testing
https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2265711.pdf
Biology (Ecology)Relative importance of factors contributing to postfire seedling establishment in maritime chaparralTyler1996Ecology
https://esajournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.2307/2265711
Corbin
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Two-way ANOVA with interactions, Coefficient of Variation
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/227615530_Influence_of_grazing_and_fire_frequency_on_small-scale_plant_community_structure_and_resource_variability_in_native_tallgrass_praire
Biology (Ecology)Influence of grazing and fire frequency on small-scale plant community structure and resource variability in native tallgrass praireVeen2008OikosKlawinski
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Chi-square
https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/1447941.pdf
Biology (behavior)Defensive behavior of Cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorus) toward humansGibbons2002Copeia
https://srelherp.uga.edu/projects/docs/Gibbons&Dorcas2002.pdf
Durso
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sham treatment
https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa013259
Biology (biomedical)A controlled trial of arthroscopic surgery for osteoarthritis of the kneeMoseley2002N Engl J Med
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12110735-a-controlled-trial-of-arthroscopic-surgery-for-osteoarthritis-of-the-knee/
Kilgore
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Chi-square
https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms12980
Biology (Ecology)Experimental evidence of pollination in marine flowers by invertebrate fauna
Van Tussenbroek
2016Nature CommunicationsRoswell
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Effect sizes
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112710003671
Biology (ecology)Stream buffers ameliorate the effects of timber harvest on amphibians in the
Cascade Range of Southern Washington, USA
Pollett2010Forest Ecology and Management
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237948228_Stream_buffers_ameliorate_the_effects_of_timber_harvest_on_amphibians_in_the_Cascade_Range_of_Southern_Washington_USA
Kilgore
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ANOVA and T-test
https://www.nature.com/articles/nature03962
Biology (ecology)Trophic cascades across ecosystemsKnight2005NatureRoswell
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G Test
https://52df0329-1f8a-4d09-8c6a-a07b787ffedf.filesusr.com/ugd/2bca32_3a82d1804f8f4593bcf0a627a7e13e76.pdf
Biology (evolutionary ecology)Differential avoidance of coral snake banded patterns by free-ranging avian predators in Costa Rica.Brodie1993EvolutionKlawinski
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Regression (tested against a null hypothesis of slope=1)
https://52df0329-1f8a-4d09-8c6a-a07b787ffedf.filesusr.com/ugd/2bca32_99427bd87e6f4f2faca26bfe47bb05b5.pdf
Biology (Evolutionary Ecology)Costs of exploiting dangerous prey: evolutionary trade-offs in a predator-pre arms race.Brodie1999EvolutionKlawinski
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(Subdivided) chi-square, AN(C)OVA, Wilcoxan signed-rank test, Welch's ANOVA
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1558-5646.2012.01638.x
Biology (Behavioral Ecology)The precopulatory function of male genital spines in Drosphila ananassae [Doleschall] (Diptera: Drosophilidae) revealed by laser surgeryGrieshop2012EvolutionGrieshop
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Paired t-test text results emphasizing differences between groups
http://doi.org/10.1007/s002650050573
Biology (Behavioral Ecology)Encounter rate and task allocation in harvester antsGordon1999Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/226213131_Encounter_rate_and_task_allocation_in_harvester_ants
Pavlic
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Paired t-test plot showing pairs within groups
http://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0310.2001.00749.x
Biology (Behavioral Ecology)The Use of Edges in Visual Navigation by the Ant Temnothorax albipennisPratt2001EthologyPavlic
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Sample evaluation using rank histogram
https://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/full/10.1175/1520-0493%282001%29129%3C0550%3AIORHFV%3E2.0.CO%3B2
Climate science Interpretation of Rank Histograms for Verifying Ensemble Forecasts Hamill2001Monthly Weather ReviewsSuarez-Gutierrez
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ANCOVA
https://www.jstor.org/stable/4089392?seq=1
Biology (behavioral ecology)Functional Roles in Mixed-Species Foraging Flocks: A Field ManipulationDolby1999The Auk
https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/auk/v116n02/p0557-p0559.pdf
Rollinson
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2 sample T-test for Unequal variance
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/276170732_Growth_and_Yield_of_Miscanthus_giganteus_Grown_in_Fertilized_and_Biochar-Amended_Soils_in_the_Western_North_Carolina_Mountains
Botany (plant PhysiologyGrowth and Yield of Miscanthus × giganteus Grown in Fertilized and Biochar-Amended Soils in the Western North Carolina MountainsTeat, A.2015Castanea
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Sensitivity Analysis, Type I vs II errors
https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmoa1407349
Biology (medicine)Cell-free DNA Analysis for Noninvasive Examination of TrisomyNorton2015N Engl J Med
potential TW, down's syndrome
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Negative density-dependence (survival)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320709004121
Ecology (Wildlife)Large-scale noninvasive genetic monitoring of wolverines using scats reveals density dependent adult survivalBrøseth2010Biological Conservation
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2009.09.012
Mosher
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Negative density-dependence (survival)
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ece3.3463
Ecology (Wildlife)Spatially varying density dependence drives a shifting mosaic of survival in a recovering apex predator (Canis lupus)O'Neil2017Ecology and EvolutionMosher
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Negative density-dependence (reproduction)
https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/4484.pdf
Ecology (Wildlife)The Effects of Density-Dependent Resource Limitations on the Demography of Wild ReindeerSkogland1985Journal of Animal EcologyMosher
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Allee effects/Positive density-dependence (vigilance)
https://wildlife.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.2193/0022-541X%282004%29068%5B0519%3AVPRATA%5D2.0.CO%3B2
Ecology (Wildlife)Vigilance, predation risk, and the Allee effect in desert bighorn sheepMooring2004Journal of Wildlife ManagementMosher
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Linear Regression, descriptive statistics
https://wildlife.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/wsb.75
Ecology (Wildlife)Interspecific variation in wildlife hazards to aircraft: Implications for airport wildlife management2011Wildlife Society Bulletin
https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2079&context=icwdm_usdanwrc
Reinke
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One way ANOVA
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1658077X17302655?via%3Dihub
Food scienceEffect of thawing conditions and corresponding frying temperatureAbdul-Hamid2019Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural SciencesBahlai
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T tests
https://academic.oup.com/ee/article-abstract/48/2/419/5296036
Chemical EcologyHerbivorous Caterpillars Can Utilize Three Mechanisms to Alter Green Leaf Volatile EmissionJones2019Environmental EntomologyBahlai
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Descriptive statistics, Wilcoxon signed ranks
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jpc.14309
Pediatric HealthEverything is awesome: Don’t forget the LegoTagg2019Journal of Paediatrics and Child HealthBahlai
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Confidence intervals for proportions in binomial distributions, chi-square test
https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rstb.2016.0066
Biology (Sensory biology/behavioural neuroscience)The dual rod system of amphibians supports colour discrimination at the absolute visual thresholdYovanovich2017Philosophical Transactions BYovanovich
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one-way ANOVA; post-hoc tests
https://www.jstor.org/stable/1940852
Biology (botany)Pattern of Leaf Damage Affects Fitness of the Annual Plant Raphanus Sativus (Brassicaceae)Mauricio1993EcologyRollinson
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t-test, simple linear regression, ANOVA
https://besjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2005.01042.x
Biology (ecology)Differential tree mortality in response to severe drought: evidence for long-term vegetation shiftsMueller2005Journal of EcologyFlake
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one-way ANOVA; correlation; multiple comaparisons; discriminant function analysis
https://esajournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.2307/1934418
biology (ecology)
Habitat Selection of Breeding Birds in an East Tennessee Deciduous Forest
Anderson1974Ecology
https://www.jstor.org/stable/1934418
Rollinson
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chi-square
https://www.jstor.org/stable/1467240
Biology (behavioral ecology)Feeding and Burrowing Behaviors of Juvenile Rainbow Mussels, Villosa iris (Bivalvia:Unionidae)Yeager1994Journal of the North American Benthological SocietyRollinson
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mixed-effect ANOVA
https://www.jstor.org/stable/1941202
Biology (botany)Leaf Damage Decreases Pollen Production and Hinders Pollen Performance in Cucurbita TexanaQuesada1995EcologyRollinson
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one-way ANOVA; Tukey post-hoc test; t-test
https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1995.tb05720.x
Biology (botany)Flood‐induced leaf elongation in Rumex species: effects of water depth and water movementsBanga1995New PhytologistRollinson
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Wilcoxon signed-rank test; Mann-Whitney U test; ANOVA
https://conbio.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1996.10051366.x
Biology (ecology)Use of Riparian Buffer Strips as Movement Corridors by Forest BirdsMachtans1996Conservation BiologyRollinson
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Spearman's rank-order correlation; Mann-Whitney U test
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.2307/3236309
Biology (botany)
Do rivers function as corridors for plant dispersal?
Johansson1996Journal of Vegetation ScienceRollinson
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paired t-test; Spearman's
https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/abs/10.1098/rspb.2009.1087
Biology (behavioral ecology)Computer animations stimulate contagious yawning in chimpanzeesCampbell2009Proceedings BCahill
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ANOVA
http://www.herpconbio.org/Volume_2/Issue_1/Karraker_2007.pdf
Biology (ecology)Are embryonic and larval green frogs (Rana clamitans) insensitive to road deicing salt?Karraker2007Herpetological Conservation and BiologyCahill
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One-way ANOVA, simple linear regression
https://www.nature.com/articles/ngeo366
Earth science/biogeochemistryMolybdenum limitation of asymbiotic nitrogen fixation in tropical forest soilsBarron2009Nature GeoscienceDynarski
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Two-way ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc test
https://esajournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ecy.2486
Earth science/biogeochemistryPlant-soil feedbacks on free-living nitrogen fixation over geological time Winbourne2018EcologyDynarski
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Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc Tukey-type test (plus more complex stats)
https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article%3Fid%3D10.1371/journal.pone.0070182&usg=ALkJrhixQcCX9tDgyvJziiWj7WEwGdi-zA
Biology (entomology, insect epidemiology)Crop Pollination Exposes Honey Bees to Pesticides Which Alters Their Susceptibility to the Gut Pathogen Nosema ceranaePettis
2013PLOS ONELichtenberg
Used as a teaching modelfor how to structure a scientific paper by the World Health Organization's Hinari Access to Research for Health program. (http://slideplayer.com/slide/4121536/ slide 28)
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Two-way ANOVAs with Tukey HSD tests, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00265-010-1080-3
Biology (behavioral ecology)Olfactory eavesdropping between two competing stingless bee speciesLichtenberg2011Behavioral Ecology and SociobiologyLichtenberg
Relevant video (competition/aggression): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=23l5f1M3pvA
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Leslie/Leftkovich matrix models (age structure)
https://esajournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1890/05-0486
Ecology (Wildlife)Matrix model investigation of invasive species control: bullfrogs on Vancouver Island
Govindarajulu
2005Ecological ApplicationsMosher
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One-way ANOVA, Independent two- way ANOVA, Repeated-measures two-way ANOVA, Tukey’s HSD post-hoc test, Student’s two-sample unpaired t-test, Multiple linear regression, Pearson’s chi-square test
https://www.publish.csiro.au/bt/pdf/BT18012
Ecology (plants & climate change)Response of extrafloral nectar production to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxideFabian2018
Australian Journal of Botany
https://doi.org/10.1071/BT18012
Fabian
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paired t-test, G-test
https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2388266.pdf
Ecology
The Effect of Hurricane Hugo on Six Invertebrate Species in the Luquillo Experimental Forest of Puerto Rico
Willig1991BiotropicaCamilo
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Regression
https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/aaf0ec
Ecology (climate change, drying habitat, affect on muskrat population)Drying drives decline in muskrat population in the Peace-Athabasca Delta, CanadaWard2018
Environmental Research Letters 13(12)
Koltermann
47
Chi-squared
https://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12864-014-1199-0
Exercise Science/Genomics
Elite athletes’ genetic predisposition for altered risk of complex metabolic traits
Banting2015BMC GenomicsDalby
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ANCOVA
https://science.sciencemag.org/content/287/5451/308
Evolutionary Biology
Rapid Evolution of a Geographic Cline in Size in an Introduced Fly
Huey2000ScienceDalby
The data for the line fit is available and a statistically more sound analysis can be carried out
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Data Visualisation
http://www.wisdom.weizmann.ac.il/~zvika/course2015/announcements/WainerAmericanStatistician1984.pdf
All fieldsHow to Display Data BadlyWainer1984The American StatisticianDalby
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Logistic regression, Fisher's exact test
https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rsbl.2015.0957
Behavioural Ecology
Benefits of size dimorphism and copulatory silk wrapping in the sexually cannibalistic nursery web spider, Pisaurina mira
Anderson2016Biology LettersScott
Nice short, easy-to-read paper that I have assigned to students learning to read and write IMRaD papers
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clear progression from hypotheses to data to tests; Permutational MANOVA, 1-sample t-test
https://doi.org/10.1111/evo.12325Evolutionary Ecology
PREDATOR PERCEPTION OF BATESIAN MIMICRY AND CONSPICUOUSNESS IN A SALAMANDER
Kraemer2014Evolution
https://andrewckraemer.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/2014-evol-kraemeradams-batesianmimicrypcinereus.pdf
Kraemer (shameless, I know)
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clear progression from hypotheses to data to tests; randomization, linear regression, nested ANOVA
https://doi.org/10.1111/jeb.12622Evolutionary Ecology
Batesian mimics influence the evolution of conspicuousness in an aposematic salamander
Kraemer2015Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://andrewckraemer.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/2015-jevolbiol-kraemer-et-al-manderconspicuousness.pdf
Kraemer
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Two-way and one-way Anova and Tukey's HSD
https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rsbl.2012.0948
Ecology Spider silk reduces insect herbivoryRypstra2013Biology LettersScott
Nice short, easy-to-read paper that I have assigned to students learning to read and write IMRaD papers
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simple negative binomial glm followed by Tukey (to analyze field trapping experiment with 4 treatments in a randomized complete block design)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003347215002262
Behavioural Ecology
Web reduction by male black widows renders pheromone-emitting females’ webs less attractive to rivals
Scott2015Animal BehaviourScott
My own paper (sorry) but includes all the data and R code for data visualization and analyses which some might find useful, particularly for looking at count data as often comes up in arthropod trapping studies; could compare analysis with a Poisson distribution vs. negative binomial
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1-way Anova; nice figures
https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/41414069.pdf
Sexual Selection
Different environments lead to a reversal in the expression of weapons and testes in the heliconia bug, Leptoscelis tricolor (Hemiptera: Coreidae)
Somjee2015Biological Journal of the Linnaean SocietyScott
Nice clear story, lovely simple figures!
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2-way ANOVA; PCA; Tukey
https://esajournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.2307/1939415
Ecology (biogeochemistry, forests)
Beaver Influences on the Long‐Term Biogeochemical Characteristics of Boreal Forest Drainage Networks
Naiman1994EcologyJason
Stream flow, nutrients, questions about differences, beavers!
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I think it would be of value if the table would be organized by type of test. I know some papers use multiple approaches. However the objective I believe is for NEW learners in the field so concentrating on the easiest and clearest examples would help
Hi Pumpkin, I thought that's what the first column is? Cheers, terry. Any thoughts, feel free to comment on the blog post or email me
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