SAE Checksheet
 Share
The version of the browser you are using is no longer supported. Please upgrade to a supported browser.Dismiss

 
£
%
123
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZAAABACADAEAFAGAHAIAJAKALAM
1
ZRH
Tz'reichs
RCR
Red Creek
AMA (Standard) AmaianNGU
Ngutanese
ACY AchiyitqanCWS
Tiranese
KSG KisaanganUO1 ThuunADZ AdzamasiLossumittútVP
Viossa
LXE
Lxelxe
KKL KaimenProto- SamaranDSE diSéllatOld DnáloriWenaJuteanBundigeerOld SumrëLorošaeRrób Tè JĕhnòAgupEdebro (EDB)WetokwaAtruozanLithianNew Amaian (AMI)Lonmai LunaManiKolyma AinuYélian (YEL)griuskantTnaaqriðemi'jelHIH
2
1. Definite and indefinite articles. [half mark if only definite, or only indefinite articles; half mark for definite and/or indefinite affixes]0.500a0.50.5000.50000.500.5010000.500.50.5000.500.50.50.500.5000.50.50.5
3
2. Relativization uses a relative pronoun, which inflects for case. (e.g. who/whose/whom) [half points for relative pronoun which does not inflect for case]ban -jute-0000.501000.50.501011001100100000.50.500.50.50000
4
3. Periphrastic perfect expressed with "to have". (e.g. "I have slept")00000000000000000000000000000000100000
5
3.1 Possessive predication (e.g. "I have a cat") expressed with "to have".10100.510.501111010100.500101001010101111000
6
4. Experiencers in nominative case. (e.g. I like music)00?010a0.501110.5010.511110111011011100000
7
5. Periphrastic passive formed with "to be" and past participle. [half mark if periphrastic passive with one but not both of those elements] 000a000000001000000000000000000000.5000
8
6. Anticausative prominence: the intransitive verb in inchoative/causative pairs is derived from the transitive. (E.g. Spanish derretir 'melt sth' > derretirse 'melt (intr.)'. Something that would NOT be an example would be a language that MUST use a causative construction to say "to melt the ice" (like "made the ice melt").) [full marks for over 70% of such intransitives derived from transitive; half marks for over 50%] [Examples of inchoative/causative pairs are "die/kill", "be destroyed/destroy", "wake up"/"wake sb up", "learn/teach", "open", "change", "boil", "fill", "stop".]a00.510.5a0.5a0.5011000.51100010000100000.50.50.500
9
7. External possessors in dative case. (e.g. German Die mutter wusch dem Kinde die Haare, French La mère lave les cheveux à l'enfant, lit. the mother washes the hair to the child) [0 points for no external possessor, e.g. the mother hair-washes the child, or the mother washes the child's hair; half marks for external possessor in a non-dative case]000a00a0.50000000.5000000.5000000000000000
10
8. Verbal negation with negative indefinite. (e.g. Nobody listened)00000.5000.5101110.5000.50010000010100101000
11
9. Particle comparatives in expressions of inequality. (e.g. bigger than an elephant) [half mark for locative comparative]00.50.51a00.50.50100100010000.50.510100010.50.50.50.5
12
10. Equative constructions based on what Haspelmath calls "an adverbial relative-clause structure". (E.g. French si grand comme un éléphant 'as big as an elephant', where "comme" comes historically from an interrogative pronoun and so Haspelmath calls it "an adverbial relative pronoun".)0?000000010010000000000000000000
13
11. Subject person affixes as strict agreement markers, i.e. the verb is inflected for person and number of the subject, but subject pronouns may not be dropped.0000000000000000000100000100000000000
14
12. Differentiation between intensifiers and reflexive pronouns. (e.g. German selbst vs. sich)000000010000011110100010100101100
15
13. Verb-initial word order in polar questions.00000000001000100100100000010000000
16
14. Comparative inflection of adjectives. (e.g. bigger)21022?010011110000000010010001101000
17
15. Conjunction with medial connective, i.e. "A and B"21221110.5011110111000011101110.510.5
18
16. Specific "neither-nor" construction.2022?202000110010000000000000100100
19
17. Syncretism of comitative and instrumental cases. (e.g. with my friends vs. with a knife)20022000001111000100000110000100000
20
18. Suppletism in second vs. two.2022002000010100001100000000000
21
19. No distinction between alienable and inalienable possession, i.e. possession is grammatically identical for body parts and physical objects.201221212011110010.5010101111101111000
22
20. No distinction between inclusive and exclusive first person pronouns.2112111100111111100011110101001011101
23
21. No productive use of reduplication.200210120111110010.5010010001100010.51000
24
22. Topic and focus expressed solely by intonation and word order.2001112011011101001111101111110001
25
23. Only one gerund or converb.20021002011110.5?none1100110101010.50.5000
26
24. SVO word order.2100000.5001000000.510100100.5010100110000
27
25. Phasal adverbs, i.e. the use of adverbials to express aspect distinctions. (e.g. still, already, not yet)212110.510.501010.50.5110100.5011011110010.50100
28
26. Tendency for replacement of past tense by perfect tense.2000200000000000000000000001000001100
29
27. Moderately synthetic fusional morphological typology.000100202001000.5110100000001000000001
30
28. Predominantly but not exclusively suffixing morphology.0102200001111111101100100100101001000
31
29. No possessive affixes on nouns.00102120201001010111010110011(but there are clitics)00101101
32
30. Accusative morphological alignment.111010110111110.510.510101000100.5010010.500
33
31. Prepositions rather than postpositions. [half marks if both are present in roughly equal proportion]001110010110101001001101110110111110
34
32. "And" different than "with" in nominal phrase conjunction.10?0110101111100111111101111110101
35
33. Definite article distinct from demonstrative. [no marks if definite article is absent]000020.5001000100100101000100110101110
36
34. Symmetric standard negation01111110011101111111110111110001
37
35. Predicative adjectives use nonverbal encoding, i.e. "the food is cold" rather than "the food colds"000.510100.5000.5111000.5?noun - This should be 01100101100010.51000.5
38
36. Nominal predication (e.g. "he is a teacher") and locational predication (e.g. "he is in the room") are identical.00100101001101000.5111010110110110.51000
39
37. Negation uses a particle, rather than an affix, verb, or other means. (e.g. not)00010000001001010000011000010000.50001
40
38. Indirect object construction in ditransitive constructions.000000101011010001011111111101100
41
39. Adverbial subordinator precedes clause. (e.g. because it was Friday)0000.51000.501111100011011101110.5000.51
42
40. Interrogative phrase initial in content questions. (e.g. Who did you see?)10000.5000010.510100001001100000100.5
43
41. Degree word precedes adjective. (e.g. very deep)1?00.5100.5001111111010000100.5001111001
44
42. Numeral precedes noun. (e.g. three women)10.501100.500101111110111111111111011010
45
43. Demonstrative precedes noun. (e.g. I want that book)10010101010110110111111100001111101
46
44. Verbal suppletion in tense. (e.g. go vs. went)10000.500100000000
000000.500000000000100
47
45. Prohibitive uses a sentential negation strategy found in declaratives. (e.g. Go to school!/Don't go to school! vs. You go to school./You don't go to school.)00000.51001011111111011110001100000
48
46. Morphologically dedicated form for second person singular imperatives.10000000001110.5000001110010100000000
49
47. No person marking on adpositions.10111110101101011?1101011111101111111
50
48. Grammatically marked past/non-past distinction, with no remoteness distinctions.100000.511001011010.500100011010000101000
51
49. Nominal and verbal conjunction expressed identically. (e.g. Anna and Peter vs. Anna reads and studies vs. Anna reads and Peter studies) [half mark for nominal and verbal conjunction both expressed by juxtaposition]0.50.5?100000011110.500.51
00.500100.51100000.50011
52
50. Binary (T-V) distinction in politeness in pronouns. (e.g. Spanish tu/vosotros vs. usted/ustedes)000000210000000000000010010000000000
53
51. Gender distinctions in third person pronouns only. (e.g. him/her/it vs. me, you) [half mark for gender distinctions on other pronouns]1000.500000.5000.50010000111000100010100100
54
52. Sex-based gender on nouns, limited to two or three genders. [half mark for sex-based gender and >3 genders; half mark for 2 or 3 non-sex-based genders]0.50.500.50.50000000010000.50000.50000.5000000.5000.500
55
53. Syncretism among core (i.e. nominative, absolutive, ergative, and accusative) and non-core (i.e. oblique) cases. [half mark for syncretism among core cases only]0.5020001000001000001000.500000000000000
56
54. Dependent-marking in clauses. [half mark for double-marking] Dependent marking is considered to exist if a noun direct object is identified only by marking found in the direct object, e.g. Russian vodku p'ju 'I drink vodka', where accusative -u identifies the direct object, but the verb does not agree with the direct object. Double-marking is considered to exist if the direct object is marked as such and the verb agrees with it, e.g. the Uradhi example on the WALS.0.5021000.5000.510.5100.51100.500000010001001011
57
55. Nominal plurality expressed via suffix.0.50.5011000100111000001110101101001101000
58
56. Nominal plurality obligatory on all nouns.10000100000011010001100100001001101000
59
TOTAL46.58.5173953.527.521.538.53315594339.555.51148.534.526.527.510.5442223.5341818.53542.520.538232250.52840.525.511.518.5
60
COMPLETION96.49%64.91%89.47%94.74%100.00%92.98%96.49%98.25%100.00%100.00%100.00%100.00%96.49%100.00%64.91%100.00%87.72%94.74%91.23%22.81%100.00%100.00%100.00%98.25%82.46%75.44%94.74%96.49%89.47%91.23%91.23%92.98%100.00%100.00%100.00%100.00%98.25%100.00%
61
Comparison Data
Does this language use topic and focus particles or affixes? I know lots of languages do, although I don't think I've seen that in conlangs much at all.
62
Go here for mèþru's conlangs: Updated 4-3-2017
Amaian has various particles and also syntactic movement. Topic and focus marking is soo cool, more conlangs should do it, I agree :)
63
Yeah, mine does only use movement and intonation, but a lot of non-SAE
langs do that too. I mean, I don't recall there being particles or
affixes in Georgian or in any of the NA or Australian langs I've seen.
Pach'o is getting particles or something now though
64
German: 98
65
French: 96
66
Spanish: 88
67
English: 85.5
68
Czech: between 70 and 86 (test was 85% completed)
69
Hungarian: between 61 and 65 (test was 88% completed)
70
Irish: between 42 and 53 (test was 85% completed)
71
Maltese: between 31 and 55 (test was 70% completed)
72
Estonian: between 32 and 48 (test was 85% completed)
73
Standard Arabic ("fuS7a"): about 35
74
Nenets: between 18 and 31 (test was 85% completed)
75
Mandarin: about 26
76
Hindi: 21.5
77
Chukchi: 20.5
78
Yoruba: 20.5
79
Indonesian: 20
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
Loading...