How can my family and I prepare for COVID-19?Create a household plan of action to help protect your health and the health of those you care about in the event of an outbreak of COVID-19 in your commun Talk with the people who need to be included in your plan, and discuss what to do if a COVID-19 outbreak occurs in your community. Plan ways to care for those who might be at greater risk for serious complications, particularly older adults and those with severe chronic medical conditions like heart, lung or kidney disease. Make sure they have access to several weeks of medications and supplies in case you need to stay home for prolonged periods of time. Get to know your neighbors and find out if your neighborhood has a website or social media page to stay connected. Create a list of local organizations that you and your household can contact in the event you need access to information, healthcare services, support, and resources. Create an emergency contact list of family, friends, neighbors, carpool drivers, health care providers, teachers, employers, the local public health department, and other community resources.https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prepare/faq.html20200402
What steps can my family take to reduce our risk of getting COVID-19?Practice everyday preventive actions to help reduce your risk of getting sick and remind everyone in your home to do the same. These actions are especially important for older adults and people who have severe chronic medical conditions:

Avoid close contact with people who are sick.
Stay home when you are sick, except to get medical care.
Cover your coughs and sneezes with a tissue and throw the tissue in the trash.
Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing; going to the bathroom; and before eating or preparing food.
If soap and water are not readily available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol. Always wash hands with soap and water if hands are visibly dirty.
Clean and disinfect frequently touched surfaces and objects
(e.g., tables, countertops, light switches, doorknobs, and cabinet handles).
https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prepare/faq.html, German Version harmonized with https://www.anmeldestelle.admin.ch/chem/de/home/themen/pflicht-hersteller/zulassung-biozidprodukte/uebergangszulassung/zulassung-zn/zulassungsverfahren-zn-desinfektionsmittel/desinfizierende-wirkstoffe.html20200402
What should I do if someone in my house gets sick with COVID-19?Most people who get COVID-19 will be able to recover at home. CDC has directions for people who are recovering at home and their caregivers, including: Stay home when you are sick, except to get medical care. If you develop emergency warning signs for COVID-19 get medical attention immediately. In adults, emergency warning signs*: Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath Persistent pain or pressure in the chest New confusion or inability to arouse Bluish lips or face *This list is not all inclusive. Please consult your medical provider for any other symptom that is severe or concerning. Use a separate room and bathroom for sick household members (if possible). Clean hands regularly by handwashing with soap and water or using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol. Provide your sick household member with clean disposable facemasks to wear at home, if available, to help prevent spreading COVID-19 to others. Clean the sick room and bathroom, as needed, to avoid unnecessary contact with the sick person. Avoid sharing personal items like utensils, food, and drinks.https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prepare/faq.html, German Version harmonized with https://www.bag.admin.ch/bag/de/home/krankheiten/ausbrueche-epidemien-pandemien/aktuelle-ausbrueche-epidemien/novel-cov/krankheit-symptome-behandlung-ursprung.html#-31393355320200402
How can I prepare in case my child’s school, childcare facility, or university is dismissed?Talk to the school or facility about their emergency operations plan. Understand the plan for continuing education and social services (such as student meal programs) during school dismissals. If your child attends a college or university, encourage them to learn about the school’s plan for a COVID-19 outbreak.https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prepare/faq.html20200402
How can I prepare for COVID-19 at work?Plan for potential changes at your workplace. Talk to your employer about their emergency operations plan, including sick-leave policies and telework options. Learn how businesses and employers can plan for and respond to COVID-19.https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prepare/faq.html20200402
Should I use soap and water or a hand sanitizer to protect against COVID-19?Handwashing is one of the best ways to protect yourself and your family from getting sick. Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing; going to the bathroom; and before eating or preparing food. If soap and water are not readily available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol.https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prepare/faq.html20200402
What cleaning products should I use to protect against COVID-19?Clean and disinfect frequently touched surfaces such as tables, doorknobs, light switches, countertops, handles, desks, phones, keyboards, toilets, faucets, and sinks. If surfaces are dirty, clean them using detergent or soap and water prior to disinfection. To disinfect, most common EPA-registered household disinfectants will work. See CDC’s recommendations for household cleaning and disinfection.https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prepare/faq.html20200402
What should I do if there is an outbreak in my community?During an outbreak, stay calm and put your preparedness plan to work. Follow the steps below: Protect yourself and others. Stay home if you are sick. Keep away from people who are sick. Limit close contact with others as much as possible (about 6 feet). Put your household plan into action. Stay informed about the local COVID-19 situation. Be aware of temporary school dismissals in your area, as this may affect your household’s daily routine. Continue practicing everyday preventive actions. Cover coughs and sneezes with a tissue and wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. If soap and water are not available, use a hand sanitizer that contains 60% alcohol. Clean frequently touched surfaces and objects daily using a regular household detergent and water. Notify your workplace as soon as possible if your regular work schedule changes. Ask to work from home or take leave if you or someone in your household gets sick with COVID-19 symptoms, or if your child’s school is dismissed temporarily. Learn how businesses and employers can plan for and respond to COVID-19. Stay in touch with others by phone or email. If you have a chronic medical condition and live alone, ask family, friends, and health care providers to check on you during an outbreak. Stay in touch with family and friends, especially those at increased risk of developing severe illness, such as older adults and people with severe chronic medical conditions.https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prepare/faq.html20200402
How do I prepare my children in case of COVID-19 outbreak in our community?Outbreaks can be stressful for adults and children. Talk with your children about the outbreak, try to stay calm, and reassure them that they are safe. If appropriate, explain to them that most illness from COVID-19 seems to be mild. Children respond differently to stressful situations than adults.
What steps should parents take to protect children during a community outbreak?
This is a new virus and we are still learning about it, but so far, there does not seem to be a lot of illness in children. Most illness, including serious illness, is happening in adults of working age and older adults. If there cases of COVID-19 that impact your child’s school, the school may dismiss students. Keep track of school dismissals in your community. Read or watch local media sources that report school dismissals. If schools are dismissed temporarily, use alternative childcare arrangements, if needed.

If your child/children become sick with COVID-19, notify their childcare facility or school. Talk with teachers about classroom assignments and activities they can do from home to keep up with their schoolwork.

Discourage children and teens from gathering in other public places while school is dismissed to help slow the spread of COVID-19 in the community.
Will schools be dismissed if there is an outbreak in my community?Depending on the situation, public health officials may recommend community actions to reduce exposures to COVID-19, such as school dismissals. Read or watch local media sources that report school dismissals or and watch for communication from your child’s school. If schools are dismissed temporarily, discourage students and staff from gathering or socializing anywhere, like at a friend’s house, a favorite restaurant, or the local shopping mall.https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prepare/faq.html20200402
Should I go to work if there is an outbreak in my community?Follow the advice of your local health officials. Stay home if you can. Talk to your employer to discuss working from home, taking leave if you or someone in your household gets sick with COVID-19 symptoms, or if your child’s school is dismissed temporarily. Employers should be aware that more employees may need to stay at home to care for sick children or other sick family members than is usual in case of a community outbreak.https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prepare/faq.html20200402
What is a coronavirus?Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses which may cause illness in animals or humans. In humans, several coronaviruses are known to cause respiratory infections ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The most recently discovered coronavirus causes coronavirus disease COVID-19.https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses20200402
What is COVID-19?COVID-19 is the infectious disease caused by the most recently discovered coronavirus. This new virus and disease were unknown before the outbreak began in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. </p>https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses20200402
What are the symptoms of COVID-19?The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, tiredness, and dry cough. Some patients may have aches and pains, nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat or diarrhea. 30% of the infected could lack sense of smell and taste for 5-10 days. These symptoms are usually mild and begin gradually. Some people become infected but don&rsquo;t develop any symptoms and don't feel unwell. Most people (about 80%) recover from the disease without needing special treatment. Around 1 out of every 6 people who gets COVID-19 becomes seriously ill and develops difficulty breathing. Older people, and those with underlying medical problems like high blood pressure, heart problems or diabetes, are more likely to develop serious illness. People with fever, cough and difficulty breathing should seek medical attention.</p>https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses20200402
How does COVID-19 spread?People can catch COVID-19 from others who have the virus. The disease can spread from person to person through small droplets from the nose or mouth which are spread when a person with COVID-19 coughs or exhales. These droplets land on objects and surfaces around the person. Other people then catch COVID-19 by touching these objects or surfaces, then touching their eyes, nose or mouth. People can also catch COVID-19 if they breathe in droplets from a person with COVID-19 who coughs out or exhales droplets. This is why it is important to stay more than 1 meter (3 feet) away from a person who is sick.
WHO is assessing ongoing research on the ways COVID-19 is spread and will continue to share updated findings.
Can the virus that causes COVID-19 be transmitted through the air?
Studies to date suggest that the virus that causes COVID-19 is mainly transmitted through contact with respiratory droplets rather than through the air.
Can CoVID-19 be caught from a person who has no symptoms?
The main way the disease spreads is through respiratory droplets expelled by someone who is coughing. The risk of catching COVID-19 from someone with no symptoms at all is very low. However, many people with COVID-19 experience only mild symptoms. This is particularly true at the early stages of the disease. It is therefore possible to catch COVID-19 from someone who has, for example, just a mild cough and does not feel ill. WHO is assessing ongoing research on the period of transmission of COVID-19 and will continue to share updated findings.
Can I catch COVID-19 from the feces of someone with the disease?
The risk of catching COVID-19 from the feces of an infected person appears to be low. While initial investigations suggest the virus may be present in feces in some cases, spread through this route is not a main feature of the outbreak. WHO is assessing ongoing research on the ways COVID-19 is spread and will continue to share new findings. Because this is a risk, however, it is another reason to clean hands regularly, after using the bathroom and before eating.
What can I do to protect myself and prevent the spread of disease?Protection measures for everyone Stay aware of the latest information on the COVID-19 outbreak, available on the WHO website and through your national and local public health authority. Many countries around the world have seen cases of COVID-19 and several have seen outbreaks.

Authorities in China and some other countries have succeeded in slowing or stopping their outbreaks. However, the situation is unpredictable so check regularly for the latest news.
You can reduce your chances of being infected or spreading COVID-19 by taking some simple precautions:
Regularly and thoroughly clean your hands with an alcohol-based hand rub or wash them with soap and water.
Why? Washing your hands with soap and water or using alcohol-based hand rub kills viruses that may be on your hands.
Maintain at least 1 metre (3 feet) distance between yourself and anyone who is coughing or sneezing.
Why? When someone coughs or sneezes they spray small liquid droplets from their nose or mouth which may contain virus. If you are too close, you can breathe in the droplets, including the COVID-19 virus if the person coughing has the disease.
Avoid touching eyes, nose and mouth.
Why? Hands touch many surfaces and can pick up viruses. Once contaminated, hands can transfer the virus to your eyes, nose or mouth. From there, the virus can enter your body and can make you sick.
Make sure you, and the people around you, follow good respiratory hygiene. This means covering your mouth and nose with your bent elbow or tissue when you cough or sneeze. Then dispose of the used tissue immediately.
Why? Droplets spread virus. By following good respiratory hygiene you protect the people around you from viruses such as cold, flu and COVID-19.
Stay home if you feel unwell. If you have a fever, cough and difficulty breathing, seek medical attention and call in advance. Follow the directions of your local health authority.
Why? National and local authorities will have the most up to date information on the situation in your area. Calling in advance will allow your health care provider to quickly direct you to the right health facility. This will also protect you and help prevent spread of viruses and other infections.
Keep up to date on the latest COVID-19 hotspots (cities or local areas where COVID-19 is spreading widely). If possible, avoid traveling to places, especially if you are an older person or have diabetes, heart or lung disease.
Why? You have a higher chance of catching COVID-19 in one of these areas. Protection measures for persons who are in or have recently visited (past 14 days) areas where COVID-19 is spreading
Follow the guidance outlined above (Protection measures for everyone) Self-isolate by staying at home if you begin to feel unwell, even with mild symptoms such as headache, low grade fever (37.3 C or above) and slight runny nose, until you recover. If it is essential for you to have someone bring you supplies or to go out, e.g. to buy food, then wear a mask to avoid infecting other people.
Why? Avoiding contact with others and visits to medical facilities will allow these facilities to operate more effectively and help protect you and others from possible COVID-19 and other viruses.
If you develop fever, cough and difficulty breathing, seek medical advice promptly as this may be due to a respiratory infection or other serious condition. Call in advance and tell your provider of any recent travel or contact with travelers.
Why? Calling in advance will allow your health care provider to quickly direct you to the right health facility. This will also help to prevent possible spread of COVID-19 and other viruses.

How likely am I to catch COVID-19?The risk depends on where you &nbsp;are - and more specifically, whether there is a COVID-19 outbreak unfolding there.
For most people in most locations the risk of catching COVID-19 is still low. However, there are now places around the world (cities or areas) where the disease is spreading. For people living in, or visiting, these areas the risk of catching COVID-19 is higher. Governments and health authorities are taking vigorous action every time a new case of COVID-19 is identified. Be sure to comply with any local restrictions on travel, movement or large gatherings. Cooperating with disease control efforts will reduce your risk of catching or spreading COVID-19.
COVID-19 outbreaks can be contained and transmission stopped, as has been shown in China and some other countries. Unfortunately, new outbreaks can emerge rapidly. It is important to be aware of the situation where you are or intend to go. WHO publishes daily updates on the COVID-19 situation worldwide.
Should I worry about COVID-19?Illness due to COVID-19 infection is generally mild, especially for children and young adults. However, it can cause serious illness: about 1 in every 5 people who catch it need hospital care. It is therefore quite normal for people to worry about how the COVID-19 outbreak will affect them and their loved ones.
We can channel our concerns into actions to protect ourselves, our loved ones and our communities. First and foremost among these actions is regular and thorough hand-washing and good respiratory hygiene. Secondly, keep informed and follow the advice of the local health authorities including any restrictions put in place on travel, movement and gatherings.
Who is at risk of developing severe illness?While we are still learning about how COVID-2019 affects people, older persons and persons with pre-existing medical conditions (such as high blood pressure, heart disease, lung disease, cancer or diabetes) appear to develop serious illness more often than others.https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses20200402
Are antibiotics effective in preventing or treating the COVID-19?No. Antibiotics do not work against viruses, they only work on bacterial infections. COVID-19 is caused by a virus, so antibiotics do not work. Antibiotics should not be used as a means of prevention or treatment of COVID-19. They should only be used as directed by a physician to treat a bacterial infection.https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses20200402
Are there any medicines or therapies that can prevent or cure COVID-19?While some western, traditional or home remedies may provide comfort and alleviate symptoms of COVID-19, there is no evidence that current medicine can prevent or cure the disease. WHO does not recommend self-medication with any medicines, including antibiotics, as a prevention or cure for COVID-19. However, there are several ongoing clinical trials that include both western and traditional medicines. WHO will continue to provide updated information as soon as clinical findings are available.https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses20200402
Is there a vaccine, drug or treatment for COVID-19?Not yet. To date, there is no vaccine and no specific antiviral medicine to prevent or treat COVID-2019. However, those affected should receive care to relieve symptoms. People with serious illness should be hospitalized. Most patients recover thanks to supportive care. Possible vaccines and some specific drug treatments are under investigation. They are being tested through clinical trials. WHO is coordinating efforts to develop vaccines and medicines to prevent and treat COVID-19.
The most effective ways to protect yourself and others against COVID-19 are to frequently clean your hands, cover your cough with the bend of elbow or tissue, and maintain a distance of at least 1 meter (3 feet) from people who are coughing or sneezing.
Is COVID-19 the same as SARS?No. The virus that causes COVID-19 and the one that caused the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2003 are related to each other genetically, but the diseases they cause are quite different.
SARS was more deadly but much less infectious than COVID-19. There have been no outbreaks of SARS anywhere in the world since 2003.
Should I wear a mask to protect myself?Only wear a mask if you are ill with COVID-19 symptoms (especially coughing) or looking after someone who may have COVID-19. Disposable face mask can only be used once. If you are not ill or looking after someone who is ill then you are wasting a mask. There is a world-wide shortage of masks, so WHO urges people to use masks wisely. WHO advises rational use of medical masks to avoid unnecessary wastage of precious resources and misuse of masks.
The most effective ways to protect yourself and others against COVID-19 are to frequently clean your hands, cover your cough with the bend of elbow or tissue and maintain a distance of at least 1 meter (3 feet) from people who are coughing or sneezing.
How to put on, use, take off and dispose of a mask?Remember, a mask should only be used by health workers, care takers, and individuals with respiratory symptoms, such as fever and cough.
Before touching the mask, clean hands with an alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water
Take the mask and inspect it for tears or holes.
Orient which side is the top side (where the metal strip is).
Ensure the proper side of the mask faces outwards (the coloured side).
Place the mask to your face. Pinch the metal strip or stiff edge of the mask so it moulds to the shape of your nose.
Pull down the mask’s bottom so it covers your mouth and your chin.
After use, take off the mask; remove the elastic loops from behind the ears while keeping the mask away from your face and clothes, to avoid touching potentially contaminated surfaces of the mask.
Discard the mask in a closed bin immediately after use.
Perform hand hygiene after touching or discarding the mask – Use alcohol-based hand rub or, if visibly soiled, wash your hands with soap and water.
How long is the incubation period for COVID-19?The “incubation period” means the time between catching the virus and beginning to have symptoms of the disease. Most estimates of the incubation period for COVID-19 range from 1-14 days, most commonly around five days. These estimates will be updated as more data become available.https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses20200402
Can humans become infected with the COVID-19 from an animal source?Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are common in animals. Occasionally, people get infected with these viruses which may then spread to other people. For example, SARS-CoV was associated with civet cats and MERS-CoV is transmitted by dromedary camels. Possible animal sources of COVID-19 have not yet been confirmed.

To protect yourself, such as when visiting live animal markets, avoid direct contact with animals and surfaces in contact with animals. Ensure good food safety practices at all times. Handle raw meat, milk or animal organs with care to avoid contamination of uncooked foods and avoid consuming raw or undercooked animal products.
Can I catch COVID-19 from my pet?While there has been one instance of a dog being infected in Hong Kong, to date, there is no evidence that a dog, cat or any pet can transmit COVID-19. COVID-19 is mainly spread through droplets produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or speaks. To protect yourself, clean your hands frequently and thoroughly.

WHO continues to monitor the latest research on this and other COVID-19 topics and will update as new findings are available.
How long does the virus survive on surfaces?It is not certain how long the virus that causes COVID-19 survives on surfaces, but it seems to behave like other coronaviruses. Studies suggest that coronaviruses (including preliminary information on the COVID-19 virus) may persist on surfaces for a few hours or up to several days. This may vary under different conditions (e.g. type of surface, temperature or humidity of the environment).
If you think a surface may be infected, clean it with simple disinfectant to kill the virus and protect yourself and others. Clean your hands with an alcohol-based hand rub or wash them with soap and water. Avoid touching your eyes, mouth, or nose.
Is it safe to receive a package from any area where COVID-19 has been reported?Yes. The likelihood of an infected person contaminating commercial goods is low and the risk of catching the virus that causes COVID-19 from a package that has been moved, travelled, and exposed to different conditions and temperature is also low.https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses20200402
Is there anything I should not do?The following measures effective against COVID-2019 and can be harmful
Wearing multiple masks
Taking antibiotics
In any case, if you have fever, cough and difficulty breathing seek medical care early to reduce the risk of developing a more severe infection and be sure to share your recent travel history with your health care provider.
Is the source of the coronavirus causing COVID-19 known?Currently, the source of SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus (CoV) causing COVID-19 is unknown. All available evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 has a natural animal origin and is not a constructed virus. SARS-CoV-2 virus most probably has its ecological reservoir in bats. SARS-CoV-2, belongs to a group of genetically related viruses, which also include SARS-CoV and a number of other CoVs isolated from bats populations. MERS-CoV also belongs to this group, but is less closely related.https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses20200402
How did the first human SARS-CoV-2 infections occur?The first human cases of COVID-19 were identified in Wuhan City, China in December 2019. At this stage, it is not possible to determine precisely how humans in China were initially infected with SARS-CoV-2. However, SARS-CoV, the virus which caused the SARS outbreak in 2003, jumped from an animal reservoir (civet cats, a farmed wild animal) to humans and then spread between humans. In a similar way, it is thought that SARS-CoV-2 jumped the species barrier and initially infected humans, but more likely through an intermediate host, that is another animal species more likely to be handled by humans - this could be a domestic animal, a wild animal, or a domesticated wild animal and, as of yet, has not been identified.
Until the source of this virus is identified and controlled, there is a risk of reintroduction of the virus in the human population and the risk of new outbreaks like the ones we are currently experiencing.
Is COVID-19 airborne?The virus that causes COVID-19 is mainly transmitted through droplets generated when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or speaks. These droplets are too heavy to hang in the air. They quickly fall on floors or surfaces. You can be infected by breathing in the virus if you are within 1 metre of a person who has COVID-19, or by touching a contaminated surface and then touching your eyes, nose or mouth before washing your hands. Recently several researchers are pointing out about a possible airborne transmission of the diseases, meaning that the virus can stay in the air longer and travel more thought the air. Still evidence are not conclusive. In case an airborne transmission is confirmed, air conditiones could become a source of infectionhttps://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses20200402
If I wear gloves in the supermarket, what do I have to be aware of?Wearing gloves at the supermarket is fine, it should minimize the chance to get infected by contaminated surfaces but rememer to avoid touching your eyes and mouth, even with gloves
Can children spread the virus as well?During the common season flu, children play a strong role as enhamcer of the transmission. Their role during the covid-19 pandemic is not fully clear and still discussed. Likely majority of the children are infected in an asymptomatic way and they are facilitators of viral transmission. Thus, avoiding interaction of children with elderly or vulnerable people is important
Can I wear masks several times? If I sewed one myself, what do I have to be aware of?There is preliminary evidence that airborne transmission — in which the disease spreads in the much smaller particles from exhaled air, known as aerosols — is occurring, and that precautions, such as increasing ventilation indoors, should be recommended to reduce the risk of infection. This means that SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted not only by cough and sneeze but altro through normal talking and can stay and travel through the air longer and farther. Mask can reduce this risk, even if you are asymptomatic and in some country (Czech Republic) or region (Lombardy) wearing masks is now mandatory outside your own dwelling. In this case, also a handmade mask is better than nothing, even if it cannot guarantee a 100% knocking down of the risk
Do I have to wash or disinfect my groceries?You should do it anyway as it is a normal hygienic procedure to process foodhttps://www.linkedin.com/in/andrea-bernasconi-b8789374/20200403
Will in the end there be two scenarios: 60-70 % have to have COVID-19 or we have to quarantine until the vaccination will be available?Likely, the vaccine will not be available until 6-8 months (or even more, Anthony Fauci, director of CDC, talks about 18 months) and the virus is spreading very fast. Despite many vaccines are in their preclinical phase around the world, the process to produce a vaccine is time consuming: a vaccine should be tested for its safety and efficacy, approved by the govermental agencies, manifactured and distribuited. Moreover, a vaccine should be produced in a timely manner and with cautious. US president Gerald Ford lost elections against Jimmy Carter by introducing a vacine against swine flu too early in 1976. At that time, a massive immunizaton program was launched, vaccine was stockpilled but the virus did not spread through United States. The immunization program was ended after approximately 25% of the population of the United States had been administered the vaccine and several cases and the vaccine was associated with an increase in reports of Guillain-Barré Syndrome as serious advert event. Regarding the vaccine what we can really do it is to vaccinated vulnerable people (elderly, patiens with chronic and importat diseases) against the common seasonal flu for two important reasons: 1) immunized symptomatic patients will facilitate physicians in differential diagnosis 2) SARS-CoV-2 in presence of the common flu virus a in the same host could ricombinate with it to generate (unlikely but not impossible) a more deadliest strain. A 60-70% infected scenario is credible but this does not mean that will we have millions of people infected in few weeks, this huge number of infected should be spanned along two years: at the end most of us will generated antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and covid-19 will circulate among us at the same level of the common seasonal flu.https://www.linkedin.com/in/andrea-bernasconi-b8789374/20200403
Why do lie people in ICU face down?People who are admitted to an intensive care unit and need assistance with breathing provided by a ventilator (mechanical ventilation) because of lung damage caused by illness have a high risk of dying. Recovery of diseased areas takes time, and a person may need support with ventilation while this occurs. Ventilation support is potentially lifesaving, as it maintains proper oxygen levels in the blood while removing carbon dioxide waste. However, the ventilator itself can cause inflammation and thus additional lung complications. The harder a ventilator has to work to achieve normal oxygenation and removal of carbon dioxide, the more likely it is that healthy, normal areas of the lung may be damaged, and the person's condition made worse. Ventilation with the person lying face-down (prone) instead of face-up (supine) might improve how well the ventilator works, thereby reducing these undesirable side effects.
What exactly is meant by a 'second wave'?Many epidemiologists hypothesize a second and even a third wave. This happened with the Spanish flu that hit the world from 1918 to 1920 through three waves (and the second one was the deadliest). Three reasons are behind this hypothesis: 1) after the quarantine the part of the population that was not infected can contract the disease 2) The virus could ricombinate and mutations can facilitate the emerging of new strains against whom population is not immunized 3) winter season can foster the transmission https://www.linkedin.com/in/andrea-bernasconi-b8789374/20200403
is it SARS-CoV-2 a lab product?A senior researcher cannot rule out any hypothesis "a priori", but although we have the technology to "build" a new virus in our laboratories, it is very unlikely. The transmission of a virus from the environment to humans is a common biological process. People have very short memories. Events like the Covid 19 pandemic have been fairly common in the past: Asian flu (H2N2) 1956-1958, Hong Kong flu (H3N2) 1967-1968 infected billions of people. SARS, MERS, swine flu and bird flu were missed pandemics. We have received warnings from the past that we have ignored and there will certainly be new pandemics in the future. This is because due to the heavy exploitation of planetary resources, our interaction with wild nature has increased exponentially and it is easier for a virus to move to humans from its animal host. Globalization has also increased the risk: a new virus emerging from the Congo forest can be easily detected in NYC after a few months.https://www.linkedin.com/in/andrea-bernasconi-b8789374/20200403
Can pets transmit Covid?SARS-CoV-2 is totally a new virus, there is still a lot we dont know about it but everyday we are receiving pieces of information. Unfortunately medical science has a slower pace than the virus or the fake news. There are not yet solid evidences that pets can transmit the disease. At the time being (4.4.2020) two dogs in Hong Konk and one cat in Belgium were reported SARS-CoV-2 positive and only one of the dog was symptomatic. Experts believe that dogs and cats are not easily infected with this virus, and the risk of transmission to humans is negligible compared to the risk of human-to-human transmission.Anyway, it is advisable that owners wash their hands before and after handling animals, their food, or their supplies and that people avoid kissing pets. CDC recommends that you restrict contact with pets if you are sick with COVID-19, just as you would restrict your contact with other people. Avoid snuggling, being kissed or licked, and sharing food. If you must interact with your pet, wash your hands before and after, and wear a face maskhttps://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/animals.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fcoronavirus%2F2019-ncov%2Fprepare%2Fanimals.html
Shall I quit smoking?Smoking is a well-known bad habit for your health and for sure it should be considered a risk factor for covid's complications. It should be a good idea to take the opportunity offered by the SARS-CoV-2's pandemic to quit smoking. Anyway, if you think of keeping on smoking, pay attention, any time you bring the cigarette to your mouth you risk to touch your lips with your fingers and to get infected. Smoke only if you are sure your hands are cleanhttps://www.linkedin.com/in/andrea-bernasconi-b8789374/20200405
Shall I wash my hair dialy?There are not specific indications from CDC or WHO. Despite several hospitals in UK suggest daily shampoing for health staff in direct contact with covid-19 patients, for the general population the risk is minimal as, generally speaking, viruses don't thrive on porous surfaces like hair and we cannot being infected through hair. Anyway, ff your hair is long, then it would be reasonable to pull it back if you'll be in an area that could be contaminated with viral particleshttps://www.linkedin.com/in/andrea-bernasconi-b8789374/20200405
What is the role of asymptomatic cases?New evidence has emerged from China and from the cruiser ship Diamond Princess indicating that the large majority of coronavirus infections (50-75%) do not result in symptoms. This means that the figures of infected people is largely underreported. The role of asymptomatic case is still under discussion but there are several evidence that they can transmit the virus (but with less capacity than symptomatic)https://www.bmj.com/content/369/bmj.m137520200405
How long this pandemic will last?That is the question many people are asking for. Unfortunately, researchers and epidemiologists are no furtune-tellers. There are anyway several hypothesis, some optimistic, other less optimistic. Usually an epidemic is a sequence of waves (called "peaks" by epidemiologists) that come one after the other for several months. Often the first wave is the biggest because it encounters a virgin and unaware population: in our context this wave moved at the beginning from China, then to Italy, then to Switzerland, Spain, French, Germany and many other European countries and at the time being is passing by USA. Smaller waves will follow the big first one built often by imported cases and new chains of transmission among the population that was not touched at the beginning. The most optimistic scenario sees the end of the current pandemic few weeks after the end of the lockdown by presuming that the lockdown has run out all the chain of transmission. In this case mid-May could be the most reasonable date (or at least to see a mitigation of the epidemic). Unfortunately, most of the pandemic lasts for 1.5-2 years with an epicurve characterized by several small peaks every 1.5 months with a bigger peak in October (with the beginning of the winter season) as the virus has never stopped to circulate among the population. That is the most plausible scenario for SARS-CoV-2. after 2 years, most of the population will have developed immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and this virus will be counted among all the other seasonal flu virus. Many variables could influence the pattern of the virus: the preventive measures adopted as well as possible genomic mutations of the virus (SARS-CoV-2 could become more or less contagious/more or less lethal).https://www.linkedin.com/in/andrea-bernasconi-b8789374/20200405
When we can declare that the pandemic is over?Declaring the end of the pandemic is a delicate issue and the criteria chosen by the WHO to declare the end of covid-19's pandemic are not clealry defined yet. Usually, we may consider ourself out of the pandemic once no confirmed or probable covid-19 cases are detected for a period of 28 days (that's twice the maximum incubation period -14 days- for covid-19) since the last potential exposure to the last case occurred. If a new case is notified, ie after 26 days, more 28 days should be counted. Active surveillance of the disease should follow the end of the eidemic for at least few months (usually 3 months)https://reliefweb.int/report/democratic-republic-congo/who-recommended-criteria-declaring-end-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak20200405
If I was infected, can I be infected again?SARS-CoV-2 is still presenting many mysteries. There are several evidence of patients who have been infected twice. The reasons are still not clear and there are only hypothesis, within them the most valuable are three: 1) there are different strains of SARS-CoV-2 (at least 2) that are circulating. getting immunity against one strains does not protect againt the others (as seen with Dengue fever). 2) The patients were not fully recovered and the second infections were more a relapse 3) covid-19 does not confer a full immunity to the patienthttps://www.linkedin.com/in/andrea-bernasconi-b8789374/20200405
Shall I change my behavirour when the number of the covid-19 cases will decrease?When the covid-19 trend will start having a negative trend (less cases notified, the disease is slowing down), it is time for a cautious optimism but it is also a delicate phase when we could easily destroy all the achievements reached. It is not time to immediately forget all the preventive measures ongoing (like social distancing). Going back to normality should be step-by-step and under the supervision of the health authoritieshttps://www.linkedin.com/in/andrea-bernasconi-b8789374/20200405
Can mosquitoes spread coronavirus?Mosquitoes can transmit a number of viruses, including dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya, Zika and Ross River virus. They can also transmit malaria, which is caused by a parasite. But they can’t transmit many other viruses, including HIV and Ebola. There is no scientific evidence to suggest mosquitoes are transmitting SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.
Are face mask useful to control the transmission?At the time being (10.04.2020) there is still a high discussion about the transmission of covid-19, with some researchers pointing out for an airborne transmission (but the evidence are not conclusive). Experts from South Korea suggests that wearing face masks have played a strong role in controlling the transmission. CDC recommends wearing face masks in public settings where other social distancing measures are difficult to maintain (e.g., grocery stores and pharmacies), especially in areas of significant community-based transmission.
Can I use cloth mask if I dont have proper face masks?CDC advises the use of simple cloth face coverings to slow the spread of the virus and help people who may have the virus and do not know it from transmitting it to others. Cloth face coverings fashioned from household items or made at home from common materials at low cost can be used as an additional, voluntary public health measure. clorh face coverings should be washed at least daily.A washing machine should suffice in properly washing a face covering. on the web site https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/diy-cloth-face-coverings.html you can find the instruction to make a face cloth by yourself
What face mask shall I use?There are several face masks on the market. FPP2 and FPP3 (face masks with valve) and N95 are not recomended for general public because they are critical supplies that must continue to be reserved for health care workers and other medical first responders. General public should use surgical masks. If worn properly, a surgical mask is meant to help block large-particle droplets, splashes, sprays, or splatter that may contain germs (viruses and bacteria), keeping it from reaching your mouth and nose. Surgical masks may also help reduce exposure of your saliva and respiratory secretions to others. masks must not be shared.
Can I sanitize my face mask?Face masks are scarce during this pandemic and you should be obliged to reuse your own face mask. You can sanitize your face mask every day. To sanitize, wash your hands thoroughly, remove the mask using the elastic bands and wash your hands once again. At this point, wear disposable gloves or disinfect your hands, put the mask on a surface washed with soap and water or a suitable disinfectant, spray the mask with 70% alcohol over the entire surface, including the elastic bands, without exceeding the wetting. Turn the mask over and repeat the operation. Leave the face mask until complete evaporation in a protected place, for at least 30 minutes.
Is there any therapy for Covid-19?Up to now (13.04.2020) there isn't any specific treatment for Covid-19 but many different drugs (antiviral drugs, cloroquine+azytromicine,...) are used in an experimental way with quite optimistic results. Since the beginning of the pandemic, we know much more about the virus and we have made very important progress. We know now that most of the death are due to a multi organ failure because of a DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation) triggered by an overstimulated immune response (autopsies on the corpses were very useful to better understand the process). In this case well known drugs like corticosteroid and heparin seems making a great difference between life and death. As a consequence, death toll due to Covid-19 is decreasing and patients are less in need of mechanical ventilation
Where can I found updated information about the cases?In Switzerland from the website: https://www.corona-data.ch/ and https://covid-19-schweiz.bagapps.ch/de-1.html, for Italy from the website https://lab24.ilsole24ore.com/coronavirus/ , for Spain from the website https://elpais.com/sociedad/2020/03/17/actualidad/1584436648_230452.html and globally from the website: https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/#countries and https://gisanddata.maps.arcgis.com/apps/opsdashboard/index.html#/bda7594740fd40299423467b48e9ecf6
Can I transmit the virus even if I have no symptoms?Yes, recently (14.04.2020) researchers estimated that 44% of secondary cases were infected during the pre-symptomatic stage, with infectiousness predicted to decrease quickly within seven days. This mean that 2-3 days before symptoms show up, if you are infected you can already transmit the disease