Owen 2013W1 Social Science Inquiry: Questions to Answers
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Student "Number"Research QuestionTheoryDefine one key conceptHypothesisVariable 1Operationalization of Variable 1Variable 2Operationalization of Variable 2
last year 1Do governments in other countries execute the allocation of HIV/AIDS resources and education properly and efficiently?Stigma and improper education along with lack of funding and resources often prevents this in third-world countries where the disease is strongly prevalentDepending on the government's willingness to place importance or allocate resources effectively can alter their citizens importance on the diseaseGovernment resources in a particular countryGovernment expenditure per capita on AIDS related programs, including medical, educational, and social programs.Use of those resources by a country's citizenpercentage of country's of citizens recorded as 'clients' of AIDS programs.
10618207Does the flow of remittances have an effect on a country’s credit rating?Credit rating of countries reliant on a steady flow of remittances takes a toll if the steady flow of remittances is disrupted because such nations do not have a sufficiently diversified economyRemittances can be defined as any amount of money that is sent by migrant workers to their ‘home’ country.A lower than usual stream of remittances for small nations that do not have a diversified economy plays a disproportionate role in causing a downgrading of credit worthinessRemittancesAmount of remittances received in a given year(s)Credit rating issued by Moody's, Fitch, and Standard and Poor'sCredit rating that agencies issued to countries in same given year(s)
10650212Does Social Media access increase youth voter turnout?Access to up to date information through social media increases political engagement of younger populationsSocial media informs the viewer of issues, promotes awareness and increasesto understanding of complex problemsYouth who use social media are more likely they are to be politically active.
11225176Are dictatorial regimes established by a country's weak political system and economic instability?Dictatorial regimes come to power by poor politics and a struggling economy. Economic instability can be caused by a high inflation rate.Terrible economy and political struggles will be guiding factors for dictatorial power to emerge.
Economic instabilityInflation ratesDictatorshipLikelyhood of dictatorshipHow are you going to quantify the "likelihood of dictatorship"? It is rendered invalid as a variable in that you have not provided a means of measuring it
12078158Does economic improvement increase the well-being of a country's citizens?In order to the demand for the luxury brands to increase, the country have to be in a good economic standing where a certain rate of people are able to buy these produvts. However, these products will not determine the well-being of a citizen but the economic standing of the state.Economic inquality does not correlate with a the well-being of all the members of a state.The more funding a country will receive in direct capital, there more corruption there will be.
12164189Will moving liquor stores away from university student residences reduce binge drinking?If the product is not easily accesible to the customer, the customers will have to make a greater effort (ie: it will be more difficult) to acquire it. The relative location of a store to its potential customer makes it easier (more accesible) or harder (less accesible) for buyerMoving liquor stores away from student residences will, in fact, reduce the quantity of liquor students will buy and therefore reduce binge-drinking incidentsRelative distance between student residence and nearest liquor storeThe closer the distance between the two points, the more accesible one is to the other
12381147Is monetary aid for a country with a weak economy actually harmful?This is quite a divided issue. Many will support international financial aid because it acts as stimulus and fills in the immediate gaps. However, there are some who strongly argue that such aid not only causes dependency but is wasted money. If a country suffers from a weak economy and aid is given, they do not have incentive to improve their economy so that future aid will not be necessary. The aid directly causes dependency. Even considering tied aids, it is arugued that the imposed conditions are never enough. The second point is that if a country suffers from a weak economy, it has inherent flaws that are causing the issue such as corruption; the financial aid only acts as temporary relief and does nothing to actually tackle the problem of a weak economy. Here, it is a case of aid not having any significant or relevant causal effects.Monetary/financial aid: It is foreign aid in the form of money for weak and or collapsing economies by individual countries or international bodies such as the IMF.Monetary aids aimed at improving weak economies do not produce intended results; rather, they actually harm the economy. Dependency/existing problemsDependency: how often, after initial aid, does the country ask for more aid? Economic strength (effectiveness/ineffectiveness of aid)% of positive or negative economic growth measured by GDP (nominal, real, per capita) after X number of quarters since intial aid package.
13015228Does mandatory voting hurt democracy?Making voting mandatory will not increase civic engangement beyhond voting. Like in countries without mandatory voting, many voters will still vote for who they like wihout feeling the need to inform themselves about the different parties and their policies. A mandatory voting law will also make it impossible for a voter to excercise their right to not vote, in the case when there is no likable party runnning for election.Mandatory Voting: A voting system in which the electors are legally obligated to vote in elections or attend a polling station on voting day.
13218177Do confederations cause the loss of national identity?Dividing power between multitude of interests and territorial associations will lead to disangagement. People will come to identify themselves with their local governments and will soon loose their national identity because the federal (or in some insances the supranational government is too weak).Division of power: allocation of political resources, such as money, access to information, and legitimate coehrsionDivision of power within the government causes the loss of national identity.loss of national identityopinion polls and peoples preferencesdivison of powercomparing federal, unitary and confederal governments I'm not convinced that variable 2 is going to be reliable without a lot more specifics included - it's not at all clear right now how you're going to measure this comparison
15335141Does the presence of strong mechanisms for independent police oversight in a particular jurisdiction improve public willingness to cooperate with the police?Strong mechanisms for independent police oversight improve the public’s trust in the police, which increases their willingness to cooperate with the police and improves the way that policing can operate more generally.Strong mechanisms for independent police oversight: A system for the continual assessment of police performance that also responds to individual complaints regarding police conduct that is headed by a civilian who has never been a peace officer, and conducts investigations are transparent and accessible to individual citizens.In jurisdictions with strong mechanisms for independent oversight, the public will be more cooperative with the police.strength of mechanisms for independent police oversighta rating of the strength of each jurisdictions independent police oversight mechanisms, quantified by awarding points for the presence of key attributes of strong independent police oversight mechanisms such as presence of civilian investigation, avenues for appealing decisions, accessibility to the average person, public perceptions of the mechanisms efficacity, etc. The public's level of cooperation with the policethe combined number of obstruction of justice and assulting a peace officer charges laid by police officers in a given jurisdction in a given year.
15871152what are the conditions that promote a revolution?A country's government which does not respond to the economic and social needs of its people will cause widespread disatisfaction accross its country's population, therefore promoting a revolution. Disatisfaction refers to the lack of security a population feels toward its supposedly illegitemate governmentGovernments that implement more public services (such as public education or health care) experience less occurences of public unrest (riots, strikes)Presence of public servicesPercentage of people who report making use of more than one public serviceOccurences of public unrest (riots/strikes, etc)Number of public unrest cases in one year
16028176Does providing government subsidized education stimiulate economic growth within a county?Countries with higher levels of subsidized education will experience higher levels of economic growth than those who do not because they have a better educated populace which is capable of furthering buisness oppertunities and scientific endeavors. Subsidized education can be defined as any situation in which the government of a country removes some of the financial burden of providing education from it's citizens. Countries with higher subsidized education will experience a higher rate of economic growth.Government subsidization of educationPercent of GDP put into supporting education within a country in 2012.GDPGDP growth of a country in 2012
16143159What role does the increase of general knowledge of "healthy" foods and life style have in the overall health of the population?the increase of knowledge of healthy living and a wholesome lifestyle will lead to a healthier overall population as improved knowledge will aid the pouplation to making healthier choices.healthy living is a concept in which individuals can live their expected lifestan being reasonably free of desease and illnesses. In general, people withmore knowledge of healthier lifestyle and nutritions foods will make healtheir choices and consume more 'whole' foods as opposed to highly saturated and processed foodsknowledge of healthier food choicesthe overall results of how a population scored on a given testthe choices that consumers make towards healthier foods. survery of what people choose (healthy vs.unhealthy)Measuring only healthy purchasing habits does not fully measure "healthy lifestyle", as it leaves out physical activity. Variable two could prove to be invalid, as there are outlier groups, such as body builders or long distance runners, who could eat technically "unhealthy" choices, yet are extremely healthy people.
16744211Do lower levels of political transparency lead to higher levels of political involvement?Democracies where democratic transparency is low are typically associated with corruption, intimidation, and mal-practice. It may be the case that, in regards to political decisions, governments with low democratic transparency cause frustration, anger, and confusion amongst its populace, which then cause the populace to become more involved in political activities such as rallies and demonstrations, public art, blogs, and engagement in various arenas of political activity.Political Transparency is a concept designed to keep government and its officials accountable to the populace. This can take the form of government meetings being open to the media and public, government budgets that are available to view by anyone, and where laws and decisions are open for discussion by anyone. Political transparency is also seen as a way to combat political corruption.Governments that have lower levels of political transparency result in higher levels of political involvement among its populace.
17251196Does the decreasing cost of obtaining genomic information lead to more regulatory laws governing access to genomic information?As personal genomic information becomes more widely available and widely spread, more laws will be passed to regulate it's use and accessPersonal genomic information can be defined as any set of data regarding the make-up of an individual’s genetic code.As the price of genomic information kits decrease, the frequency of laws protecting the access of genetic information being passed will tend to increase.Cost of personal genomic sequencingAverage cost of personal genomic kits from top 3 companies selling them (by market share)Regulation of genomic information and accessNumber of laws passed regarding genetic information (containing the phrase “genomic/genetic information” or “genomic/genetic sequencing”) in a randomly selected country.
17913216Do national recessions influence the treatment of religious minorities?As nations go through economic downturns or "recessions", religious minorities are less tolerated and increasingly marginalized as they are seen as "intruders" or "extras"a national recessions can be defined as a period of declining economic output.Countries in the midst of a recession will be less tolerable of religious minoritiesNational economic recessionsDetermining the amount of business activity in the economy by looking at things like employment, industrial production, real income and wholesale-retail sales (GDP per Capita in a specific year versus previous years).Treatment of religious minoritiesNumber of recorded cases of social unrest and hostility targeted at religious minority groupsYou want to measure tolerance according to your hypothesis; it seems to me that variable 2 might not be a valid measure of this. intolerance includes things like our private attitudes toward difference, but your measure will only capture those measures when they result in overt hostility.
17983206Does the admittance of crime-doers into jail result in justice and the maintenance of social order? Justice takes form in punishment like going to jail. The idea is to make the offender remorseful, to obtain retribution and restitution, and hopefully rehabilitationJustice is believed to be a set of principles guiding social behaviorthe admittance of crime-doers into jail will result in justice and the maintenance of social order so long as the key and most important aspect is addressed - rehabilitation jailReturning to society and redeeming their "status" such as obtaining the long term: job, housing, relationships
18623209Does excercise work to relieve stress levels?Physical activity tends to decrease the stress level one feels about their own body because exercise burns off cortisol, the natrually occuring steroid that stimilates the production of fat and causes stress. physical activity is any total movement of the body (whether stationary or non-stationary) that results in an increase in heart rate and perspirationthe amount of physical activity done over the course of a month leads to a lower level of stress one feels about their own body. the amount of physical activity done over the course of a month30 mins of running/walking/jogging for at least 3 times a weekstress level due to feelings of ones own body survey of people's attitudes toward their own body before and after a month of running/walking/jogging for 30 mins for at least 3 times a week
19368161Does access to free health care in developed countries result in a healthier population in comparison to similarly developed countries with private health care systems?Greater availability of healthcare to the entire population, despite economic standings, promotes the use of its resources, which results in healthier populations relative to other developed countries facing greater barriers to access health care.The health of a population is calculated based of indicators such as physical fitness, absence of disease, average life length etc.Public healthcare systems in developed countries results in healthier populations relative to other developed countries with privatized healthcare systems.Access to free health careThe health care system that is estabilshed in each given country.The health of the populationIndicators such as physical fitnesss, absence of disease, average life length etc.
19471157What are the primary factors that have led to an insurgence of intra-state wars in the post-Cold War era?Greater availability of military resources to non-state actors, as well as increased external influence foreign state governments, have led to an increase of intra-state war in the 20th century. Intra-state war is organized violence between at least two groups within a state, one of which is the state itelf, which results in 1000 or greater combat deaths per year. Foreign interference into a state's governemental system greatly increases the likelihood that that state will experiene intra-state war.
19946165Does greater income inequality lead to decreased economic stability?Increased income gaps between the richest and poorest members of communities will lead to greater fluctuation in their economies, and increase the severity of these fluctuations, because of the tendency of the richest members of communities to engage in riskier financial behaviours and the inability of the poorest members to contribute to economic growth through consumption.Economic stability is the measure of the number of recessions and periods of high economic growth over time, as well as the severity of these instances of economic instability.Greater income inequality causes decreased economic stability.Income inequalityThe income of the top 10% compared to the income of the bottom 10%Economic stability
20759195Do higher levels of youth unemployment increase youth voting levels? Young people with low employment prospects blame their government and demand change of government or its policies through various methods of demonstrations. A national government plays a significant role in the functioning of the economy of a state. A national government has the ability to borrow and spend vast amounts of money. Therefore, the agent of change most capable of altering the economic status quo is the government.Higher levels of youth unemployment lead to increased youth voter participation in democratic countires.Level of youth unemployment.Level of youth unemployment in a country @ 7% or lower compared to a country with relatively high youth unemploymnet @ 10% or higher.Youth voter participation% of eligible voters aged 18-25 who voted in a national election in a country with youth unemployment @ 10% or higher versus that of a country with youth unemployment @ 7% or lower.
20838154Does the simplicity of an electoral system have an effect on voter turnout?Simpler electoral systems are less likely to intimidate potential voters, and allow for a better understanding of the possible effects of individual electoral choicesElectoral System Simplicity might be defined by the number of rounds in elections. the number of different insititutions whose members can be voter for at once, or by measuring public perceptions of such complexity.Single-round elections will have higher turnout than elections with multiple rounds.Electoral System SimplicityNumber of hours required to vote for all positions in a particular electionVoter turnoutPercentage of the population who vote in that electionThe operationalization of variable 1 seems a big vague and might need to be changed to improve its content validity. To be more congruent with your hypothesis you could specify what exactly constitutes a single-round elction comparing to multi-rounds.
20993166Does economic protection of infant industries lead to economic growth at home?Protection of manufacturing industries in their early stages promotes more long-term domestic economic growth than the adoption of fair trade policies.Protection: in economic theory, the government restriction of international trade via the implementation of tariffs, quotas, direct subsidies and a myriad of other policies. Government protection of domestic manufacturing industries in the early stages of their development will lead to economic growth in the long-term.Degree of economic protection practiced in a given state.Government quota on imported goods.Domestic economic growth.Measurement of GDP per annum following the application of protectionist policy.
21201221Does increased international security cause lower instances of terrorism?Increased international security means there are fewer avenues available for terrorists to use in order to attain their goals.Terrorism: the use of violence or intimidation in the pursuit of political aims.The higher the international security of a country the less chance there will be for acts of terrorism to occur.Level of security in a given country.Level of priority given to international security in a country (measured by funding and efforts) compared to previous years.Instances of terrorism.Instances of terrorism in previous years.
22111158Are public-private-partnerships (P3) more cost effective for tax-payers than traditional public procurment of large scale infrastructure projects.Deferring capital input costs for large-scale public infrastructure from government to he private sector reduces the financial burden for tax payers.P3- a mutually beneficial business relationship between a a level of government and the private sector. In this relationship, governments are said to gain by deferring input costs and spreading out the financial risk and liabilities when undertaking public works projects. For the private sector member in this relationship, they often gain a stake in maintenance or ownership of this shared facility. For example, a government could partner with a private company to build a sewage treatment facility; then pay the company a to maintain/ operate the facility for an extended period.Savings for tax payers in the way of lower input costs will eventually be off set by higher operation and maintenance costs.
Cost of operating a publicly owned and operated facility versus the cost of operating a comparable facility procured under a P3. Calculate total costs of building a publicly owned and operated bridge over a thirty year period versus the total costs of building and operating a similar bridge procured under a P3 over a thirty year period.User fees individuals using a publicly owned bridge versus a user fees on privately owned bridges
Review tolling rates for bridges built within the past 15 years under a public procurement process versus bridges built under a P3.
22569157 What economic factors contribute to declines in voter participation?High levels of per-capita wealth tend to discourage voting by encouraging personal contentedness within the relevant population?Declines in voter participation entail reductions in the percentage of the eligible population that cast a vote in a past presidential/prime ministerial election relative to previous elections.Democratic countries with a high median income level will tend to have lower voter turnout in national elections.Levels of personal income in a given country.Measurement of median income (in USD) across several countries.
24446181Does providing free post-seconday education encourage higher enrollment of individuals living in relative poverty in Colleges and Universities?Without the financial burden of tuition payments or student loans, there would be a higher incidence of impovrished individuals registering for College or University classes Relative Poverty is when an individual's income falls so markedly behind that of their community that they are unable to afford whatever the custom of the country deems it unacceptable for people to be withoutMore people would attend Univeristy and College if it was free, especially those who are impovrished Abiliity of individuals living in realtive poverty to meet admission requirements of Colleges and Universities
25253138Will the legalization of prostitution decrease the violence faced by "sex trade workers"?Govement regulation of prostition will decrease the ability of pimps to violently manipulate their workers. Government regulation- A rule of order having the force of law, presribed by a superior or competent authority, relating to the actions of those under the authorities control.The violence faced by prostitues will decrease dramtically if the act of prostition was legalized.The legalization of prostitutionInvestigate situations where one can study the effects of legalization. Doing a broad general survey of the before and after effects of countries with similar socio-economic backgrounds as Canada, who have legalized prostitution.ViolencePercentage change in violent acts upon sex workers before legalization and afterwards.
26661206Does computer use during lectures affect other students' academic performance?The use of a computer during lectures visually distracts other students, limiting the amount of auditory focus they can dedicate to lecture content, thereby preventing complete consumption or understanding of the lecture material.Computer use, defined as having a computer open and on, includes the use of computers solely for note-taking purposes, as well as 'unrelated' activities.The higher the percentage of students using a computer in class, the lower the class average.Computer use during lecturesPercentage of students using a computer in a classAcademic performanceClass averageSome questions about validity here: how would you control for other factors? A lot goes into class average. Perhaps the impact of computers might be better measured by quick comprehension surveys distributed just after the lecture. Students could mark whether they were using a computer. I think you'd be better able to control for other factors that way — class average isn't necesarily tied to concentration in class.
27675214Does government intervention in the economy help a country to get out of a recession?In recessionary times, governments that signal their intention to intervene in the economy through increased spending are able to boost aggregate demand. This spurs more hiring and spending as well as higher rates of inflation, which leads to the economic growth required to get of a recession.Economic growth refers to GDP, which is calculated by summing consumption, investment, government spending, and net exports.The higher government spending in the domestic economy during a recession is, the greater the economic growth.Government spendingThe total number of dollars spent by federal governments on everything during a given recession, excluding its own internal expenditures. Economic growthThe rate of change of real GDP from the year immediately before the recession to the year immediately following itI believe the Operationalization of Variable 1 might yield invalid results, as not every government expenditure in recessionary times as you have suggested is intended to recover the economy ( on the contrary, some cause an increase in budget deficits and tax increases which facilitate recessions although they may very well be crucial, i.e. anti-terrorism funding)
29247208Does political instability affect price volatility in the bond market? Political instability increases the likelihood that a government will collapse and default on its debts. This increases the credit risk of government issued bonds, causing changes in demand for these bonds by investors. Political instability can refer to internal conflicts such as civil war, coups, sudden changes in leadership, or other political shocks Bond prices in a country with greater political instability will be more volatile and have larger swings to the upside or downside whenever an event occurs. Politically stable countries will have stable bond prices. Political instabilityFrequency of politically unsettling events over a period of timePrice volatility of government issued bondsRange of bond prices over a period of time
29287179Do countries with higher prevalence of corruption experience more social unrest? A county's level of curruption directly correlates to the level of social unrestCorrption (specifically of bureucrats and public officials) is defined as public officials recieving gifts/favours/bribes in order to perform actions which result in private gains. The higher the level of curruption in public institutions, the higher the level of social unrest. Level of curruption in government institutionsNumber of recorded corruption cases in a given countrySocial UnrestNumber of recorded cases of social unrest, riots and other civil disobedience
29405160Does heightened tensions between states cause an increase or decrease the collective economic growth of the global economy?Heightened tensions between states will increase global economic growth because of power politics. Increased tensions instill a sense of urgency and the threat of war, which may result in an arms race. The military preparations that are needed involve manufacturing raw materials which will increase the economic growth of the global economy leading to an increase in military spending.Economic growth in terms of GDP, where GDP = private consumption + gross investment + government spending + (exports − imports).Heightened tensions seen through increased military spending will increase the collective economic growth of the global economy.Military spending.Collect data sets on the military spending of nations.
Global GDPGlobal GDP at the time (year) of heightened tensions.
29625197In what way does a student's academic success relate to the amount of time they spend studying each day?The amount of studying a student does will determine how well he/she will do in their coursesAcademic success in this case is measured in terms of letter gradesThe more time a student spends studying, the greater academic success he/she will haveLevel of academic successAverage grade of students Time spent studying per dayAverage number of hours spent studying per day
29875163Does using "green" approaches in a company's marketing tactic affect the company's profit? A company using " green" approaches in their marketing tactics such as advertisements and branding on products will see an increase in their profits, because public opinion will be higher for their company for being enviornmentally friendly and sustainable, therefore people will choose the company's products over other similar products in the market by different companies, effectively raising the company's profits as compared to previous years where "green" approaches to marketing tactics were not used. Green approach is defined as introducing an approach specifically where sustainability and/or environmentally friendly aspects are present. The more money allocated to a company's marketing research project for developing "green" approaches in marketing products will likely see a raise in profits from the products where "green" approaches to marketing was introduced that year.
29985190Does government approval increase with the success of national sport teams and individual athletes in international sporting events?The success of national sports teams (and individual athletes) will increase the approval of the national government, because the success of the teams shall positively increase the view of the nation and that positive view will spill over towards the government.
Government approval - The acceptance of the current government and popular support of the government.The amount of medals in an Olympics is associated with higher polling approval ratings for the ruling party.

The success of national sports teams and individual athletes in an international sporting event.
Amount of medals one in an OlympicsGovernment approvalHigher polling approval ratings for the ruling party
30833179How did the presence of maps in Renaissance Europe impact interstate trade?Widespread map availability allows for greater volumes of interstate tradeInterstate trade- trade between a merchant and a state recognized to be sovereign over a particular territory that is not the same from which the merchant trades from.Higher numbers of maps in a state correlate with a higher volume of interstate trading relationships.Number of maps in circulationNumber of map repositories and availability of maps (could be difficult to prove, maps take many forms and could be destroyed, heavy reliance on secondary documents)number of trading relationshipsnumber of known trade routes (regular and irregular)
30973207Do more anti-smoking advertisements result in a decrease of tobacco sales?An increase in visual anti-smoking advertisements in public spaces will have a result on tobacco sales over timeAnti-smoking advertisements: refers to the often strong visuals displayed in public spaces such as billboards or television that encourage tobacco users to quit smoking cigarettes, often listing common health problems that tobacco causes.An increase in anti-smoking ads, will result in decreased tobacco sales in the areas where the ads are placed/shownIncrease of anti-smoking adsCharting the location and frequency of these implemented advertisementsTobacco salesCharting levels of tobacco sales before and after implementation of anti-smoking advertisements
31864195Do cautionary environmental advertisements lead to increased public environmental concern?Cautionary environmental advertisements will have a result on public environmental concernCautionary environmental advertisements: visual displays that warn the public of ongoing environmental concerns, such as melting glaciers or a looming lack of fresh water, and encourages the public to make positive environmental choices, like taking short showers and recyclingCautionary environmental advertisements will result in increased public environmental concernCautinary environmental advertisements
31886140 Do popular culture voting campaigns increase youth voter turnout?Popular culture vote campaigns like Rock the Vote help to increase youth voter turnout by providing incentives for engagement with the use of celebrity spokespeople and by providing youth with resources and education on voting directly through social media. Greater participation in events encouraging democratic participation through voting will result in a higher voter turnout.Participation in Rock the Vote eventsYouth voter turnout
31923214Do developed countries with stable economies have more incentives to help improve global environmental efforts?The stable economies of developed countries directly effect their incentives to improve global environmental efforts. Global Environmental Efforts are efforts in which the international community,
be it IGOs or NGOs or MNCs, come together to discuss and implement actions to
reduce the discussed issue(s) threatening the environment.
the larger the economic gain from investments in the oil industry, the less reason their is to
invest in renewable/alternative energy.
economic gain from oil investmentdollars earned from investment in oil -by a certain country- environmental benefits from alternative energy dollars spent on investment in alternative/renewable energy -by a certain country-Operationalization of Variable 1 isn't a valid measure of "economic gain" - "dollars of investment in oil" does not necessarily reflect "economic gain from oil investment," as money can be invested and subsequently lost (which would be the opposite of economic gain)Operationalization of variable 2 doesn't reflect the concept of/isn't a valid measure for "environmental benefits" as stated; "dollars of investment in alternative/renewable energy" is not equivalent to, or does not necessarily translate into, "environmental benefits." If an environmental benefit was, say, reduced CO2 emissions, a valid operationalization of this variable could be CO2 emission rates over time
31959196Does a lower voter turnout result in a greater chance of the current political party being re-elected?A lower voter turnout is an indication that there is a greater chance of the current political party winning the resulting election.Voter turnout is the level of participation in public elections. In particular, we are interested in the percentage of eligible voters in a general election voluntarily voting. This means that states with compulsary voting (such as in Australia) are not included in this theory. Less voters signals that the public is satisfied with the status-quo, and is therefore unconcerned with the current government continuing their dominance.
32155139Does the degree of immigrant integration affect their likelihood to vote?The degree of an immigrant's integration is directly proportional to their likelihood to vote.Integration in this context represents how much of the local culture and ideology an immigrant has adopted as their own.The more integrated an immigrant is, the more likely they are to vote.Degree of integration.Participation in local groups (sports teams, clubs, interest groups, etc.) This can be operationalized as either how many groups an immigrant has joined or the time they spend per week in said groups.Likelihood to vote.How many times they have voted over how many times they were eligible to vote in federal, provincial or municipal elections.
32160189Do different electoral systems effect electoral results?First-Past-The Post systematically over-represents the biggest parties while under-representing the smaller parties. Representation is the number of seats a given party has in the electoral body of the country.The party that receives the largest share of the popular vote in a First-Past-The-Post election will recieve a higher percentage of seats in the electoral body than it did in the popular vote.
33811179Does a country's level of industrialization affect the number of wars or conflicts a country initiatesThe more industrialized a country, the more likely they are to initiate conflict because they have modern weaponry and will have a greater chance of winning a war they startIndustrialization: a country's level of economic development and access to modern technologyCountries with advanced militaries are more likely to initiate conflicts than countries without advanced armed forces Industrializationmeasure- basic needs-access to clean water, telephone, internet electricity. scale of industrialiationconflicts country has participated in.
34014172Does the increasing amount of immigrants of a country affect its presendential election?Increasing amount of immigrants leads to increasing participation in elections by immigrants which will then affect presendential election.immigrants' pariticipation in election is more likely to support candidates who favor immigrants.Places with large amount of immigrants have laws/rules that benefit immigrants.
34174138Does the establishment of democracies around the world reduce the number of inter-state wars?As democracies are less likely to attack other democracies, the establishment of more democraies around the world is likely to reduce the number of inter-state wars.Inter-state War: organized conflict between soveriegn states that has atleast 1000 casualties.Establishment of democracies will reduce the number of inter-state wars in the world.
35173131Does extra-state warfare make it easier to a state to strenghten its institutional framework?The more threatened citizens feel by an external agressor, the more willingly they will accept government efforts to reform and strengthen its institutional framework.strengthening the institutional framework can be understood as measures that increase the state's capacity.
35185184Does exposure to violent media increase violent behaviour?Repeated exposure to media that glorifies violence (or active participation in video games that reward violence) at a young age can increase future aggressive behaviour.Violent media includes violent programming on television, film, and violence in video games.The more exposure to violent media, the higher the likelihood of engaging in aggressive behaviours.Amount of violent media viewed/engaged in.Amount of violent media exposed to at a vulnerable period during childhood (e.g. ages 6-13).Number of instances of aggressive/violent behaviours.Amount of violent behaviours engaged in at a more mature stage of life such as adolescence.Variable 1 needs further clarification, as it lacks reliability. ie. What counts as violent?
35267142How do rates of homelesness in Vancouver effect the incumbent mayor's chances of re-election?Homelessness has been a key issue in municipal and provincial elections in Vancouver for many years. If rates of homelessness are higher then when the incumbent took office, his or her share of the voter turn out should be lower. The mayor is seen as partially responsible for tackling the problem.Rates of homeleness= Total number of homeless people in the city of Vancouver. Individuals who live in SRO's are not considered homeless for the sake of this study.If an the rate of homelessness increases from when the incumbent first took office to the end of his or her term, the percentage of voters who vote for the incumbent should be lower
35443170Does the average living standard achieved in certain countries affect public political participation?political participation in certain countries are much lower than others (ex. voting/informed about parties and their platforms). History have shown that many political reforms were due to the masses being disatisfied with the actions by certain governments. These reforms were achieved through a high number of public participation. In this circumstance countries with high living standards should have a low level of public participation in state affairs. having a higher number of the public not living below poverty in a prolonged period could possiblity decrease the incentive to participate in political affairs as public's wellbeing is not threatened through their absence of political participation The higher the average family income is in different countries, the lower in number of voters during political campaigns
36380164Do economic recessions in the U.S. lead to increased unrest in Egypt?Lack of funds for a country means fewer social welfare programs and less money for police forces. The combination of those two factors could lead to unrestUnrest = tensions/anger can lead to non-violent or violent protests to fight for better quality of infrastructure, pay and/or education, for eg.If there is an economic recession in the U.S. further unrest could be created in Egypt because of fewer funds for the police force to control protests by the people.Rise/fall of U.S. economyComparing GDP to previous year's.# of violent deaths# of violent deaths compared to when funding was higher or lower
36645146Does social media increase voter turnout in young people aged 18-25?Young people who are knowledgeable of political issues tend to vote in order to make a difference.Social media is the means of communication and exchange of information on the Internet.Social media allows political information and news to be easily spread on platforms that young people frequently use.
37188204Does the possession of natural resources cause economic exploitation?The possession of natural resources causes an increase in economic exploitation because as the population of developed countries increase, their demand for natural resources increase ; in order to profit and through their advancement of technology they are able to intervene in developing countries who possess high amounts of natural resources and thus exploit these countries. This is why natural resources cause economic exploitation for many developing countries (paradox of plenty). Economic exploitation is the intervention and attainment of natural resources at a  cheap price through an unfair transaction.High amounts of natural resources in developing countries cause high levels of economic exploitation by developed countries natural resources (oil) How much recoverable oil does the developing country posses  economic exploitation The number of oil companies that extract oil from developing countries at relatively cheaper price
37452186Does military power of a country affect its economic performance?"Wealth tends to seek stable environments". This statement by Robert Dahl suggests that there is a positive relationship between stability and economics. The possession of a strong armed forces allows for a state to have increased stability from strong security. This may create the environment for its economy to flourish.Military power is the foundation for a stable environment required for economic growth within a stateHigher military power results in higher economic wealthMilitary spendingHow much military spending does the country spendGDPReal GDP per capita of the country
37726153Does the efficiency of trade promote decentralization in the governance of countries?The ease of obtaining resources in a more neoliberal world market means that regions lacking in specific resources no longer have to rely on national governments to provide the lacking resources.Trade efficiency of a country can be understood as the ease of importing and exporting goods into the country due to tariffs, regulations, trade laws and treaties. The greater share of international sources for imports into a region, the greater share of expenditures will come from that region's government. Total value of imported goodsTotal value of imported goodsShare of expenditures by regional governmentPercentage of all expenditures in the region within state that is paid for by the regional government.
38438174Does good national economic performance keep a federal state stable?Federations with better economies can redistribute income to poorer regions insofar as they are content with their status within the federation. Poorer regions that receive financial help from their federal government will be less likely to cause a political upheaval, thus, maintaining overall state stability in the process.Federations with strong economies will enact redistribution policies to keep their constituents pleased.Economc well-being of a federation.Overall GDP and its allocation of funds for its subnational governments.State stability.Approval ratings of federal governments, frequency of protests, and talks of secession.
38752129Does the degree of ethnic fragmentation in a jurisdiction have an effect on the amount allocated to public goods?Ethnically fragmented areas will suffer from a lack of spending on public goods due to ethnic tensions and unwillingness to share across these boundaries. Public goods are resources that are freely shared by the inhabitants of an area. Examples of these resources include roads, parks, and education. Areas with greater ethnic fragmentation will provide less funding to public goods.Ethnic fragmentation in a jurisdiction. Percentage of the population belonging to the majority ethnic group.Funds allocated to public goods in a jurisdiction.Yearly budget spent on public goods.Variable 1 is okay, but does not explain fragmentation. How do you intend to measure it?
39395199Does socialized post-secondary education foster a robust democracy?Having higher education available to all citizens regardless of socio-economic background will yield a population who can think analytically and better communicate issues relevant to them.Socialized post-secondary education means that university or college level education is publicly funded by the government and is available to all citizens. States that socialize post-secondary education will have a robust democracysocialized post-secondary educationpercentage of government budget dedicated to post-secondary education, availability of bursaries and grants to assist full-time students, number of post-secondary schools per region robustness of democracyvoter turnout, the number of minority issues represented, amount of media coverage on political issues
39734142Does offering staff bonuses improve the economic growth rate of companies?The potential of a bonus incentivizes staff to work at their highest level of productivity, which in turn benefits the company. A staff bonus is money given to an employee that is above and beyond their typical salary or wage, as recognition for their work in the company. Companies that offer staff bonuses will have higher economic growth rates than companies that do not.Staff bonusesPercentage of all the money that a company pays its employees, that is a bonus.Economic growth rate of companiesPercentage of growth in the company's annual income over time
41031093What causes people who identify as First Nations to use/visit national parks?First Nations people are less likely to use national parks due to lower socio-economic status therefore vacation and recreation become unaffordable. National parks are recreational areas designated and maintained by a national government.There is a positive relationship between socio-economic status and outdoor leisure.Socio-economic statusIncome compared to the average national income; average wage; level of education.outdoor leisurenumber of overnight visits or daytrips to national parks in the previous year, use of tents or recreational vehicles, hiking trips, ski pass purchases. Variable 1 shies away from using demographics of the population and thus wouldn't indicate the experience of First Nations peoples compared to the rest of the population.
41212170Does an increase in economic performance affect a country's voter turnout?A better economic performance indicates a more stable society in which leisure time is allowed for which would encourage citizens to vote more Voter Turnout is the percentage of eligible voters who cast ballots in an electionVoter turnout is higher in countries where there is a increase in economic performanceVoter TurnoutThe percentage of casted ballots by eligible voters in an election Economic performanceGDP per capita is the measurement of the total output that takes gross domestic product and divides it by the number of citizens in the country.
41240202Do oppressive regimes increase the likelihood of a country to plunge into civil war/political unrest as oppose to countries who are liberal democracies?Countries with long history of oppressive regimes will eventually plunge into civil war: illiberal democracies ( especially with oppressive rule) are more likely to plunge into civil war than western democracies with democratic regimes. Oppressive regimes could be measured by lack of political freedom, corruption and insurgency capabilities. Civil war is political violence, uprising. people who live under oppressive regimes are more likely to be involved in political uprising/civil war as opposed to people who live under western liberal democracies. oppressive regimepoles, surveys, corruption, political participation, womens rightscivil warviolence, use of force, number of protets, presence of police, international community definition of civil war ( UN)
41407202Does the attractiveness of a teacher affect their teaching scores by the opposite sex on ratemyprof.comTeachers ranked as very attractive will on average recieve worse critisim from their own sex than the opposite sex.Attractiveness is measured on a 1-5 "chili-pepper" scaleStudents who find their teacher attractive will be less likely to give the teacher negative ratings for their teaching. attractiveness score on ratemyprof.comdirect datathe gender of the students who score the teacher and their score direct data
41478205How does racial homogeneity or lack thereof affect nationalism in times of war?
Racial homogeneity could foster a sense of solidarity between the entire populace--citizens, politicians, soldiers--that would not be present in a multicultural society.
Nationalism can be defined as an individual or group's support for their country (not necessarily of the ruling government).Countries with higher degrees of racial homogeneity will experience
higher support for the government/war than those with racial diversity.
Support for war effort/ruling governmentPolls, public demonstrations, surveysRacial homogeneityCensus
42565197Do the geographic settlement patterns of immigrants affect their subsquent integration into the receiving society? Immigrants who settle in areas with higher rates of ethnic homogeneity (of their own ethnicity) will be less apt to fully integrate into society, because of reduced linguistic ability in the receiving-society's native language.Integration - participation in: the labour market and/or economy, the education system, civil society (e.g. sports league, churches/mosques/temples, interest groups, etc.)Immigrants residing in areas with high rates of ethnic-homogeneity are less likely to be active members of civil society.Geographic settlement patternsMeasure percentage of people of the same ethnicity (of targeted ethnicity group) who reside within the targeted group's neighbourhood/municipalitySocietal IntegrationPercentage of targeted group who reside within the neighbourhood/municipality being studied who are members of associations, interest groups, churches/mosques/temples, sports teams, clubs
42796148How does foreign investment impact "home grown" economic growth in developing countires?Higher levels of foreign investment leads to lower rates of domestically driven GDP growth, because foreign capital supplants local capital Foreign investment: investment into a country by a firm headquartered in a different country. Higher levels of foreign investment leads to lower rates of domestically driven GDP growth. Foreign investment as percentage of total GDPFDI (as % of GDP)Locally driven economic growth GDP growth over time w/o FDI
43798160Does a plurality of opinion in mass media help a country become more democratic? Greater diversity of opinion in mass media is beneficial to citizens as it allows them to formulate an informed personal opinion in matters of national interest. Lack of such diversity could also lend itself to manipulation from any one group seeking to influence public opinion.Mass media is understood as the types of media outlets that the grand majority of the population has access to; namely: television, radio, newspapers, journals, magazines, etc.

The more media outlets express a variety of opinion in matters of national interest, we can expect citizens to increase their political participation. Political tendencies of media outlets Track the coverage of substantive issues on national media and categorize outlets into different approaches/ideologiesCitizens’ political participation Measure voter turnout, party-membership, association to non-governmental organisations, number of citizen-initiated petitions, etc