FOIA Country Rules Sept 2019
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GIJN's Guide to National Rules on Where Foreigners Can Make FOI Requests
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In some countries, foreigners can apply for documents using national access laws. This GIJN resource summarizes where this is possible. National freedom of information (FOI) and right to information (RTI) laws typically define who can make requests. These definitions were collected by Right to Information Rating (https://www.rti-rating.org/), a global rating of the laws in 124 countries based on 61 indicators. The RTI Rating was founded by Access Info Europe (AIE) and the Centre for Law and Democracy (CLD). RTI Rating Indicator 4 concerns who can apply for information. GIJN clarified ambiguous language for some countries based on information provided with local experts in 2019 postings on a nonpublic listserve run by FOIANet. GIJN welcomes further contributions for this resource page. Please write us here. (https://gijn.org/contact/)
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This compilation describe whether foreigners living outside the country can make requests (see key below). In a majority of countries the laws are ambiguous or provide a limited access right. This doesn't mean such requests are impossible, but suggests that futher research is warranted, perhaps with local legal experts or access to information advocacy groups. If foreign requests are not allowed, information seekers commonly circumvent restrictions by asking a local expert or citizen to make the request for them.
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Key to ColorsGIJN has used color coding for the three categories described below.
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Dark GreenYes. Foriegners' right to make requests is explicity conferred in law. (There are 15 such countries.)
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Light GreenMaybe. Requests by foreigners might be possible. The statutory language in some cases is general, referencing "persons," for example. Or a limited right may be provided. In South Korea, Mongolia, Turkey, New Zealand, and Vietnam, permission to make requests is granted to foreigners residing in the country. The Israeli law allows non-residents/non-citizens to receive information as well, but only regarding their rights in Israel.
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RedNo. Foreign requests are not allowed. Language of law refers explicitly to "citizens." (There are 25 such countries.)
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Description of entriesThe bold-faced opening numbers in each entry, separated by a slash, indicate the country's score on Indicator 4 given by RTI Rating. The ideal, according to RTI Rating is: "Everyone (including non-citizens and legal entities) has the right to file requests for information." The RTI Rating scores are here: https://www.rti-rating.org/country-data/by-indicator/4/. The numbers that appear after the rating indicate the relevant provision in the national law. (Full text of most laws is avalable on RTI Rating.)
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COUNTRYStatutory Language
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Afghanistan2/2 3(3) Applicant: Is a legal or natural person who requests information from institutions.
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Albania2/2 Article 3. Paragraph 1: "Any person enjoys the right to access public information, not being subject to explain the motives." Article 2. Paragraph 3: Person means any natural or legal person, local or foreign, as well as any stateless persons.
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Angola2/2 7: "1. Everyone shall have the right to information through access to non-personal documents held by public bodies. 2. The right of access to personal documents is restricted to the person to whom the personal data refers and to third parties who can demonstrate direct and personal interest, in terms of the next article. 3. The right of access to documents held by public bodies includes not only the right to obtain reproductions thereof, but also the right to be informed of the existence and the contents thereof. 4. Where documents held by public bodies are kept in archives, this shall not at any time hinder the exercise of the right of access to such documents. 5. Access to documents that form part of unfinished court proceedings or to documents produced in the preparation of a court ruling shall be deferred until the ruling has been taken, the proceedings have been shelved or a year after they were first produced. 6. Access to inquests and inquiries shall be permitted only after the expiry of the period for possible disciplinary proceedings. 7. Access to documents within the domain of notaries or public registers, documents on an individual's civilian identity and criminal records, documents concerning automatically processed personal data, as well as documents kept in historical archives is governed by separate legislation."
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Antigua1/2 Art 15 (1) - "Notwithstanding any law to the contrary and subject to the provisions of this Act, every person has the right to obtain, on request, access to information."
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Argentina2/2 ARTÍCULO 4° — Legitimación activa. Toda persona humana o jurídica, pública o privada, tiene derecho a solicitar y recibir información pública, no pudiendo exigirse al solicitante que motive la solicitud, que acredite derecho subjetivo o interés legítimo o que cuente con patrocinio letrado.
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Armenia2/2 Article 6(1) Each person has the right to address an inquiry to information holder to get acquainted with and/or get the information sought by him as defined by the law. (2) Foreign citizens can enjoy the rights and freedoms foreseen by the following law as defined by the Republic of Armenia Law and/or in cases defined by international treaties.
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Australia2/2 11 "Right of access (1) Subject to this Act, every person has a legally enforceable right to obtain access in accordance with this Act(...)"
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Austria2/2 S2. "Anyone is entitled to submit requests for information in writing, orally or by telephone...."
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Azerbaijan2/2 Article 2, Section 2. " 2.2. Any person is entitled to apply directly or via his (her) representative to the information owner and to choose the type and form for obtaining the information." Article 3, Section 7. "3.0.7. information requester (hereinafter referred to as "the requester") legal entity or individual applying in writing or verbally to acquire the information;"
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Bahamas1/2 Section 6. General right of access. (1) Subject to the provision of this Act, every— (a) Bahamian citizen (b) permanent resident within the meaning of the Immigration Act (Ch. 191); (c) body incorporated or registered under the laws of The Bahamas; (d) partnership or other unincorporated association formed under the laws of The Bahamas; or (e) person who does not fall within paragraph (b), (c) or (d) but maintains in the Bahamas an office, branch or agency through which he carries on any business activity, shall have a right to obtain access to a record other than an exempt record. (2) Notwithstanding subsection (1), the Minister may, by Order, at the direction of the Cabinet— (a) extend to  a person not referred to in subsection (1), the right of access to the record, and (b) may set such conditions as he deems appropriate.
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Bangladesh0/2 4. Right to information: "Subject to the provisions of this Act, every citizen shall have the right to information from the authority, and the authority shall, on demand from a citizen, be bound to provide him with the information."
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Belgium2/2 Loi no° 94-1724, Article 4: "Le droit de consulter un document administratif d'une autorité administrative fédérale et de recevoir une copie du document consiste en ce que chacun, selon les conditions prévues par la présente loi, peut prendre connaissance sur place de tout document administratif, obtenir des explications à  son sujet et en recevoir communication sous forme de copie."
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Belize1/2 SECTION 9 Subject to this Act, every person shall have a right to obtain access in accordance with this Act to a document of a Ministry or prescribed authority, other than an exempt document.
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Benin0/2 Article 70 : Tout citoyen a le droit d’accéder aux documents ou aux renseignements détenus par un organisme public ou par ses agents dans l’exercice de leurs fonctions. Ce droit s’exerce sur lesdits documents ou renseignements, qu’ils soient conservés par l’organisme public ou par un tiers.
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Bolivia2/2 4. The right of access to information is recognized to all people as a fundamental presupposition for the full exercise of citizenship and the strengthening of democracy.  5. In the exercise of the rights of information and petition, all natural or legal persons, individually or collectively, are entitled to request and receive complete, adequate, timely and truthful information from the Executive Power.
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Bosnia and Herzegovina2/2 Article 4 Right of Access. "Every natural and legal person has the right to access information in the control of a public authority, and each public authority has a corresponding obligation to disclose such information.This right of access may only be subject to such formalities and restrictions as are prescribed by this Act."
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Brazil2/2 Article 10. The request for access, which may be performed by any person, shall be submitted by any legitimate means to bodies and entities referred to under Article 1 of this Law, and shall include the applicant's identification and specification of the requested information. Article 2. The public bodies and entities that form the federal Executive Branch shall ensure to both individuals and legal entities the right of access to information, which shall be granted upon the observance of objective and quick proceedings, performed in a transparent manner, and stipulated in an easily understandable language, in compliance with the principles of the public administration and the guidelines set forth in Law No. 12,527, of 2011
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Bulgaria2/2 Art. 4. "(1) Any citizen of the Republic of Bulgaria is entitled to access to public information subject to the conditions and the procedure set forth in this act, unless another act provides for a special procedure to seek, receive and impart such information. (2) Foreign citizens and individuals with no citizenship shall enjoy the right under sub-art. 1 in the Republic of Bulgaria. (3) Legal entities shall enjoy the right under sub-art. 1 too."
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Burkina Faso1/2 Article 7: L’accès à l’information publique et aux documents administratifs est garanti et égal pour tous les usagers du service public et de tout organisme investi d’une mission de service public. Toute discrimination fondée notamment sur le sexe, la race, l’origine sociale, l’ethnie, la religion, la profession ou l’opinion politique ou philosophique est interdite.
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Canada1/2 4(1) Subject to this Act, but notwithstanding any other Act of Parliament, every person who is (a) a Canadian citizen, or (b)a permanent resident within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, has a right to and shall, on request, be given access to any record under the control of a government institution.(...) This topic is further addressed in a rule (Extension Order, 1989) as follows: The right to be given access under subsection 4(1) of the Access to Information Act to records under the control of a government institution is hereby extended to include all individuals who are present in Canada but who are not Canadian citizens or permanent residents within the meaning of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act and all corporations that are present in Canada.
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Chile2/2 ARTICLE 10. Toda persona tiene derecho a solicitar y recibir información de cualquier órgano de la Administración del Estado, en la forma y condiciones que establece esta ley. El acceso a la información comprende el derecho de acceder a las informaciones contenidas en actos, resoluciones, actas, expedientes, contratos y acuerdos, así­ como a toda información elaborada con presupuesto público, cualquiera sea el formato o soporte en que se contenga, salvo las excepciones legales.
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China1/2 Article 13 The people's courts shall not accept complaints filed by citizens, legal persons, or other organizations against the following: (1) Actions taken by the state in national defense and foreign affairs, among others. (2) Administrative regulations and rules or decisions and orders with general binding force developed and issued by administrative agencies. (3) Decisions of administrative agencies on the rewards or punishments for their employees or the appointment or removal from office of their employees. (4) Administrative action taken by an administrative agency as a final adjudication according to the law.
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Colombia2/2 Article 4. Concept of law. In exercise of the fundamental right of access to information, a person can learn about the existence and access to public information in the possession or control of entities. Access to information may be restricted only in exceptional cases. Exceptions will be limited and proportional, you must be prescribed by law or the Constitution and be consistent with the principles of a democratic society. The right of access to information generated by the corresponding obligation to proactively disseminate public information and respond in good faith, properly, accurate, timely and affordable access to applications, which in turn entails the obligation to produce or capture public information. To meet the above entities shall implement procedures to ensure archival availability at time of authentic electronic documents. Paragraph. When the user finds that the application of information threatens their safety or that of your family, you may apply to the Public Ministry's special application process, including identification reserved.
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Cook Islands1/2 11. Requests (1) Any qualified person may request a Ministry or Minister of the Crown or organisation to make available to him or her or it, any specified official information. (2) The official information requested shall be specified with due particularity in the request. (3) If the person making the request asks that his request be treated as urgent, he shall give his reasons for seeking the information urgently.
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Croatia2/2 Art.5. 1) "Beneficiary of the right to access information and right to re-use information" (hereinafter: the beneficiary) is any local or foreign natural person or legal entity.
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Czech Republic2/2 Section 3 - Definitions "(1) For the purpose of this Act, the "applicant" any natural person or legal entity requesting information."
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Denmark2/2 Section 4.1 "Subject to the exceptions in Sections 7-14 of this Act, any person may ask to see documents received or issued by an administrative authority in the course of its activity."
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Dominican Republic1/2 Artículo 1.- Toda persona tiene derecho a solicitar y a recibir información completa, veraz, adecuada y oportuna, de cualquier órgano del Estado Dominicano, y de todas las sociedades anónimas, compañías anónimas o compañías por acciones con participación estatal...
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East Timor2/2 Article 4 Language of official documents (1) Official documents may be accessed by the public, under the terms and conditions defined in this statute.
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Ecuador1/2 RTI Ratings wrote: The act often mentions legal persons, and so by not mentioning them in regards to requests it appears they are precluded from making requests. However, no distinction is made for citizens or residents.
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El Salvador2/2 ARTICLE 2 Toda persona tiene derecho a solicitar y recibir información generada, administrada o en poder de las instituciones públicas y demás entes obligados de manera oportuna y veraz, sin sustentar interés o motivación alguna. ARTICLE 98 El recurso será sobreseído cuando: a. El recurrente desista expresamente del mismo. b. El recurrente fallezca o tratándose de personas.
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Estonia2/2 A 4. Principles of granting access to public information "(2) Access to information shall be ensured for every person in the quickest and easiest manner possible."
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Ethiopia2/2 2(19): "Person mean a physical or juridical person." 12(1): "All persons have the right to seek, obtain and communicate any information held by public bodies, except as expressly provided for by this Proclamation."
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Fiji0/2 6.(1) Subject to subsection (2), any person who is a natural person and is a citizen or a permanent resident of the State may request the Commission to make available to the person any information held by a public agency.
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Finland2/2 Section 3 (Objectives): "The objectives of the right of access and the duties of the authorities provided in this Act are to promote openness and good practice on information management in government, and to provide private individuals and corporations with an opportunity to monitor the exercise of public authority and the use of public resources, to freely form an opinion, to influence the exercise of public authority, and to protect their rights and interests." Section 9. (Access to a document in the public domain). "(1) Everyone shall have the right of access to an official document in the public domain."
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France2/2 Art1.1 "Le droit de toute personne à l’information est précisé et garanti par les dispositions des chapitres Ier, III et IV du présent titre en ce qui concerne la liberté d’accès aux documents administratifs." Translation of key phrase is "every person."
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Georgia2/2 Article 37. (Claim of public information): "Everyone may claim public information irrespective of its physical form or the condition of storage. Everyone may choose the form of receipt of public information, if there are various forms of its receipt, and gain access to the original of information. If there is the danger of damaging the original, a public agency shall provide access to the original under supervision."
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Germany2/2 Section 1: (1) Everyone is entitled to official information from the authorities of the Federal Government in accordance with the provisions of this Act.
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Greece2/2 Article 5. 1: “Any interested party is entitled, by written application, to be informed of administrative documents Administrative Procedure Act, Article 3, Section 4.
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Guatemala2/2 Artículo 3. Esta ley se basa en los principios de: (1) Máxima publicidad; (2) Transparencia en el manejo y ejecución de los recursos públicos y actos de la administración pública; (3) Gratuidad en el acceso a la información pública; (4) Sencillez y celeridad de procedimiento.
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Guyana0/2 12. (1) Notwithstanding any law to the contrary and subject to the provisions of this Act, it shall be the right of every Guyanese citizen or person domiciled in Guyana to obtain access to an official document.
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Honduras1/2 ARTICULO 3. DEFINICIONES. Para los efectos de la presente Ley, se entiende por: [...] Derecho de Acceso a la Información Publica: El derecho que tiene todo ciudadano para acceder a la información generada, administrada o en poder de las instituciones obligadas previstas en la presente ley, en los términos y condiciones de la misma; [...] ARTICULO 4. DEBER DE INFORMAR Y DERECHO AL ACCESO A LA AINFORMACION PUBLICA. Todas las instituciones obligadas deberán publicar la información relativa a su gestión o, en su caso, brindar toda la información concerniente a la aplicación de los fondos públicos que administren o hayan sido garantizados por el Estado. Sin perjuicio de lo previsto en la Ley de Contratación del Estado en relación con las publicaciones, todos los procedimientos de selección de contratistas y los contratos celebrados, se divulgaran obligatoriamente en el sitio de Internet que administre la Oficina Normativa de Contratación y Adquisiciones (ONCAE). A este efecto, los titulares de los órganos o instituciones públicas quedan obligados a remitir la información respectiva. A su vez, toda persona natural o jurídica, tiene derecho a solicitar y a recibir de las Instituciones Obligadas, información completa, veraz, adecuada y oportuna en los limites y condiciones establecidos en esta Ley.
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Hungary2/2 Chapter 3, Section 28: "(1) Requests for accessing data of public interest may be made verbally, submitted in writing or electronically by anyone". Chapter 3, Section 26: "(1) Bodies or individuals undertaking state or local government duties, as well as other duties defined in the relevant legislation (hereinafter jointly referred to as body undertaking public duties) must be ensured the opportunity to provide access to data of public interest and data public on grounds of public interest to anyone requesting such data under their control, with the exception of cases defined within the scope of the present Act."
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Iceland2/1 Not mentioned, only refers to "the public."
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India1/2 6(1): "A person, who desires to obtain any in formation under this Act, shall make a request in writing or through electronic means in English or Hindi or in the official language of the area in whic h the application is being made, accompanying such fee as may be prescribed, to— (a) the Central Public Information Officer or State Public Information Officer, as the case may be, of the concerned public authority; (b) the Central Assistant Public Informati on Officer or State Assistant Public Information Officer, as the case may be, specifying the particulars of the information sought by him or her: Provided that where such request cannot be made in writing, the Central Public Information Officer or State Public Info rmation Officer, as the case may be, shall render all reasonable assistance to the person making the request orally to reduce the same in writing."
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Indonesia1/2 Art 1(12) and 2(1) - includes legal persons, but limited to Indonesians
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Iran0/2 Article 2- every Iranian citizen has the right to have access to public information, unless otherwise prohibited by law . The use of public information shall be consistent with related laws and regulations.
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Ireland2/2 Section 11 (1) "Subject to this Act, every person has a right to and shall, on request therefor, be offered access to any record held by an FOI body and the right so conferred is referred to in this Act as the right of access."
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Israel1/2 1: (1) Every Israeli citizen and resident has the right to obtain information from a public authority, according to the stipulations of this law." (2) "The following definitions apply to this law: ... "Resident“ as defined in Section 1 of the Population Registration Law (5725-1965), or a corporation incorporated under Israeli law. A country expert said the law allows non-residents/non-citizens to receive information as well but only regarding their rights in Israel.
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Italy2/2 Article 2.1. The provisions of this decree govern the right of whomever to freely access the data held by the public administrations and by the other subjects indicated in article 2-bis, i.e., a right that is guaranteed, without prejudice to the restrictions imposed in relation to the need to protect public and private interests that are deemed to be legally relevant, through the public access and the publications of documents, information and data concerning the organization and activities of the public administrations, and the modalities for their implementation. Article 5.1.The obligation to publish documents, information or data, envisaged for the public administrations by the legislation currently in force, entails the right of everyone to request the publication of any document, information or datum the publication of which has been omitted.
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Ivory Coast2/2 Article 3. Any natural or legal person has the right to access, without discrimination, information of public interest and public documents held by public bodies. Article 11. Anyone wishing to access information and public documents submits a written request to the body concerned in which it determines its identity and quality. The request is drafted in French and includes data allowing to reasonably identify the information sought. An acknowledgment of receipt is delivered to the applicant. Where the request is not sufficiently precise or where a person requires assistance in identifying the document likely to contain the information sought, the person responsible shall assist him / her. The applicant is not obliged to justify his request.
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Jamaica2/2 6.(1) Subject to the provisions of this Act, every person shall have a right to obtain access to an official document, other than an exempt document. (2) The exemption of an official document or part thereof from disclosure shall not apply after the document has been in existence for twenty years, or such shorter or longer period as the Minister may specify by order, subject to affirmative resolution. (3) An applicant for access to an official document sh all not be required to give any reason for requesting access to that document. (4) Where an official document is (a) open to access by the public pursuant to any ot her enactment, as part of a public register or otherwise; or (b) available for purchase by the pu blic in accordance with administra tive procedures established for that purpose, access to that document shall be obtained in accordan ce with the provisions of that enactment or those procedures, as the case may be
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Japan2/2 Article 3 - requests can come from any person. 4(1) allows requests from corporations.
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Jordan0/2 7 - citizens only.
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Kazakhstan2/2 Art.1. 3) an information user “an individual or a legal entity, requesting and (or) using information;"
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Kenya1/2 Section 2: citizen– means any individual who has Kenyan citizenship, and any private entity that is controlled by one or more Kenyan citizens. Section 4(1) Subject to this Act and any other written law, every citizen has the right of access to information.
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Kosovo2/2 Art. 3: "1.4. The applicant of a document - any natural or legal person, without discrimination on any grounds, under principles and conditions established by the present Law and other Law (hereinafter the applicant."
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Kyrgyzstan2/2 3: "Everyone has a guarantee of the right to access to information held by state bodies and local self-government bodies. The main principles of freedom of access to information are accessibility, objectivity, timeliness, openness and truthfulness of information. State shall defense the right of each person to seek, receive, research, produce, impart and disseminate information. Restrictions of access and dissemination information shall be established only by law."
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Latvia2/2 Section 2. Purpose and Scope of Application of this Law: "(1) The purpose of this Law is to ensure that the public has access to information, which is at the disposal of institutions or which an institution in conformity with its competence has a duty to create. This Law determines uniform procedures by which private persons are entitled to obtain information from an institution and to utilise it. (2) This Law applies to documented information, which is within the circulation of information of institutions. (3) Information shall be accessible to the public in all cases, when this Law does not specify otherwise. (4) This Law does not apply to the exchange of information between institutions."
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Lebanon2/2 Article 1: The beneficiaries of this law: Every person, natural or legal, shall have the right to access and view the information and documents in the administration in accordance with the provisions of this law, bearing in mind that the right should not be abused.
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Liberia2/2 1.3.4: "Person" means any individual, partnership, corporation, joint venture, trust, estate, unincorporated entity, government or any juridical entity." 3.2: "Request for Information: Every person, irrespective of their nationality or residence, may request, receive, reproduce and retain any information held by (1) a public authority or (2) private entity that receives public funds or engage in public functions or provision of public service; provided that in respect of private entities, the information shall relate to the public funds, benefit, functions or service."
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Liechtenstein1/2 art. 1 sect.1 in law, art. 17 and 18 in regulation. Referring to the general public in law, referring to media and citizens in regulation.
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Lithuania2/2 Article 2. Principal Concepts of this Law "... 9. Person means a natural or legal person and branches of enterprises established in the Member States of the European Union and the states of the European Economic Area located in the Republic of Lithuania. ..." Article 4. Freedom of Information "1. Every person shall have the right to freely express his ideas and convictions and to collect, obtain and disseminate information and ideas. The right to collect, obtain and disseminate information may not be restricted otherwise than under the law where it is necessary to protect the constitutional system, a person's health, honour, dignity, private life and morality. ..."
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Macedonia2/2 Article 4 "(1) Free access to information shall be enjoyed by all legal and natural persons. (2) Free access to information shall also be enjoyed by foreign legal and natural persons in accordance with the present Law and other laws."
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Malawi1/2 5(1) A person shall have the right to access information, in so far as that information is required for the exercise of his rights, which is in the custody or under the control of a public body or relevant private body to which this Act applies, in an expeditious and inexpensive manner.
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Maldives2/2 4(a) Access to information from a state office in accordance with this Act shall be a legally enforceable right available to every person who requests for such information; 76. "person" shall include natural and legal personalities;
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Malta1/2 3."Any eligible person has a right of access to documents held by public authorities in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this Act."
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Mexico2/2 Article 4. The human right of access to information includes requesting, researching, disseminating, seeking and receiving information. All the information generated, obtained, acquired, processed or held by the regulated entities is public and accessible to anyone under the terms and conditions set forth in this Act, in international treaties to which the Mexican State is a party, the Federal Act, the laws of the States and the regulations applicable in their respective jurisdictions; only exceptionally it may be classi ed as temporarily restricted for reasons of public interest and national security, in the terms provided by this Act. Article 10. It is the obligation of the Guarantor Agencies to grant the necessary measures to ensure access to information for all people on an equal basis with others. Any discrimination that undermines or annuls the transparency or the access to public information held by the regulated entities is prohibited. Article 12. All public information generated, obtained, acquired, processed or held by the regulated entities is public and will be accessible to anyone, for which reason all the means, actions and efforts available on the terms and conditions established by this Act, the Federal Act and those corresponding to the States, as well as other applicable rules should be enabled. Article 15. Everyone has the right of access to information without discrimination on any grounds. Article 121. Transparency Units of the regulated entities shall ensure the measures and accessibility so that every person may enforce the right of access to information through information requests, and shall assist the applicant in the preparation thereof, in accordance with the bases established in this Title. Article 122. Any person by himself or through his representative may request access to information with the Transparency Unit, through the National Platform, at the office or offices designated for this purpose, via email, mail, courier, telegraph, verbally or by any means approved by the National System.
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Moldova0/2 Article 5 (Subjects of the present law). Section 3: "Official information may be requested, under conditions defined in the present law, by: a) any citizen of the Republic of Moldova; b) foreign citizens that reside in the Republic of Moldova; c) stateless persons that reside in the Republic of Moldova."
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Mongolia1/2 11.1: "A citizen and a legal entity shall be entitled to receive the following information not related to the human rights and freedoms, national security, and lawful interests of organizations prohibited to be released to the public under the laws from the state bodies listed in the section 3.1 of the present law: 11.1.1. All information and documents, and information pertaining to the organization's contracts and agreements in possession of the organization; 11.1.2. All information pertaining to the goods and items in possession of the organization; 11.1.3. Any other information pertaining to the functioning of the organization." 4.1.1: "a "citizen" is a citizen of Mongolia as well as a foreign citizen or a stateless person residing in Mongolia lawfully;"
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Montenegro2/2 Article 1 " Any national or foreign legal and natural entity shall be entitled to access the information filed with government agencies."
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Morocco0/2 A foreign person residing legally in Morocco has the right of access to information. A3. Les citoyennes et les citoyens ont le droit d'accéder à l'information visée à l'article 2 ci-dessus, sous réserve des exceptions prévues par la présente loi. 4. En application des dispositions des conventions internationales afférentes que le Royaume du Maroc a ratifiées ou auxquelles il a adhéré, toute personne étrangère résidant au Maroc de façon légale a droit d'accéder à l'information visée à l'article 2 ci-dessus, selon les conditions et les procédures prévues par la présente loi.
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Mozambique1/2 ARTIGO 14 (Legitimacy) 1. Every citizen has the right to request and to receive information of public interest. 2. The right in the previous number may also be exercised by legal persons and by the media.
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Nepal0/2 3. Right to Information: (1) Every citizen shall, subject to this Act have the right to information. (2) Every citizen shall have access to the information held in the public Bodies.
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Netherlands2/2 Section 3. Paragraph 1.a: "Anyone may apply to an administrative authority or to an agency, service or company carrying out work for which it is accountable to an administrative authority for information contained in documents concerning an administrative matter."
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New Zealand1/2 12 Requests (1) Any person, being (a) a New Zealand citizen; or (b) a permanent resident of New Zealand; or (c) a person who is in New Zealand; or (d) a body corporate which is incorporated in New Zealand; or (e) a body corporate which is incorporated outside New Zealand but which has a place of business in New Zealand,” may request a department or Minister of the Crown or organisation to make available to him or it any specified official information. (1A) Notwithstanding subsection (1), a request made, on or after the date of commencement of this subsection, by or on behalf of a natural person for access to any personal information which is about that person shall be deemed to be a request made pursuant to subclause (1)(b) of principle 6 of the Privacy Act 1993, and shall be dealt with accordingly, and nothing in this Part or in Part 5 shall apply in relation to any such request. (2) The official information requested shall be specified with due particularity in the request. (3) If the person making the request asks that his request be treated as urgent, he shall give his reasons for seeking the information urgently. Section 12(1): replaced, on 1 April 1987, by section 6 of the Official Information Amendment Act 1987 (1987 No 8). Section 12(1A): inserted, on 1 July 1993, by section 3 of the Official Information Amendment Act 1993 (1993 No 36).
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Nicaragua2/2 Artículo 4.- "Para los fines de la presente Ley, se establecen las siguientes definiciones:(...) p. Persona: Comprende a todas las personas naturales o jurídicas, nacionales o extranjeras."
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Niger2/2 4: Art 4 - no mention of citizenship, no mention of right of legal entities
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Nigeria2/2 2(1): "Notwithstanding anything contained in any other Act, Law or Regulation, the right of any person to access or request information, whether or not contained in any written form, which is in the custody or possession of any public official, agency or institution howsoever described, is hereby established." 32: "... "Person" include a corporation sole, and also body of persons whether co porate or incorporate; acting individually or as a group; ..."
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Norway2/2 Section 3. Main rule "<...> Any person may apply to an administrative agency for access to case documents, journals and similar registers of that administrative agency."
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Pakistan0/2 2(ii) "applicant" means a citizen of Pakistan, as defined in law, who lodges a request or any person who is acting for or on behalf of such a person; 3(1) Subject to the provisions of this Act, no applicant shall be denied access to information or record held by a public body; 11(1) Subject to the provisions of this Act and the rules made thereunder, a citizen of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan may make a request to a public body through the designated official.
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Palau1/2 Section 9. Records and government documents open to public. (a) Within ten (10) days of any request, all public records produced by a governing body shall be available by any person during regular business hours, unless the disclosure will take more time to produce due to exceptional circumstances or the volume of information requested, is in violation of the Constitution of the Republic, other law of the Republic, or is exempted under this Act.
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Panama2/2 Artí­culo 1: Para efectos de la aplicación e interpretación de esta Ley, los siguientes términos se definen así: (...) 9. Persona: Cualquier persona, ya sea natural o jurídica, que actúa en nombre propio o en nombre de un tercero.(...)
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Paraguay1/2 Article 4. Scope and gratuity. Any person, without discrimination of any kind, you can access public information, free of charge and without any need to justify the reasons for formulating your order according to the procedure established by this Law.
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Peru2/2 Artículo 7º: Legitimación y requerimiento inmotivado: Toda persona tiene derecho a solicitar y recibir información de cualquier entidad de la Administración Pública. En ningún caso se exige expresión de causa para el ejercicio de este derecho
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Philippines0/2 SECTION 3. Access to Information. Every Filipino shall have access to information, official records, public records and to documents and papers pertaining to official acts, transactions or decisions, as well as to government research data used as basis for policy development.
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Poland2/2 Article 2, Section 1: "Each person is entitled, with the stipulation of Article 5, to the right of access to public information, hereinafter referred to as the right to public information.
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Portugal2/2 Art 5. "Everyone shall possess the right of access to administrative documents without the need to state any interest, to include the rights of consultation, reproduction, and information as to the administrative documents' existence and content."
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Romania2/2 Art. 1 of the law, as well as art. 31 of the Constitution of Romania, refers to persons (not only citizens).
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Russia2/2 Article 1. (Basic Definitions Used in the Present Federal Law). Section 3: "information user“ the citizen (natural person), organization (legal entity), or public association, carrying out a search for information on the activities of government bodies and bodies of local self-government. Information users are also government bodies and bodies of local self-government, which are carrying out a search of the above-specified information in accordance with the present Federal Law;" RTI Ratings commented, "Legal entities are included directly. The law wording is not fully clear but contains a clarification that a "citizen" can be a "natural person" not obliged to have Russian citizenship."
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