TOP 20 Communicable Diseases
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Top 20 Communicable Diseases in School-Aged ChildrenWhat is it?What does it look like? (Insert links to pictures)How is it diagnosed? Other Common Names? (EX. Whooping cough for Pertussis)Is it reportable in Colorado? If yes, How do the nurses report this illness?Signs and Symptoms?Incubation period?How is it spread?Recommendations? (Obviously hand washing, but what else?)When to see a health care provider?When to Exclude from School?How Does it differ from XXXXX? (Ex. How is pinworm different than ringworm?)Treatment
PertussisWhooping cough, also known as pertussis, is caused by the bacteria Bordatella Pertussis.Petussis is diagnosed by a laboratory culture of nasal secretions prior to the start of antibiotic treatment. Whooping CoughPertussis is a vaccine preventable disease, therefore confirmed cases should be reported to Jefferson County Public Health within 24 hoursBegins with cold-like symptoms including mild cough and low grade fever or no fever; progressing to severe coughing episodes followed by a characteristic whoop; cough may last up to 3 months4-21 days; most commonly 7-10 days incubation period.Transmission is by direct contact with nose/throat discharges of an infected person.Encourage good communicable disease strategies such as covering your cough and staying home when ill. Pertussis is a vaccine preventable disease. Contact your District RN for any concerns about possible pertussis in your school building. District RN will support notification of families of students who are at high risk of infection. Contact your health provider when you suspect pertussis: high fever, breathing distress, cough accompanied by a high pitched whooping sound, or have had close contact with a person who has been diagnosed with pertussis. EXCLUDE individuals with pertussis until they have completed five days of appropriate antibiotic treatment or until three weeks after the onset of cough or until the cough has stopped, whichever period is shorter.Pertussis may start out with symptoms similar to the common cold, however, the coughing symptoms progress to more severe coughing episodes followed by a "whooping" sound, blue tint to skin, difficulty catching breath, and vomitting. Treated with a minimum of 5 days of antibiotic treatment.
Common ColdIt is a viral illness caused by one of many viruses.No laboratory test available. Based on symptoms present or not present.Upper respiratory infection (URI)Nosore throat, runny nose, coughing, sneezing, headaches, body aches24-72 hours depending on the virusViruses that cause colds can spread from infected people to others through the air and close personal contact. You can also get infected through contact with stool (poop) or respiratory secretions from an infected person. This can happen when you shake hands with someone who has a cold, or touch a surface, like a doorknob, that has respiratory viruses on it, then touch your eyes, mouth, or nose.General hygenic measures (such as hand washing) are the BEST way to prevent the spred of the common cold.It is important to cough and sneeze into your elbow, throw away used tissues, and wash hands after coughing/sneezing/blowing your nose.Antibiotics are not used in treating the common cold. Cough and cold medications are not usually recommended in children as they are ineffective in treating symtpoms.When symptoms last more than 10 days, symptoms that are severe or unusual, or if the person is at high risk for serious flu complications (younger than 5, older than 65, pregnant, or having a medical condition such as asthma, a heart condition or diabetes) and gets flu symptoms such as fever, chills, and muscle or body achesGeneral exclusionary guidelines for health room, Ex: Fever >100, vomiting with other symptoms, 2 or more episodes of diarrhea with other symptoms, uncontained body fluids.Treatment includes; symptom management, hydration, rest. Antibiotics are not recommended.
Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease
A viral illness that is easily spread, typically affects infants and children under 5, but adults can get it.Based on symptoms presented and by examining the rashcertain strains of EnterovirusNOFever, reduced appetite, sore throat, runny nose, feeling unwell, painful mouth sores that usually begin as flat red spots. Rash of flat red spots that may blister on the palms and soles and sometimes knees elbows, buttocks, and genital area.3-6 daysDroplets, infectious discharges, and fecal/oralAvoid touching face w/ unwashed hands, avoid close contact (hugging, sharing cups/ utensils), disinfect frequently touch objects/surfaces (doorknobs, toys), there is no immunization or treatment. Staff should wash hands after changing diapers.Call your pediatrician if your child's fever lasts more than 3 days or if he or she is not drinking fluids. with open sores, excessive drooling, not feeling well enough, or running a fevermight be confused with chickenpox, however areas of presentation differ and chickenpox blisters are itchy, while HFM blisters are painful.fever and pain can be managed with Over the counter medications. stay hydrated
Conjunctivitis (Pink eye)
Pink eye (conjunctivitis) is an inflammation or infection of the transparent membrane (conjunctiva) that lines your eyelid and covers the white part of your eyeball. Your medical provider will diagnose based on symptoms and a health history.  An office visit is not always required.Bacterial pink eye, viral pink eye, or allergic pink eyeIndividual cases are not reportable.
Suspected outbreaks of all types (including pink eye) are reportable to state or local public health.
Redness in one or both eyes
Itchiness in one or both eyes
A gritty feeling in one or both eyes
A discharge in one or both eyes that forms a crust during the night that may prevent your eye or eyes from opening in the morning
Bacterial: 24-72 hours
Viral: usually 1-12 days
Allergies or chemical irritation: variable
Bacterial and viral: Can be easily spread by direct contact with discharge from the eye of an infected person or by direct contact with objects contaminated with eye discharge. Contaminated fingers, clothing, towels,
shared eye makeup applicators, etc. may spread the infection.
Allergic pink eye is not contagious.
Children do NOT need to be excluded for pink eye unless the child meets other exclusion criteria, such
as fever or behavioral change. Consult a health professional for diagnosis and possible treatment.
• Encourage frequent handwashing.
• Avoid touching or rubbing eyes and avoid sharing personal items.
• Ensure good cleaning and sanitizing practices are being followed.
There are serious eye conditions that can cause eye redness. These conditions may cause eye pain, a feeling that something is stuck in your eye (foreign body sensation), blurred vision and light sensitivity. If you experience these symptoms, seek urgent care.

People who wear contact lenses need to stop wearing their contacts as soon as pink eye symptoms begin. If your symptoms don't start to get better within 12 to 24 hours, make an appointment with your eye doctor to make sure you don't have a more serious eye infection related to contact lens use.
Children do NOT need to be excluded for pink eye unless the child meets other exclusion criteria, such
as fever or behavioral change. Consult a health professional for diagnosis and possible treatment.
Bacterial: A health care provider may prescribe antibiotic eye drops or topical ointment. Antibiotic treatment
will generally speed recovery and reduce spread to others.
Viral: There is usually no treatment.
Allergies: May be treated with allergy medications.
Chemical irritation: Symptoms generally resolves once the irritant is removed.
Nausea, Vomitting, Diarrhea
GI Illness. Diarrhea- defined as stools that are more frequent and looser than usual.Observation of symptomsStomach bug, stomach virus, stomach fluNoNausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach crampsVariablecontact with bodily fluids. Clean up with Jeffco cleaner. Follow guidelines for when to come back to school- see exclusionsAfter 3 daysStudent should not return to school for 48 hours until vomitting or diarhea has been over for 48 hours per CDPHE guidelines. Stomach flu vs. respiratroy fluRest and fluids
NorovirusNorovirus is a virus that causes inflammation of the stomach and intestines, which results in diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, and stomach cramping. Uncontrolled vomiting and diarrhea Diagnosis is usually made by symptoms, although the virus can be tested through a stool sample. Stomach bug, stomach virus, stomach fluYes. To report, call the Jefferson County Health Department.Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach cramps (also possible: body ache, fever, headache)The average incubation period for norovirus-associated gastroenteritis is 12 to 48 hours, with a median period of approximately 33 hours. People can become infected with Norovirus by:
• Eating food or drinking liquids that are contaminated
with Norovirus;
• Touching surfaces or objects contaminated with Norovirus,
and then placing their hand in their mouth; and,
• Having direct contact with another person who is infected
and showing symptoms (for example, when caring for
someone with an illness, or sharing foods or eating
utensils with someone who is ill). Norovirus can be spread through airborne transmission, not the usual transmission, but possible
Contact health services with a suspected outbreak. Call environmental services for GI cleaning solution. Clean commonly touched/used areas such as door knobs, hand rails, bathrooms, light switches, etc. with cleaning solution. Recommend that parents keep sick children home from school for 2-3 days after symptoms have ended. Launder soiled linens in hot water for longest time possible and machine dry. If the illness lasts longer than 24 hours, if fever does not decrease with ibuprofen or tylenol, or if fluids aren't tolerated and dehydration is suspected. If the child has thrown up 2 or more times in the last 24 hours or has diarrhea more then twice at school. Norovirus is highly contagious. Norovirus has no respiratory symptoms (such as runny nose, cough, congestion, sore throat, etc.). Rest and fluids.
ImpetigoSkin infection caused by strep or staph bactereria.Doctors usually diagnose impetigo by looking at the distinctive sores. Lab tests generally aren't necessary. If the sores don't clear, even with antibiotic treatment, your doctor may take a sample of the liquid produced by a sore and test it to see what types of antibiotics works best.Staph (pronounced staff), school soresindividual cases are not reportable to PHD. Suspected outbreaks are reportable to state or local PHD.area of itchy skin where tiny blisters develop; blisters will eventually burst to reaveal areas of read skin taht may week fluid; mostly found on the arms. legs and face. Honey colored crust7-10 days for strep; variable for staphdirect contact with infected skin.; Less commonly, it can be spread through direct contact with articles ( clothings; bedding, towels etc) that have come in with the rashdiscourage scratching or touching the sores and scabs. Keep sores covered with bandage; frequent handwashing;wash hands after touching anything that could be contamiinated with fluid from the sores. Sharing of towels, clothing and other personal items should be discouraged. cleanliness and prompt attention to minor wounds will help prevent impetigo. Wash contaminated clothes, linens, and towels. Consult with local or state PHD w implemenation of control measures.if suspected. Oral/topical antibioitics Exclude infected students until 24 hours after beginning antibioitcs. CHILDCARE: should be excluded until 24 hrs after antibiotic treatment has begun. SCHOOLS: Childrens should be excluded until 24 hours after antibiotic treatment has begun.Impetigo differs from other skin infections by seeing crusty, yellowish pus coming out of the skin eruption Antibiotics - oral or topical to decrease spread of diaease and risk of secondary infections and speed healing
MeaslesHighly contagious viral illness that is spread through droplets in the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks. An unvaccinated person has a 90% chance of getting measles when exposed to an infected person. A person is contagious before the rash appears and most often before they are officially diagnosed with measles.Your doctor can usually diagnose measles based on the disease's characteristic rash as well as a small, bluish-white spot on a bright red background — Koplik's spot — on the inside lining of the cheek. However, many doctors have never seen measles, and the rash can be confused with a number of other illnesses. If necessary, a blood test can confirm whether the rash is truly measles.Rubeola, also called 10-day measles, red measles, or measlesyes. To report, call the Jefferson County Health Department.Signs and symptoms appear 10-14 days after exposure and consist of fever, dry cough, runny nose, sore throat, red eyes (conjunctivitis), tiny white spots with bluish centers are noted on reddened inside of mouth/cheeks, skin rash consisting of large flat red blotches that are widespread/touchingSigns and symptoms appear 10-14 days after exposureIt is spread through droplets in the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks. It may remain contagious for several hours after the infected person has left.Avoid infected persons with illness and obtain measles vaccination to prevent infection.Call a doctor if you think you might have measles. Set up an appointment so thedoctor can diagnose you properly. Call a doctor if you've been around someone who might have measles — even if you don't feel sick.Because measles is highly contagious from about four days before to four days after the rash breaks out, people with measles shouldn't return to activities in which they interact with other people during this period.It is often confused with Rubella, or german measles, which are milder illnesses also with a rash.There's no specific treatment for an established measles infection. However, some measures can be taken to protect vulnerable individuals who have been exposed to the virus, such as vaccinations and medications.
MumpsMumps is a contagious viral infection that primarily affects saliva-producing (salivary) glands that are located near your ears. Mumps can cause swelling in one or both of these glands. It's most common in children. Children may look like their cheeks are swollen.Normally, mumps can be diagnosed by its symptoms alone, especially by examining the facial swelling.Take a sample of blood, urine, or saliva to confirm diagnosis. Main symptom is painful and swollen parotid glands, one of three sets of salivary glands; this causes the person's cheeks to puff out. Other symptoms include fever, headache, muscle aches, fatigue.Report the infection to the facility director or school nurse and the local or state health department within seven days of diagnosis.Usually parotid gland swelling (located in cheek area at the back angle of the jaw), Swelling of one or more salivary glands on one or both sides of the face, fever, headache, muscle achesRanges from 12-25 days (usually 16-18 days)Transmission is by nose/throat discharges and direct contact with saliva from an infected individual. Infected individuals who do not have symptoms can still infect others.Discuss possible exclusion of children and staff without proof of mumps immunity with the state or local public health agency.People should go to their health care provider if they think they have mumps. Their health care provider can confirm the diagnosis with a saliva test. Complications of mumps include: inflammation of brain and reproductive organs.EXCLUDE all infected students and/or staff until 5 days after swelling onset.Discuss possible exclusion of children and staff without proof of mumps immunity with the state or local public health agency.There is no specific treatment for mumps. Comfort measures include acetaminophen (Tylenol), rest, ice packs to swollen glands, drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration.
Meningitis Inflammation (swelling) of protective membranes covering brain and spinal cord. Different types include bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic, amebic, and non-infectious (caused by head injuries, cancer, lupus (auto-immune disorder), brain surgery, certain drugs, and other types of infections. Vaccines are available to treat some types of bacterial and viral meningitis.Lumbar puncture, CT scan, Blood culturesMeningococcusWithin 24 hours of suspected or confirmed diagnosis of meningoccocal. Pneumoccocal is reported within 7 daysHeadache, stiffneck high, fever, rash, sleepiness, nausea/vomiting, loss of appetite, being disoriented, irritable or confused, Eye sensitivity to light.range of incubation for most organisms causing meningitis is 2 days to 2 weeksHOW LONG CAN A PERSON PASS THE INFECTION TO OTHERS? Bacterial - Less contagious than viral but some bacterias are more contagious than others, may be contagious during incubation period and about an additional 7-14 days, and can be contagious for days to months if person becomes a carrier. Viral - 3 days from when infection starts to about 10 days after symptoms develop. Other types (fungal, parasitic, amebic, and non-infectioius) are not contagious.Exclude students for at least 24 hours after antibiotics are started, report suspected cases to health care providers. Meningococcal Vaccinate: preteens and college students. HIB and Pneumococcal Vaccines for children starting at 2 monthsFever, severe unrelenting headache, confusion, vomitting, stiff neckIt may also be necessary to keep nonimmunized people — siblings, for example — away from the infected person. All infected students and staff until at least 24 hours after treatment with antibiioticsViral menningitis does not usually require hospitalization, not treated with antibiotic, symptom management only. Viral caused by Enterovirus rather than meningococcal, symptoms are identical for each type but some symptoms are more severe. IV Antibiotics for Bacterial, and treat symptoms for Viral, Fungal treated with antifungal
Staph Infections such as MRSA
A type of staph bacterial infection,that usually starts in the skin, that is resistant to several types of antibiotics. Can progress to lungs or a more severe systemic infection if not treated Culture taken from tissue sample or nasal secretions and checked for signs of drug resistant bacteriaNoneMRSA is reportable in CO only if sample is taken from a normal sterile site such as blood or CSF. Individual cases of skin or soft tissue infections are not reportable to public health. Suspected outbreaks are reportable to public healthIn child care and school settings, most staph and MRSA infections are skin or soft tissue infections that may appear as pustules or boils which are often red, swollen, painful, and/or have pus or other drainage. Often, MRSA skin and soft tissue infections may look like spider or insect bites.Variable- depends on the type and severity of infectionA case is contagious from two days before to five days after swelling onset.You can’t tell by looking at the skin if it is a staph infection (including MRSA).
Contact your doctor if you think you have an infection. Finding infections early and getting care make it less likely that the infection will become severe.
Do not try to treat the infection yourself by picking or popping the sore.
Cover possible infections with clean, dry bandages until you can be seen by a doctor, nurse, or other health care provider.Handwashing and keeping sore covered.Avoid skin to skin contact
If you notice any of the telltale symptoms of pustules or boils that are red or have white drainage, are swollen or painful. Unless directed by a physician, students with MRSA infections should not be excluded from attending school. Exclusion from school and sports activities should be reserved for those with wound drainage that cannot be covered and contained with a clean dry bandage and for those who cannot maintain good personal hygieneIt is different from a uninfected wound because it is typically exhibiting white drainage or pus . May appear as a spider bite. but unless spider is seen the irritation is probably not from a spider. Most skin infections appear as a bump but a staph infection will have white drainage and ususally has a fever Antibiotics to which the bacteria has not developed resistance- determined by culture and sensitivity.
C-diffBacterial caused diarrhea. Foul smelling diarrhea. You will never forget, once you smell it.Watery, foul smelling diarrhea, could have blood in itFrom a stool sample sent to the labStudent may say that they have "C. Poop"Laboratory reportable in 5 counties of Denver Metro Area. Hospital cases need to be reported.Loss of appetite, fever, violent diarrhea (mulitple watery, diarrhea BM's/day), abdominal pain. 3-7 Days, however sypmtoms may be present from day 1 thru10 weeks after exposure.Through the fecal→oral route and can occur when a person comes into contact with a
contaminated surface or it can be spread person-to-person, including via hands of staff in child care facilities and schools.
Good Handwashing, must stay home from school until 48 hours after last diarrhea stool; may need to consider homebound for extended absence. Hand sanitizer will not kill the bacteria, must use cleaners that specifically will kill c.diff (must state this on the bottle or MSDS, bleach cleaner CDC recommends a 1:10 dilution of 5.25% - 6.15% household bleach with a contact time of 10 minutes in order to inactive C. difficile spores.After 24 hours of chronic diarrhea, symptoms of dehydrationAfter 2 consecutive diarrhea stools or after diagnoses. Determinations may be based on age and development, location of and type of bathroomIt is different from food caused or illness diarrhea because is bacterial. It is watery and smells very bad. Causes severe dehydration.Antibiotics such as Vancomycin or flagyl
InfluenzaInfluenza (flu) is a very contagious viral illness caused by the influenza virus and should not be confused with “stomach flu” (viral gastroenteritis). Influenza causes community-wide outbreaks every winter, usually from November through March. Rapid flu test performed at your doctors office - results within 10-15 minutes. Tests are a swab in the nose and back of throat. The fluOutbreaks of influenza can cause large increases in absenteeism rather suddenly. Schools should report signifiicant increases in school absenteeism resulting from influenza-like illness to the state or local public health agency. The school nurse should Contact Jefferson County Public Health Ann Shen RN 720-323-8952 and she can verify cases and offer advice on notifying parents, exclusion.. High fever (above 100; usually sudden onset), headache, muscle aches, dry cough, sore throat, nausea and vomiting may occur1-4 days, usually 2 daysThe influenza virus is spread from person to person primarily by respiratory droplets created by coughing or sneezing. Transmission may also occur through contact with contaminated surfaces, hands, used tissues, or other articles soiled by nose and throat secretions.Get a flu shot every year. Take everyday preventative measures to stop the spread of flu; ie, stay home when sick, cover your cough and sneeze, practice proper handwashing, keep hands away from face, routinely clean surfaces.If you are >65 years of age, young children, pregnant, have asthma, diabetes or heart disease due to complications that may occur. If you are unable to keep fluids or food down or fever >101 with or without a rash or shortness of breath or dizziness. Student should stay home until no longer vomiting, diarrhea or fever for 24 hours, rash. If you continue to have wheezing, shortness of breath, uncontrolled coughing.In certain circumstances, a health care provider may prescribe antiviral medications. These medications may reduce symptoms and duration of illness by one or two days. Acetaminophen-containing medicines (such as Tylenol) can be used to lower temperature or reduce discomfort.
Strep ThroatA bacteria that infects the throat generally categorized as Group A Streptococcus,
Rapid Strep test- performed in provider's office results within 5 minutes
Throat Culture - performed in provider's office reslts in 48-72 hours
Strep Throat is the common nameIts not reportable, unless there is a suspected outbreak in the school settingSore throat, usually starts quickly and can cause pain when swallowing, fever, red and swollen tonsils, sometimes with white patches or streaks of pus.Time from contact to symptoms is usually 2-5 daysCoughing, sneezing into the air, sharing drinks, utensils, touching something that contains the bacteria (ie. counter top, door knob, light switch, stair railings)The infected person is contagious until has taken antibiotics for 12 hours, practice good handwashing, cough/seeze in your sleeve, do not drink from the same glass, share utensils, or kiss someone who has Strep throat.When the child has sore throat accompanied by swollen lymph glands, or a sore throat that lasts longer than 48 hoursIf the person has no symptoms regradless of a positive test result does NOT need to be excluded.
Exclude until fever free (less than 100.0 farenheit) for 24 hours without fever reducing medciation such as acetominphen or ibuprofen.
Exclude have taken antibiotics for at least 12 hours before returning to school.
Non infectious/non contagious sore throat. A positive throat culture is the definitive difference.Antibiotics
Ringworm Ringworm is a common fungal skin infection otherwise known as tinea. Ringworm most commonly affects the skin on the body (tinea corporis), the scalp (tinea capitis), the feet (tinea pedis, or athlete's foot), or the groin (tinea cruris, or jock itch).Your doctor might be able to diagnose ringworm simply by looking at it. If the diagnosis isn't clear-cut, he or she may want to take some skin scrapings from the affected area so they can be examined under a microscope.Ringworm is the common name. The scientific name is tinea: tinea pedis (feet), tinea cruris (groin), tinea capitis (scalp),tinea manuum (hands).Individual cases are not reportable. Suspected outbreaks of all types (including fungal infections/ringworm) are reportable to state or local public health, call your nurseRingworm typically begins as a flat scaly area on the skin, which may be red and itchy. This patch develops a slightly raised border that expands outward — forming a roughly circular ring. The contours of the ring may be quite irregular, resembling the wavy outline of a snake or a worm.4-14 daysFungal infections, including ringworm, are spread by direct contact with the rash on an affected human or animal, or by direct contact with a contaminated object/surface (such as clothing, towels, and bedding). Animals like dogs, cats, cows, goats, pigs, and horses can have ringworm and can transmit it to people.EXCLUDE children and staff with ringworm from the end of the child care/school day until treatment has started. Ensure all infected persons and pets are treated. Avoid sharing personal items. Encourage good hygiene and handwashing. See your doctor if you have a rash on your skin that doesn't begin to improve within two weeks. You may need prescription medication.EXCLUDE children and staff with ringworm from the end of the child care/school day until treatment has started.Pinworms are small intestional parasites that can live in the colon and rectum and ringworm is a topical skin infection.Fungal infections, including ringworm, can be treated with antifungal medicine that can be taken in tablet or liquid form by mouth, or as a topical cream applied directly to the affected area. The particular medication used and duration of treatment is based on the location of the infection. Some treatments require a prescription by a health care provider, and some topical creams can be purchased over-the-counter.
Chicken PoxChickenpox is a highly contagious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). It can cause an itchy, blister-like rash. The rash first appears on the chest, back, and face, and then spreads over the entire body, causing between 250 and 500 itchy blisters. Chickenpox can be serious, especially in babies, adolescents, adults, pregnant women, and people with a weakened immune system. The best way to prevent chickenpox is to get the chickenpox vaccine.The diagnosis of Chicken Pox (Varicella)infection is usually a clinical diagnosis based on the characteristic vesicular lesions, (fluid filled blisters-Pox_ which are seen widespread in chickenpox (varicella)VaricellaReport this disease within four days and Chickenpox report formThe incubation period for varicella is 14 to 16 days after exposure to a varicella or a herpes zoster rash, with a range of 10 to 21 days. A mild prodrome of fever and malaise may occur 1 to 2 days before rash onset, particularly in adults. In children, the rash is often the first sign of disease.Chickenpox is transmitted from person to person by directly touching the blisters, saliva or mucus of an infected person. The virus can also be transmitted through the air by coughing and sneezing. ... Blisters that are dry and crusted are no longer able to spread chickenpox.Get vaccinated, Chickenpox Vaccine is Safer than Getting Chickenpox per CDC. Keep child with pox home until they clear to limit spread. You or your child should not usually need any medical tests to diagnose chickenpox.You can be pretty sure that it is chickenpox if there are the key symptoms of a mild fever followed by an itchy rash, with blisters and scabs. See doctor especially for babies, adolescents, adults, pregnant women, and people with a weakened immune system, Chickenpox cases, should be excluded from school, childcare or work until all lesions have formed scabs or crusts.Chickenpox (varicella) is a viral infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus. Shingles (herpes zoster infection) is caused by re-activation of the chicken-pox virus. For chickenpox, from 2 days before the rash appears until at least 5 days after the rash first appears and all blisters have crusted over.

For shingles, a person is infectious from when the rash appears until all blisters have dried up.
To prevent skin infections. Calamine lotion and a cool bath with added baking soda, uncooked oatmeal, or colloidal oatmeal may help relieve some of the itching. Try to minimize scratching to prevent the virus from spreading to others and potential bacterial infection from occurring. Keeping fingernails trimmed short may help prevent skin infections caused by scratching blisters.

Over-the-counter Medications
Do not use aspirin or aspirin-containing products to relieve fever from chickenpox. The use of aspirin in children with chickenpox has been associated with Reye’s syndrome, a severe disease that affects the liver and brain and can cause death. Instead, use non-aspirin medications, such as acetaminophen, to relieve fever from chickenpox.
Fifth Disease Erythema infectiosum (also known as fifth disease) is usually a benign childhood condition characterized by a classic slapped-cheek appearance (see the image below) and lacy rash. It results from infection with human parvovirus (PV) B19.The diagnosis of erythema infectiosum usually is based on clinical presentation alone, and a workup for patients with the classic presentation is not necessary. For patients with other signs or symptoms associated with human parvovirus or for exposure in a woman who is pregnant, confirmation of infection may be helpful and can be accomplished with lab testing.Erythema Infectiosum - "Slapped cheek" rashNoMild symptoms begin approximately 1 week after exposure to the virus and last 2-3 days. They include the following: headache, fever, sore throat, itching, inflammation in the nose, abdominal pain, and joint pain. These symptoms precede a symptom-free period of about 7-10 days, after which the infection progresses through the following stages: Phase 1 - The typical facial rash begins with the classic slapped-cheek appearance, which typically fades over 2-4 days; Phase 2 - This phase occurs 1-4 days later and is characterized by a red, bumpy rash that fades into a classic lacelike reticular pattern as close areas clear; Phase 3 - Frequent clearing and recurrences for weeks or occasionally months may occur due to stimuli such as exercise, irritation, stress, or overheating of the skin from sunlight or bathing in hot water.The incubation period from the time it elapses between contrating the virus and the start of the illness is 4-14 days,but could be up to 21 days. A person is only contagious at the beginnong of the virus.It is spread by respiratory droplets that enter the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes, or through blood.Transmission of human PV-B19 occurs through respiratory secretions, possibly through items like clothing, utensils, and furniture, transmission from mother to fetus, and by transfusion of blood or blood products. Cleaning all items that may have been touched by someone with a confirmed case of Fifth Disease is recommended. Avoiding all contact with infected persons is recommended for pregnant women. By the time the rash appears, children are no longer contagious and may attend school and day care. 1. Fever of greater than 102 degrees 2. If you are exposed to fifth disease and you are pregnant. 3. If you have chronic anemia.N/A - students with the classic Fifth Disease classic rash are no longer contagious.N/A - students should be referred to a health care provider, but commonly other rashes and diseases do not give the hand-slapped rash appearance on the cheeksThere is no specific treatment. Most infections are mild enough that they do not require treatment.
Bed Bugs
Small insects that bite and feed on people while they sleep. 1.Student complains of itching and has bites 2. .Find a bug on a studentNoneNot reportableBite marksEggs hatch after 6-10 days and the nymphs seek a blood meal. Adult bed bugs can lay dormant for several months to one year without a blood meal, and nymph can live up to 3 months without a blloodmeal. They are cold tolerant.Bed bugs are great hitchhikers. They can move from an infested site to a new home by traveling on furniture, bedding, luggage, boxes, clothing, and backpacksIF BED BUG FOUND AT SCHOOL (pg 5 of handbook): 1. Remove student from class- examine clothing and belongings. Trap a specimen and seal on tape in ziplock. 2. Contact facility manager, who will confirm bug is a bed bug with Jeffco Schools Environmental Services 3. Principal contacts parents of student. 4. After vacuum the area, place that vacuum bag into a plastic bag/garbage bag and tightly seal for disposal (or for bagless vacuums, empty contents of vacuum into a plastic bag/garbage bag and tightly seal for disposal). Clean the vacuum and inspect that no bed bugs remain on the vacuum.1.Allergic reactions to their bites, which can be severe. Effects ranging from no reaction to a small bite mark to, in rare cases, anaphylaxis (severe, whole-body reaction).
2. Secondary infections of the skin from the bite reaction, such as impetigo, ecthyma, and lymphangitis.
3. Mental health impacts on people living in infested homes. Reported effects include anxiety, insomnia and systemic reactions.
NeverBed bugs feed at night and the bites tend to be clustered together.Thorough cleaning of the home, through an exterminator or do it yourself. Staff at school need to be sure all personal items are separate from each other, and pick up at the end of the day to make vaccuuming easier
LiceHead lice are tiny bugs about the size of a sesame seed (2–3 mm long [mm stands for millimeter]). Their bodies are usually pale and gray, but their color may vary. One of these tiny bugs is called a louse.
The diagnosis of head lice infestation is best made by finding a live nymph or adult louse on the scalp or hair of a person. Because adult and nymph lice are very small, move quickly, and avoid light, they may be difficult to find. ... Nits frequently are seen on hair behind the ears and near the back of the neck.Pediculus humanus capitis, Head Louse, PediculosisNO- Lice is not a nuisance, not a health hazardThe most common indication of a head lice infestation is Itching. This is due to an allergic reaction to louse saliva, although the itching is transient and typically mild. It can take up to 4 to 6 weeks after lice get on the scalp before the scalp becomes sensitive to the lice saliva and begins to itch. Most of the itching happens behind the ears or at the back of the neck. Also, itching caused by head lice can last for weeks, even after the lice are gone.The life span of an adult louse on a host ranges up to 30 days. During this time, the female head louse can deposit about 90 eggs. After incubating for seven to 10 days, the nits hatch and, after another 10 days, mature into adult head lice and the cycle begins again.Head lice move by crawling; they cannot hop or fly. ... Anyone who comes in head-to-head contact with someone who already has head lice is at greatest risk. Spread by contact with clothing (such as hats, scarves, coats) or other personal items (such as combs, brushes, or towels) used by an infested person is uncommon.Kids at school and in childcare settings are going to play. And their play may lead to the spread of head lice. However, you can take steps to prevent the spread of lice among children and adults. Here are some tips on how to prevent the spread of lice: Don’t share items that touch the head like combs or towels.
Avoid activities that lead to head-to-head contact.
Keep belongings, especially upper body clothing, away from shared areas like coat closets.
Standard/Recommended Treatment(s) for Head Lice: It is always a good idea to check with your child's physician before beginning any head lice treatment. Most over the counter head lice medicated shampoo only kill live lice, not the eggs (nits) that have been laid. Therefore, after treatment it is very important to use the comb-out method and then repeat the comb out every 2 to 3 days for 2 to 3 weeks to remove the eggs (nits). Head lice medicine/shampoo should be used only when it is certain that your child has living head lice. If your child only has nits (eggs) the comb out method (see above) should be used until you can no longer identify any nits. If LIVE lice: Notify parent; send student home for treatment; provide educational material on treating lice. Wait 24 hours & send out grade level letter (contact School RN first). Recheck student upon return to school: if no live lice then return to class and recheck in 7 days. If nits are present, child is okay to stay in the school environment.The major difference between bed bugs and lice is how they affect people. Lice generally need blood every day or so to survive. These pests stay on their human host, causing itchiness and skin irritation shortly after they feed. Not only are people able to see adult and immature lice if they look closely, but they can also see the pests’ small, light colored eggs stuck to strands of hair. On the other hand, bed bugs usually feed for a few days before any sign of skin rash appears on those affected, although in some cases a rash may show up shortly after a bed bug takes a blood meal. It’s unlikely that residents will even see, let alone feel bed bugs since they feed mostly at night and their bite usually goes unnoticed. Blood flecks or fecal matter stains on mattresses and sheets are often the first sign of infestation.There are plenty of over the counter lice treatments that can be purchased at your local grocery or drug store. There are also stand alone lice treatment clinics that offer lice removal asistance however the cost can be substantial.
Tuberculosis (TB) Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, joints/bones, spine, and brain. If not treated properly, it can be fatal.Usually has a skin test or blood test result indicating TB infection. May have an abnormal chest x-ray, or positive sputum smear or culture. A small amount of a substance called PPD tuberculin is injected just below the skin of your inside forearm. You should feel only a slight needle prick. Within 48 to 72 hours, a health care professional will check your arm for swelling at the injection site. A hard, raised red bump means you're likely to have TB infection. The size of the bump determines whether the test results are significant. TBYes. Call the Jeffco Dept of Public Health and the director of health servicesHas symptoms that may include: a bad cough that lasts 3 weeks or longer, pain in the chest, coughing up blood or sputum, weakness or fatigue, weight loss and/or no appetite, chills and/or fever sweating at night.Ten days to three months (usually three weeks).Airborne transmission occurs when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks and generates very small respiratory particles (droplet nuclei) containing viruses or bacteria. These small particles remain suspended in the air for long periods and can be widely dispersed by air currents. When another person inhales these small particles, they can potentially become ill.In most people who breathe in TB bacteria and become infected, the body is able to fight the bacteria to stop them from growing. The bacteria become inactive, but they remain alive in the body and can become active later. This is called latent TB infection. People with latent TB infection: People with weakened immune systems are at highest risk of contracting, this includes babies and young children. Many people who have latent TB infection never develop TB disease. In these people, the TB bacteria remain inactive for a lifetime without causing disease. But in other people, especially people who have weak immune systems, the bacteria become active, multiply, and cause TB disease.Immediately, when symptomatic or with positive blood test results; when immune system comprised.When in active phase of the disease vs. latent phase. EXCLUDE active TB cases from child care or school until they are receiving treatment and are cleared by a health care provider or a public health official. Children/students and staff who do not have symptoms should not be excluded from child care or school solely based on a positive skin or blood test. TB differs from the flu in that it is a chronic diagnosis that goes from latent to active phases throughout the life of the patient. Flu is an acute disease process. Medications are the cornerstone of tuberculosis treatment. However, treating TB takes much longer than treating other types of bacterial infections. For active tuberculosis, you must take antibiotics for at least six to nine months. The exact drugs and length of treatment depend on your age, overall health, possible drug resistance and the infection's location in the body.