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StimTypeDirectionInterpretationSourcereference1reference 2reference 3DevelopmentalContributor
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AmygdalaNegative1high emotional reactivity, activation of negative schema (speculative)litvan Wingen GA, van Eijndhoven P, Tendolkar I, Buitelaar J, Verkes RJ, Fernández G. Neural basis of emotion recognition deficits in first-episode major depression. Psychol Med. 2010 Nov 8:1-9.Drevets WC, Videen TO, Price JL, Preskorn SH, Carmichael ST, Raichle ME (1992): A functional anatomical study of unipolar depression. Journal of Neuroscience 12:3628–41.adultsCollier
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AmygdalaNegativeemotional disengagment / distancinglitKoenigsberg, H. W., Fan, J., Ochsner, K. N., Liu, X., Guise, K., Pizzarello, S., et al. (2010). Neural correlates of using distancing to regulate emotional responses to social situations. Neuropsychologia, 48(6), 1813-1822.adults
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AmygdalaNegative-1possible venlefaxane responder if you have generalized anxiety disorderlitWhalen, P. J., Johnstone, T., Somerville, L. H., Nitschke, J. B., Polis, S., Alexander, A. L., et al. (2008). A functional magnetic resonance imaging predictor of treatment response to venlafaxine in generalized anxiety disorder. Biol Psychiatry, 63(9), 858-863.adults
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AmygdalaNegative1high harm avoidancelitMost, S. B., Chun, M. M., Johnson, M. R., & Kiehl, K. A. (2006). Attentional modulation of the amygdala varies with personality. Neuroimage, 31(2), 934-944.adults
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Amygdala SustainedNegative1sustained and ruminative emotional engagementlitSiegle, G. J., Steinhauer, S. R., Thase, M. E., Stenger, V. A., & Carter, C. S. (2002). Can’t shake that feeling: fMRI assessment of sustained amygdala activity in response to emotional information in depressed individuals. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 693-707.Ray, R. D., Ochsner, K. N., Cooper, J. C., Robertson, E. R., Gabrieli, J. D., & Gross, J. J. (2005). Individual differences in trait rumination and the neural systems supporting cognitive reappraisal. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci, 5(2), 156-168.Cooney, R. E., Joormann, J., Fanny, F., Dennis, E. L., Gotlib I. H. (2010). Neural correlates of rumination in depression. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 10(4), 470-478adultsDarcy Mandell
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Amygdala SustainedNegative-1decreased memory for emotional informationlitKeightley, M. L., Chiew, K. S., Anderson, J. A., & Grady, C. L. (2010). Neural correlates of recognition memory for emotional faces and scenes. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci.adults
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AmygdalaPositive1adults
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AmygdalaPositive-1adults
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AmygdalaNegative1sensitivity to negative evaluation in social anxietylitGuyer, A. E., Lau, J. Y., McClure-Tone, E. B., Parrish, J., Shiffrin, N. D., Reynolds, R. C., ... & Nelson, E. E. (2008). Amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex function during anticipated peer evaluation in pediatric social anxiety. Archives of general psychiatry, 65(11), 1303.adolescents
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NAccPositive1sensitive to reward - possibly impulsive, novelty and reward seekinglitHahn, T., Dresler, T., Ehlis, A. C., Plichta, M. M., Heinzel, S., Polak, T., et al. (2009). Neural response to reward anticipation is modulated by Gray's impulsivity. Neuroimage.Abler, B., Walter, H., Erk, S., Kammerer, H., & Spitzer, M. (2006). Prediction error as a linear function of reward probability is coded in human nucleus accumbens. Neuroimage, 31(2), 790-795.adults
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NAccPositive-1low response in anticipation and receipt of reward suggesting deficits in both consummatory pleasure and appetive motivationlitForbes EE, Hariri AR, Martin SL, Silk JS, Moyles DL, Fisher PM et al (2009). Altered striatal activation predicting real-world positive affect in adolescent major depressive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 166: 64–73.Gotlib IH, Hamilton JP, Cooney RE, Singh MK, Henry ML, Joormann J (2010). Neural processing of reward and loss in girls at risk for major depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 67: 380–387.adolescents; depressed (ref 1) high risk (ref 2)
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BA10Negative1behavioral inhibition / proneness to anxiety reactionslitSander, D., Grandjean, D., Pourtois, G., Schwartz, S., Seghier, M. L., Scherer, K. R., et al. (2005). Emotion and attention interactions in social cognition: brain regions involved in processing anger prosody. Neuroimage, 28(4), 848-858.adults
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BA10 (right lateral PFC)Negative1inappropriate/innefficient recruitment during reappraisal in depressionlitJohnstone T, van Reekum CM, Urry HL, Kalin NH, Davidson RJ (2007): Failure to regulate: Counterproductive recruitment of top-down prefrontal-subcortical circuitry in major depression. J Neurosci 27:8877-8884adultsDarcy Mandell
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BA10Negative-1adults
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BA10Positive1increased self-related thinking in response to positive informationspecadults
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BA10Positive-1decreased association of reward with the selfclinadults
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PCCNegative1increased self-related thinking in response to negative informationspecadults
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PCCNegative-1alexythymialitMantani, T., Okamoto, Y., Shirao, N., Okada, G., & Yamawaki, S. (2005). Reduced activation of posterior cingulate cortex during imagery in subjects with high degrees of alexithymia: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Biol Psychiatry, 57(9), 982-990.adults
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Anterior InsulaNegative1prone to ruminate following provocationlitDenson, T. F., Pedersen, W. C., Ronquillo, J., & Nandy, A. S. (2009). The angry brain: neural correlates of anger, angry rumination, and aggressive personality. J Cogn Neurosci, 21(4), 734-744.adults
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Anterior InsulaNegative1feel emotions in the bodylitCraig, A. D. (2009). How do you feel--now? The anterior insula and human awareness. Nat Rev Neurosci, 10(1), 59-70.adults
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Anterior InsulaNegative-1decreased body-awareness of emotionclinadults
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Anterior Insula
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LDLPFCNegative1overcontrol of emotional experienceclinadults
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LDLPFCNegative-1decreased emotion regulation with high symptom severitylitErk, S., Mikschl, A., Stier, S., Ciaramidaro, A., Gapp, V., Weber, B., et al. (2010). Acute and sustained effects of cognitive emotion regulation in major depression. J Neurosci, 30(47), 15726-15734.adults
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RDLPFCNegative1increased ability to experience negative emotionslitColibazzi, T., Posner, J., Wang, Z., Gorman, D., Gerber, A., Yu, S., et al. (2010). Neural systems subserving valence and arousal during the experience of induced emotions. Emotion, 10(3), 377-389.adults
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RDLPFCNegative-1decreased emotion regulation with high symptom severitylitErk, S., Mikschl, A., Stier, S., Ciaramidaro, A., Gapp, V., Weber, B., et al. (2010). Acute and sustained effects of cognitive emotion regulation in major depression. J Neurosci, 30(47), 15726-15734.adults
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rACC/VMPFCNegative1possible antidepressant responderlitWhalen, P. J., Johnstone, T., Somerville, L. H., Nitschke, J. B., Polis, S., Alexander, A. L., et al. (2008). A functional magnetic resonance imaging predictor of treatment response to venlafaxine in generalized anxiety disorder. Biol Psychiatry, 63(9), 858-863.adults
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rACC/VMPFCNegative-1alexythymialitBerthoz, S., Artiges, E., Van De Moortele, P. F., Poline, J. B., Rouquette, S., Consoli, S. M., et al. (2002). Effect of impaired recognition and expression of emotions on frontocingulate cortices: an fMRI study of men with alexithymia. Am J Psychiatry, 159(6), 961-967.adults
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rACC/VMPFCPositive1alexythymialitBerthoz, S., Artiges, E., Van De Moortele, P. F., Poline, J. B., Rouquette, S., Consoli, S. M., et al. (2002). Effect of impaired recognition and expression of emotions on frontocingulate cortices: an fMRI study of men with alexithymia. Am J Psychiatry, 159(6), 961-967.adults
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rACC/VMPFCPositive-1anhedonia/lack of autonomic arousal to positive emotional stimulilitElliott, R., Rubinsztein, J. S., Sahakian, B. J., Dolan, R. J. (2002) The neural basis of mood-congruent processing biases in depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 59(7), 597-604adultsDarcy Mandell
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rACC/VMPFCNegative1difficulty inhibiting negative materiallitEugène, F., Joormann, J., Cooney, R. E., Atlas, L. Y., & Gotlib, I. H. (2010). Neural correlates of inhibitory deficits in depression. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 181, 30-35.adultsBen Paul
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rACC/VMPFCPositive-1ease in inhibiting positive materiallitEugène, F., Joormann, J., Cooney, R. E., Atlas, L. Y., & Gotlib, I. H. (2010). Neural correlates of inhibitory deficits in depression. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 181, 30-35.adultsBen Paul
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BA25Negative1CT non-responderdata,litSiegle, G. J., Carter, C. S., & Thase, M. E. (2006). Use of fMRI to predict recovery from unipolar depression with cognitive behavior therapy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 735-738.adults
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BA25Negative-1CT responderdata,litSiegle, G. J., Carter, C. S., & Thase, M. E. (2006). Use of fMRI to predict recovery from unipolar depression with cognitive behavior therapy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 735-738.adults
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dACCNegative1increased ability to up- and down-regulate emotionslitUrry, H. L., van Reekum, C. M., Johnstone, T., & Davidson, R. J. (2009). Individual differences in some (but not all) medial prefrontal regions reflect cognitive demand while regulating unpleasant emotion. Neuroimage, 47(3), 852-863.adults
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dACCNegative1prone to anger / agressionlitDenson, T. F., Pedersen, W. C., Ronquillo, J., & Nandy, A. S. (2009). The angry brain: neural correlates of anger, angry rumination, and aggressive personality. J Cogn Neurosci, 21(4), 734-744.adults
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dACCNegative-1low behavioral activationlitGray, J. R., Burgess, G. C., Schaefer, A., Yarkoni, T., Larsen, R. J., & Braver, T. S. (2005). Affective personality differences in neural processing efficiency confirmed using fMRI. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci, 5(2), 182-190.adults
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TaskNetNegative1increased task focusspecadults
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TaskNetNegative-1decreased task focusspecadults
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DefaultNetNegative1Increased self-referent processingspecSheline et al (2010) The default mode network and self-referential processes in depression, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0812686106 PNAS, 106 no. 6, 1942-1947
adults
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DefaultNetNegative-1decreased self-referent processingspecadults
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DMPFCNegative-1increased negative self-attribution (doing it so much little room for signal to change)litGrimm, S., Ernst, J., Boesiger, P., Schuepbach, D., Hell, D., Boeker, H., et al. (2008). Increased self-focus in major depressive disorder is related to neural abnormalities in subcortical-cortical midline structures. Human Brain Mapping.adultsNeil P. Jones
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DMPFCNegative1increased habitual self-focuslitLemogne, C. d., le Bastard, G., Mayberg, H., Volle, E., Bergouignan, L., Lehéricy, S., et al. (2009) In search of the depressive self: extended medial prefrontal network during self-referential processing in major depression. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 4(3), 305-312.adultsDarcy Mandell
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DMPFC/ACGNegative1increased cognitive control needed to disengage from emotional distractors OR increased engagement with task-irrelevant emotional distractorslitDichter GS, Felder JN, Smoski MJ (2009): Affective context interferes with cognitive control in unipolar depression: An fMRI investigation. Journal of Affective Disorders 114:131-142.adultsDarcy Mandell
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Connectivity Amygdala-DLPFCNegative1increased emotion-cognition relationshipspecadults
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Connectivity Amygdala-DLPFCNegative-1decreased emotion regulation with high symptom severitylitErk, S., Mikschl, A., Stier, S., Ciaramidaro, A., Gapp, V., Weber, B., et al. (2010). Acute and sustained effects of cognitive emotion regulation in major depression. J Neurosci, 30(47), 15726-15734.adults
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Connectivity Amygdala-DLPFCNegative-1 increased severity, course of depressionlitDannlowski, U., Ohrmann, P., Konrad, C., Domschke, K., Bauer, J., Kugel, H., et al. (2009). Reduced amygdala-prefrontal coupling in major depression: association with MAOA genotype and illness severity. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol, 12(1), 11-22.adults
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Connectivity Amygdala-VLPFCNegative1sensitivity to negative evaluation in social anxietylitGuyer, A. E., Lau, J. Y., McClure-Tone, E. B., Parrish, J., Shiffrin, N. D., Reynolds, R. C., ... & Nelson, E. E. (2008). Amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex function during anticipated peer evaluation in pediatric social anxiety. Archives of general psychiatry, 65(11), 1303.adolescents
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Connectivity Amygdala-DLPFC SustainedNegative1increased emotion-cognition relationshipspecadults
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Connectivity Amygdala-DLPFC SustainedNegative-1decreased emotion regulation with high symptom severitylitErk, S., Mikschl, A., Stier, S., Ciaramidaro, A., Gapp, V., Weber, B., et al. (2010). Acute and sustained effects of cognitive emotion regulation in major depression. J Neurosci, 30(47), 15726-15734.adults
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Connectivity Amygdala-VMPFC/BA11/32Negative1loss of inhibitory effective capabilities, inefficient top-down communication with amygdalalitJohnstone T, van Reekum CM, Urry HL, Kalin NH, Davidson RJ (2007): Failure to regulate: Counterproductive recruitment of top-down prefrontal-subcortical circuitry in major depression. J Neurosci 27:8877-8884adultsDarcy Mandell
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Connectivity DLPFC-rACC/VMPFCNegative1high severitylitThompson, W. K., & Siegle, G. (2009). A stimulus-locked vector autoregressive model for slow event-related fMRI designs. Neuroimage, 46(3), 739-748.adults
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Connectivity DLPFC-rACC/VMPFCNegative1increased voluntary initiation of emotion regulationspec
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Connectivity DLPFC-rACC/VMPFCNegative-1decreased voluntary initiation of emotion regulationspecadults
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Connectivity DLPFC-rACC/VMPFC SustainedNegative1increased voluntary initiation of emotion regulationspecadults
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Connectivity DLPFC-rACC/VMPFC SustainedNegative-1decreased voluntary initiation of emotion regulationspecadults
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Connectivity NAcc-BA10Positive1successful emotion regulationlitWager, T. D., Davidson, M. L., Hughes, B. L., Lindquist, M. A., & Ochsner, K. N. (2008). Prefrontal-subcortical pathways mediating successful emotion regulation. Neuron, 59(6), 1037-1050.adults
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Connectivity NAcc-BA10Positive-1decreased relationship of positive emotion to the selfspecadults
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Connectivity NAcc-BA10 SustainedPositive1"upregulating" positive affectlitHeller, A.S., et al., Reduced capacity to sustain positive emotion in major depression reflects diminished maintenance of fronto-striatal brain activation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2009. 106(52): 22445-22450.adults
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Connectivity NAcc-BA10 SustainedPositive-1decreased savoringspecadults
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Connectivity Amygdala-BA25Negative1unsuccessful emotion regulationlitWager, T. D., Davidson, M. L., Hughes, B. L., Lindquist, M. A., & Ochsner, K. N. (2008). Prefrontal-subcortical pathways mediating successful emotion regulation. Neuron, 59(6), 1037-1050.adults
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Connectivity Amygdala-BA25Negative-1decreased automatic emotion regulationspecadults
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Connectivity Amygdala TasknetNegative1adults
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Connectivity Amygdala TasknetNegative-1adults
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Connectivity Amygdala DefaultnetNegative1adults
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Connectivity Amygdala DefaultnetNegative-1adults
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Connectivity Tasknet-DefaultnetNegative1adults
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Connectivity Tasknet-DefaultnetNegative-1adults
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Connectivity BA25-PCCNegative1unsuccessful regulation of self-processing (increased rumination)lit Berman, M. G., Peltier, S., Nee, D. E., Kross, E., Deldin, P. J., & Jonides, J. (2010). Depression, rumination and the default network. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience.adultsNeil P. Jones
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