General Challenges - Use Cases DWBP
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laugeDescription
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MetadataMetadata not available in standardised, machine-readable format I
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Interoperability of different metadata standards (e.g. ISO 19139, GeoSource, SDI)
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Release schedule of data not clear from metadata
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Who is supporting, and how it is supported, the data not clear from metadata
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GranularityUnify way to access geodata at different level e.g.:, local, regional, national or EU level.
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Deciding granularity of data to publish
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FormatsData provided in just one format (csv)
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Transformation of data into Open Data formats
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Different Indicators, Different Temporal and Spatial Granularity
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Heterogeneous Formats (CSV != CSV) ... Maybe the W3C CSV on the Web WG will solve this issue)
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VocabulariesCommon vocabularies are not used, which is a barrier for data integration II
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Added value comes from comparable Open datasets being combined
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Use of linked open vocabularies and domain vocabularies to make the study data searchable.
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What vocabularies should be reused
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Dataset versioning
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Dataset selectionIdentifying what data to publish online
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ProcessingExtraction of original data
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There is no feedback loop to incorporate data corrections back into the original data (automated/machine-readable?)
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Difficult to track data usage
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Static/Real-timeData not available in real-time
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Data not available in bulk
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Open Data quickly becomes stale - automate the data publishing process to keep data up to date and accurate
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ToolsSelection, configuration and installation of OD catalogue tool
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Privacy/securityHigh-value datasets (critical infrastructure, utility services, road networks,) are not released as they are deemed to pose a risk to security
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Privacy: some data is personal or may become so when linked to others
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QualityIncomplete data
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Incomparable data
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How to measure the quality of the data
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How to provide information about the quality of the data
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Ensuring the quality of data before it is released
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LicensesLicenses not standardised II
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Licenses combination. What is the resulting license of combined dataset?
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Licenses not machine-readable
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Licenses not interoperable
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Industry-reuseIndustrial uptake of Open Data difficult – different requirements I
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SLAs not standardised
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SLAs not machine-readable
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APIsAPIs can be too clunky/rich in their functionality, which may increase the amount of calls necessary and size of data transferred, reducing performance
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Collaboration between API providers and users is necessary to agree on 'useful' calls
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API key agreements could restrict Openess of Open Data?
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Documentation accompanying APIs can be lacking
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What is best practice for publishing streams of real-time data (with/without APIs)?
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For accessing numerous datasets scientists will be accessing the archive directly using other protocols such as sftp, rsync, scp, access techniques such as: http://www.psc.edu/index.php/hpn-ssh
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For accessing individual datasets a REST GET interface to the archive should be provided.
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URIsEach resource should have one URI uniquly identifying it. There can then be different representations of the resource (xml/html/json/rdf)
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Skills/ExpertiseExpertise: Data owners do not have the skills to publish data
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Capacity: Data owners do not have the resources to curate and publish data
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Education about Open Data not provided
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Cultural: Data owners are acustomed to a particular approach in their community
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RevenueRevenue: institutions working under mixed gov/non-gov funding generate part of their revenue by selling some of the data they curate. Switching to an open data model will generate a direct loss in revenue that has to be backed-up by other means. This does not have to mean closing the data, e.g. a model of open dereferencing + paid dumps can be considered, as well as other indirect revenue streams.
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ArchivingPreservation (digital archiving) of Linked Data (taking the LD off-line as a dump and putting in an archive effectively turns in into dead dataset)
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Decide on the importance of the de-referencability of resources and the potential implications for domain names and naming of resources. Decide on the scope of the step that will turn a connected sub-graph into an isolated data dump.
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PolicyNational policy: data must be made open by default
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Challenges - Dee
UC/R Matrix
Master challenges
Groups/Challenges
Challenges x Use Cases
Challenges - Loscio
Dimensions
Sheet3