West African ('Macro-Sudanic') Test for Conlangs
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ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZAAAB
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West African Features Test Questions (the first 7 features are very specific to the area)ZRH
Tz'reichs
AMA (Standard) AmaianACY AchiyitqanKSG KisaanganUO1 ThuunDSE
diSéllat
AIC Classical AirumàliWAN Wa ÑiAtruozangriuskantŹilaa Ruńu
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1. Labiovelar consonants like kp, gb, ŋm00000000000
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2. Labiodental flap00000000000
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3. ATR vowel harmony (a kind of vowel harmony with (some or all of) ǝeiou in one set and (some or all of) aɛɩɔʊ in the other set)00000000000
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4. Logophoric pronouns (Ewe example: Kofi be yè dzo 'Kofi say LOG leave'='Kofi said Kofi left' as opposed to Kofi be e dzo 'Kofi said he (Kofi or someone else) left'. Logophoric pronouns can only exist in embedded clauses.)010100100.500
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5. S(A)OVI word order common, where A is auxiliary verb and I is indirect object00100000000
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6. VONeg word order01000010000
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7. Use of pronouns, 'do', and/or verbal copies to express focus (Yoruba example of verbal copy: Ji-jẹ́ ni Ọlọrun jẹ́ ọba 'ing-be FOC God be king'='God is a king')0?000000001
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8. Voicing contrast in stops011000.510111
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9. No uvular consonants00011001011
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10. No lateral obstruents (no lateral fricatives, affricates, or clicks)10101101111
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11. Initial velar nasal01100111000.5
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12. No front rounded vowels01110101001
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13. Seven or more vowel qualities (only height, backness, and rounding counted)110110?0110
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14. Nasal vowels0001000.51100
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15. Presence of prenasalized consonants00000000001
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16. Presence of implosive consonants00000000000
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17. Tones where every syllable or vowel takes a tone000101?1001
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18. Biggest syllable is CCVC or smaller01001111001
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19. Lack of case marking01000101010
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20. Productive full and partial reduplication 110001?1101
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21. Double-object construction in ditransitive verbs (both objects of, say 'give', are treated identically morphologically)110.50001000
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22. Serial verb constructions (long strings of verbs, Ewe example: E-kɔ́ fíá kɔ́ dzá ati-a 'he raise axe take hack stick-the'='He hacked the stick with an axe')110100?1010
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23. 'Exceed' comparative construction (Yoruba example: Ó tóbi ju òun =she big exceed him = 'She is bigger than him') (this counts as a serial verb construction)0001001000
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24. Particles that mark focus (example: Fon Àyìkún wɛ̀ nyɔ̀nú ɔ́ ɖù 'beans FOC woman the eat'='It was beans the woman ate' in response to 'What did the woman eat?')01000?1000
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TOTAL5125.5847.55.5135.569.50000000000000000
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COMPLETION100.00%95.65%100.00%100.00%100.00%91.30%82.61%100.00%100.00%100.00%100.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%
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Comparison Data (some counts are±1)
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21.5: Gbeya
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20.5: Ewe
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20: Igbo
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18: Yoruba
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17: Balanta
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16: Temne
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14: Wolof, Koyraboro Senni
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12: Hausa
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9: Mandarin
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6: English
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5: (Standard) Basque
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3.5: (Standard) German
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3: Tlingit
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