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namebirthdayageageBracketbirthplaceordainedcountrycontinentcontinent, groupeddescriptionoutlook (conservative, ultraConservative)career (diplomat, academic, curial,pastoral)contraception (inNoCircumstances, ToPreventDisease)attitudeToOtherFaiths (openToDialogue, defensive)abuseHandling (facingCriticism, notFacingCriticism)vatileaksScandal (facingCriticism, notFacingCriticism)prioritiespapabile
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Cardinal Peter Kodwo Appiah Turkson10/11/19486460-70Wassaw Nsuta, Ghana7/20/1975GhanaAfricaAfricaThe archbishop emeritus of Cape Coast is seen by many as strong contender to be the next pope. However, <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/feb/13/catholic-church-pope-ghanaian-cardinal?DCMP=EMC-thewrap08" title="">some feel he has been a little too keen to signal his willingness to serve</a>. A few days after Benedict announced his decision to resign, Turkson said: “I think in a way the church is always and has forever been ready for a non-European pope.” Asked about speculation that he could himself emerge conclave as Benedict’s successor, he said: “I’ve always answered, ‘If it’s the will of God.’” He has also alienated himself from more liberal Catholics by <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/02/20/peter-turkson-gay-priests-to-blame-for-child-sex-abuse_n_2724241.html" title="">suggesting that the African church has been spared the sexual abuse scandals that have afflicted its European and US counterparts because of the strong African cultural taboos against homosexuality</a>. Turkson was also at the centre of <a href="www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/oct/16/vatican-distance-muslim-demographics-video?DCMP=EMC-thewrap08" title="">controversy in October 2012 for showing an alarmist film at a synod, which claimed that France would be an Islamic republic in just 39 years</a>. He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 21 October 2003. ConservativeCurialToPreventDiseaseDefensiveFacingCriticismRelations with Islamyes
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Cardinal Robert Sarah6/15/19456760-70Ourous, Guinea7/20/1969GuineaAfricaAfricaSarah was nicknamed the baby bishop by John Paul II, who made him archbishop of Conakry at the tender age of 34 in 1979. The cardinal, who studied in Guinea, Ivory Coast and Rome, is the president of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum, which oversees the church’s humanitarian aid. In 2010, he reacted dismissed General Gaddafi’s call for Europe to convert to Islam, describing it as an “unsolicited provocation lacking seriousness”, but adding that the true danger for Europeans was “relativism, the lack of attention to faith, the weakness of religion, indifference to the sacred”. Sarah, who is a secretary of the congregation for the Evangelisation of Peoples, was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 20 November 2010. ConservativeCurialRecovering lost believersyes
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Cardinal John Njue19446860-70Kiriari, Kenya1/6/1973KenyaAfricaAfricaNjue was appointed to Chuka Parish in 1982 as its first African parish priest. He was appointed first Bishop of Embu four years later and then coadjutor Archbishop of Nyeri in January 2002. Njue holds strong anti-abortion beliefs and in 2008 issued a pastoral letter calling abortion a “foreign concept” and criticised the government for attempting to legalise it in Kenya. <a href="http://allafrica.com/stories/201108232099.html" title="">The archbishop of Nairobi has also spoken out against a condom factory being built in the country</a>, saying it would corrupt the morals of society and has blamed the growing use of condoms for the spread of HIV/Aids. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 24 November 2007. ultra-ConservativePastoralInNoCircumstances
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Cardinal Polycarp Pengo8/5/19446860-70Mwazye, Tanzania6/20/1971TanzaniaAfricaAfricaThe archbishop of Dar-es-Salaam was elected president of the Symposium of Episcopal Conferences of Africa and Madagascar in 2007. He has spoken out on a range of issues including homosexuality and church teachings on Aids. He objected to a campaign to back the rights of gay people, <a href="http://thecitizen.co.tz/component/content/article/37-tanzania-top-news-story/18003-cardinal-pengos-take-on-key-national-issues.html" title="">stating “homosexuality is craziness”</a>. The cardinal has also blasted Tanzanian MPs, saying that leaders should think first of their people and not themselves. He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 21 February 1998. Conservative
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Cardinal John Olorunfemi Onaiyekan1/29/19446960-70Kabba, Nigeria 8/3/1969NigeriaAfricaAfricaThe previous president of the Christian Association of Nigeria was ordained as bishop in 1983 and became coadjutor bishop of the Diocese of Abuja seven years later. He was appointed by Pope Benedict XVI to serve as one of the Synod Fathers for the October 2012 Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops on the New Evangelisation. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 24 November 2012. Extravagantly praised for his homophobia by a Nigerian site which also nominated him for the Nobel Peace Prize (see note) ConservativeToPreventDiseaseDefensiveRelations with Islam
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Cardinal Gabriel Zubeir Wako2/27/19417270-80Mboro, Sudan7/21/1963SudanAfricaAfricaThe archbishop of Khartoum, a specialist in pastoral theology, began his ministry as an assistant parish priest and as inspector for Christian religious education in the schools of the Gogrial district of Sudan. <a href="http://www.catholicnewsagency.com/news/sudanese-cardinal-unharmed-after-failed-assassination-at-mass/" title="">He survived an apparent assassination attempt in October 2010</a> when a knife-wielding man who had managed to blend in with dancers during a mass in Khartoum was restrained after coming within a few feet of the cardinal. Wako was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 21 October 2003
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Cardinal Wilfrid Fox Napier3/8/19417270-80Swartberg, South Africa7/25/1970South AfricaAfricaAfricaThe <a href="https://twitter.com/CardinalNapier" title="">tweeting archbishop of Durban</a> was named apostolic administrator of Umzimkulu in 1994. After philosophical and theological studies at the Catholic University of Louvain, he learnt Xhosa and went to work in the parish of Lusikisiki, undertaking pastoral work in Tabankulu. He was involved in mediation and negotiation work during the turbulent changes in the South African political scene. He was quoted in 2005 as <a href="http://www.afronline.org/?p=10608" title="">saying there was “no evidence” that condom promotion works to prevent HIV transmission and that, as a contraceptive, condoms have a failure rate</a>. He also stated that promiscuity is “more damaging” than the HIV/Aaids pandemic. He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 21 February 2001. ConservativePastoralInNoCircumstances
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Cardinal Laurent Monsengwo Pasinya10/7/19397370-80Mongobele, Congo12/21/1963Democratic Republic of CongoAfricaAfricaThe cardinal, who studied theology in Rome after attending seminary in Africa, was appointed archbishop of Kisangani in 1988. Having served as president of the episcopal conference, he was made archbishop of Kinshasa in 2007. He is a member of the congregations for Catholic Education, and for the Evangelisation of Peoples. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 20 November 2010.
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Cardinal Anthony Olubunmi Okogie6/16/19367670-80Lagos, Nigeria12/11/1966NigeriaAfricaAfricaAfter serving for a short time as pastoral assistant at the Holy Cross Cathedral, Okogi was drafted into the Nigerian army as a chaplain. He was transferred to Lagos as Auxiliary Bishop, then in 1973 was nominated archbishop. In August 1971, he was ordained titular bishop of Mascula and auxiliary of Oyo. Cardinal Okogie played a prominent role in the Christian Association of Nigeria (CAN), which he served as president. <a href="http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2002/februaryweb-only/2-25-13.0.html" title="">In 2002 he volunteered to die in place of a Muslim woman sentenced to be stoned to death for the crime of adultery</a>. He has criticised the US in the past and, <a href="http://www.catholicnews.com/data/stories/cns/0700071.htm" title="">in 2007, condemned the Nigerian government’s approval for a condom factory in Yenagoa, saying: “The condom is widely known not to be a safe protector against HIV/Aids.”</a> He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 21 October 2003. ConservativePastoralInNoCircumstancesDefensive
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Cardinal Théodore-Adrien Sarr11/28/19367670-80Fadiouth, Senegal5/28/1964SenegalAfricaAfricaSarr, who became the first African bishop of Kaolack, Dakar, on 1 July 1974 and is currently Archbishop of Dakar, is not considered one of the main contenders to succeed the pope. In 2012 he was elected president of the Regional Episcopal Conference of West Africa. He is a member of the congregations for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, and for the Evangelisation of Peoples. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 24 November 2007.
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Cardinal Antonios Naguib3/7/19357870-80Minya, Egypt9/9/1977EgyptAfricaAfricaNaguib, patriarch emeritus of Alexandria of the Copts, was elected bishop of Minya in 1977 and has applied his commitment to the ideals of religious renewal by introducing many reforms and new schools for religious education. <a href="http://www.zenit.org/en/articles/leader-of-egypt-s-catholics-urges-fraternity-after-attack" title="">During the violent protests in Egypt in 2011, the cardinal released a statement condemning “all acts of violence and all those who commit such acts,” calling on officials “to take the necessary steps and firm measures to provide security and safety.” </a>He was created a cardinal By Benedict XVI on 20 November 2010.PastoralDefensive
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Cardinal Baselios Isaac Cleemis Thottunkal6/15/19595350-60Kerala, India6/11/1986IndiaAsiaAsiaThe youngest of the church’s cardinals, Thottunkal is a member of the congregation for the Oriental Churches and the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue. He described his appointment by Benedict as cardinal on 24 November 2012 as evidence of the pope’s appreciation for the “unity in diversity” of India’s Catholics. <a href="http://www.catholicnews.com/data/briefs/cns/20121025.htm#head10" title="">He has also spoken of the influence of Mother Teresa and the importance of practical action. </a>“Our dear Blessed Mother Teresa of Kolkata brought to the world, especially to India, a very practical means of evangelisation: a witnessing model,” he said. “She became the most effective missionary in a land where Christians are only less than 3 percent of the population. Mother Teresa witnessed Jesus everywhere.”
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Cardinal Luis Antonio Tagle 21 June 1957,5550-60Manila, Philippines2/27/1982PhilippinesAsiaAsiaAppointed as archbishop of Manila in 2011, Tagle has been hailed by some as a worthy successor to Pope Benedict XVI. The cardinal’s youth - he is the second youngest of the cardinals after Thottunkal - coupled with his detailed knowledge of Vatican history, his charisma and his progressive outlook, make him a strong candidate. If successful, he would be the first Asian pope. Tagle, however, has been outspoken at times. In Rome in October 2012, he told a gathering of bishops that the church should be more ready to admit its mistakes and has been connected to the “Bologna School” of progressive academics who have taken a liberal view of the Second Vatican Council. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 24 November 2012. ModeratePastoralOpenToDialogueNotFacingCriticismNotFacingCriticismReforming the Curiayes
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Cardinal Albert Malcolm Ranjith Don11/15/19476560-70Polgahawela, Sri Lanka6/29/1975Sri LankaAsiaAsiaThe archbishop of Colombo was nominated secretary of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of Sacrament in 2005. <a href="http://vaticaninsider.lastampa.it/en/world-news/detail/articolo/sri-lanka-cristiani-christians-cristianos-9858/" title="">The Vatican Insider reported that in response to the increase in Evangelical groups arriving on the island, the cardinal proposed a common front between Catholics and Buddhists. </a>Patabendige Don, who is seen as papabile, is only the second Sri Lankan to be created a Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI in the Consistory of 20 November 2010. Conservative
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Cardinal George Alencherry4/19/19456760-70Thuruthy, Kerala, India11/19/1972IndiaAsiaAsiaAlencherry, who has a doctorate in biblical theology from the Sorbonne, is major archbishop of Ernakulam-Angamalhy for Syro-Malabars, an Eastern Catholic church in full communion with the Roman Catholic church. His first days as cardinal were overshadowed by <a href="http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/01/18/us-india-italy-marines-idUSBRE90H07E20130118" title="">the fatal shooting of two Keralan fishermen by Italian marines</a> aboard an Italian cargo ship, who had apparently mistaken the men for pirates. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 18 February 2012.
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Cardinal Oswald Gracias12/24/19446860-70Mahim, Bombay (Mumbai), India12/20/1970IndiaAsiaAsiaGracias, who is also a member of the congregations for Divine Worship and Discipline of the Sacraments, and for Catholic Education, was appointed archbishop of Bombay (Mumbai) in 2006. In November last year, <a href="http://www.archdioceseofbombay.org/news.php?id=78" title="">he called on a man to apologise to Catholics in Mumbai</a> for allegedly causing offence <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/nov/23/india-blasphemy-jesus-tears?DCMP=EMC-thewrap08" title="">after pointing out that a statue of Christ was not weeping but merely leaking water because of bad plumbing</a>. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 24 November 2007. ConservativeCurial
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Cardinal Béchara Boutros Raï2/25/19407370-80Himlaya, Lebanon9/3/1967LebanonAsiaAsiaCardinal Béchara Boutros Raï was appointed bishop of Byblos in 1990 and in 2003 was elected secretary of the Maronite Synod. He was responsible for Arabic transmissions of Vatican Radio from 1967 to 1975. In 2009 he was appointed president of the Lebanese Episcopal Commission for the Media. <a href="http://ncronline.org/news/maronite-patriarch-pledges-work-muslims" title="">Upon becoming the new patriarch of the Maronite Catholic Church in 2011, the cardinal pledged to work with Muslims “to establish a sincere and complete dialogue” and to “build together a future in common life and cooperation”</a>. He was created cardinal by Pope Benedict XVI on 24 November 2012. ConservativeOpenToDialogue
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Cardinal John Tong Hon7/31/19397370-80Hong Kong, China1/6/1966ChinaAsiaAsiaBecame vicar general of the Diocese of Hong Kong in 1992 and went on to become bishop in 2009. <a href="http://www.asianews.it/news-en/Mgr-Tong-urges-Beijing-to-free-Liu-Xiaobo-Catholic-clergymen-and-human-rights-activists-20355.html" title="">In his 2010 Christmas address, he called on the Chinese government to release all those jailed for promoting human rights, and said clergymen of the underground church were “behind bars for defending religious freedom”. </a>A member of the congregation of Evangelisation of Peoples, he was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 18 February 2012.
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Cardinal Telesphore Placidus Toppo10/15/19397370-80Chainpur, India5/3/1969IndiaAsiaAsia<a href="http://vaticaninsider.lastampa.it/en/world-news/detail/articolo/india-12843/" title="">“Indian Christians are facing a crisis as a result of the scandals in the Vatican,” he said. “And churches are getting emptier and emptier. The same thing is happening across Europe. I can see and feel churches getting emptier. It is vital therefore for us to pray and especially to stay united in Christ and close the Pope!”</a> He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 21 October 2003.
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Cardinal Ivan Dias4/14/19367670-80Mumbai, India12/8/1958IndiaAsiaAsiaDias, who became archbishop of Bombay in 1996 after many years in the Holy See’s diplomatic service, is a noted conservative on matters such as abortion and homosexuality, believing that <a href="http://www.americancatholic.org/features/johnpaulii/transition/CardinalsDias.asp" title="">gay people can be “cured” of their “unnatural tendencies”</a>. In 2008, he told the Lambeth Conference - the once-a-decade gathering of the world’s Anglican bishops - that <a href="www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/jul/23/anglicanism.religion?DCMP=EMC-thewrap08" title="">he was dismayed by the lack of unity in the troubled Anglican communion</a>. “When we live myopically in the fleeting present, oblivious of our past heritage and apostolic traditions, we could well be suffering from spiritual Alzheimer’s,” he said. He was created cardinal by John Paul II on 21 February 2001 ultra-ConservativeDiplomatDefensive
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Cardinal Jean-Baptiste Pham Minh Mân5/5/19347870-80Ca Mau, Vietnam5/25/1965VietnamAsiaAsiaPham Minh Mân was nominated archbishop of Thàn-Phô Hô Chí Minh in 1998. He has <a href="http://www.asianews.it/news-en/Cardinal-Pham-Minh-M%C3%A2n:-Vietnamese-Church-is-growing-and-wants-society-to-grow-20853.html" title="">spoken out against abortion, calling it “a scourge that undermines the moral and cultural traditions of our people”.</a> He has also articulated his belief that <a href="http://ncronline.org/blogs/ncr-today/ho-chi-minh-city-cardinal-church-growth-vietnam" title="">differences between the north and south of Vietnam can be reduced by “building communication and building communion in our church”</a>. He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 21 October 2003. Conservative
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Cardinal George Pell6/8/19417170-80Ballarat, Australia12/16/1966AustraliaAustraliaAsiaThe archbishop of Sydney <a href="http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/culture-lifestyle/world-religion/130228/catholic-cardinal-george-pell-benedict-pope-vatican-vatileaks-video" title="">criticised Pope Benedict XVI on the eve of his departure from the Vatican, calling his resignation destabilising and adding that “government wasn’t his strong point”</a>. Pell is viewed as progressive on many social issues but is also a conservative on matters of faith and morals. <a href="http://web.archive.org/web/20060628063909/http://www.opusbono.org/resources/CardinalPellEndingCelibacyRuleWouldBeaBlunder.asp" title="">He supported John Paul II’s view that the ordination of women is not possible according to the church’s divine constitution, and said it would be a “serious error” to lose the tradition of priestly celibacy</a>. <a href="http://www.news.com.au/national-news/defiant-cardinal-george-pell-says-sex-abuse-royal-commission-will-separate-fact-from-fiction/story-fndo4eg9-1226515895912" title="">He has also caused controversy when in 2012 he stated that priests who hear confessions from people who commit child sex abuse must remain bound by the seal of confession.</a> He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 21 October 2003. ultra-ConservativeInNoCircumstancesDefensiveFacingCriticism
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Cardinal Óscar Andrés Rodríguez Maradiaga12/29/19427070-80Tegucigalpa6/28/1970HondurasCentral AmericaAmericasThe multilingual cardinal holds a doctorate in theology and a diploma in clinical psychology and psychotherapy. The cardinal has taught chemistry, physics and music and was professor of moral theology and ecclesiology at the Salesian Theological Institute. He became archbishop of Tegucigalpa in January 1993. Regarded as a moderate, Rodríguez Maradiaga is viewed as a rising star of the church. An ardent defender of human rights and a powerful voice in the global fight against poverty, he was the Vatican’s spokesperson with the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank on the issue of Third World debt. He was created a cardinal by John Paul II in the consistory of 21 February 2001. ModerateAcademicFacingCriticismReforming the Curia
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Cardinal Rainer Maria Woelki8/18/19565650-60Cologne, Germany6/14/1985GermanyEuropeEuropeAppointed Archbishop of Berlin in July 2011, Woelki was first ordained as a bishop in March 2003. He is a member of the congregation for Catholic Education and the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity. Woekli has been criticised for his previous strong pronouncements against homosexuality - especially as archbishop of a city with a large and proud LGBT population - but has signalled a willingness to engage with the community. “We will meet with each other,” he said following his appointment. “I have respect and esteem for all people independent of heritage, skin colour and individual nature.” He went further in May last year, saying: “When two homosexuals take responsibility for one another, if they deal with each other in a faithful and long-term way, then you have to see it in the same way as heterosexual relationships.” However, his subsequent decision to decline an award from the Alliance Against Homophobia raised eyebrows. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 18 February 2012. ModeratePastoralRecovering lost believers
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Cardinal Reinhard Marx9/21/19535950-60Geseke, Germany6/2/1979GermanyEuropeEuropeMarx, the archbishop of Pope Benedict’s former diocese, Munich, studied theology and philosophy in Paderborn and at the Catholic University of Paris. The young, conservative cardinal has been a prominent figure in efforts to deal with the scandal of the involvement of Catholic priests and bishops in the sexual abuse of minors in Germany. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 20 November 2010. ConservativeAcademicNotFacingCriticismRecovering lost believers
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Cardinal Willem Jacobus Eijk6/22/19535950-60Duivendrecht, the Netherlands6/1/1985NetherlandsEuropeEuropeThe archbishop of Utrecht, who studied medicine and has doctorates in medical bioethics research and philosophy, served on the executive board of the association for pro-life doctors in The Netherlands. He was appointed bishop of Groningen-Leeuwarden in 1999 and became archbishop of Utrecht eight years later. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 18 February 2012. ConservativePastoral
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Cardinal Péter Erdő6/25/19526060-70Budapest, Hungary6/18/1975HungaryEuropeEuropeJust 51 when he was created a cardinal by John Paul II in 2003, the conservative Erdő has served as rector of Rome’s Hungarian Pontifical Institute and taught at the Pontifical Catholic University Argentina (Buenos Aires) and at the Pontifical Lateran University. He is the author several works and is the president of the Council of European Bishops’ Conferences. ModerateAcademicRecovering lost believers
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Cardinal Kurt Koch3/15/19506260-70Emmenbrücke, Switzerland6/20/1982SwitzerlandEuropeEuropeThe president of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity was rector of the theology faculty at the University of Lucerne before becoming bishop of Basel in 1995. In 2010, Benedict appointed Koch principal-relator to the so-called Ratzinger Schülerkreis, a group of the pope’s former students who meet annually at Castel Gandolfo to discuss theology. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 20 November 2010. ModeratePastoralToPreventDiseaseNotFacingCriticismShortage of priestsyes
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Cardinal Philippe Barbarin10/17/19506260-70Rabat, Morocco12/17/1977FranceEuropeEuropeOne of the younger cardinal electors, Barbarin has been a parish priest of Bry-sur-Marne on the outskirts of Paris and a theology lecturer at the Major Seminary of Fianarantsoa in Madagascar. He was nominated bishop of Moulins in 1998, and made archbishop of Lyon in 2002. He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 21 October 2003 ConservativePastoral
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Cardinal Josip Bozanić3/20/19496360-70Rijeka, Croatia6/29/1975CroatiaEuropeEuropeThe cardinal, who is the archbishop of Zagreb, served as chancellor and as vicar general of the Curia of Krk. He was lecturer in dogmatic theology and canon law at the Theological Institute of Rijeka and served as vice-president of the Council of European Bishops’ Conferences from 2001 until 2011. In 2002, <a href="www.guardian.co.uk/world/2002/sep/26/warcrimes.unitednations?DCMP=EMC-thewrap08" title="">when the UN war crimes tribunal in the Hague demanded the extradition of a former army chief indicted for war crimes against Serb civilians and wounded soldiers in 1993, Bozanić urged the country to “unite in the face of the external pressure”</a>. He was created a cardinal by Cardinal by John Paul II on 21 October 2003. ConservativePastoral
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Cardinal Kazimierz Nycz2/1/19506360-70Stara Wieś, Poland5/20/1973PolandEuropeEuropeThe archbishop of Warsaw was appointed titular Bishop of Villa del Re and Auxiliary of Kraków in May 1988 and a month later was ordained a bishop. He was made president of the Committee for Catholic Education in 1999 where his activities included adapting the Polish catechesis to the post-Vatican II catechetical documents of the Church. <a href="http://www.reuters.com/article/2007/03/03/us-pope-poland-idUSL0354078520070303" title="">He was named archbishop of Warsaw in 2007 to replace a prelate who resigned in disgrace after admitting he had spied for the communist police. In the book Priests and the Security Service, Nycz is depicted as a totally incorruptible cleric and a headache for the secret police who had spent years fruitlessly trying to recruit him or find something with which he could be blackmailed</a>. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 20 November 2010. ConservativePastoral
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Cardinal Fernando Filoni4/15/19466660-70Manduria, Italy7/3/1970ItalyEuropeEuropeThe prefect of the congregation for the Evangelisation of Peoples - who has a diploma in public opinion sciences and techniques, specialising in journalism - spent many years as a Vatican diplomat, with postings in Sri Lanka, Iran, Brazil and Hong Kong. He was appointed the apostolic nuncio in Iraq and in Jordan in 2001, and decided to stay in the former country during the war that followed the US invasion. <a href="http://ncronline.org/blogs/ncr-today/introducing-new-papal-candidate" title="">“If the pastor flees in moments of difficulty,” he said, “the sheep are also lost.”</a> He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 18 February 2012, ConservativeDiplomatRelations with Islam
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Cardinal Giuseppe Betori2/25/19476660-70Foligno, Italy9/26/1970ItalyEuropeEuropeThe archbishop of Florence has a licentiate in theology from the Pontifical Gregorian University and a doctorate in sacred scripture from the Pontifical Biblical Institute. He has also served as the director of the National Catechetical Office and collaborated on the Italian translation of the Catechism of the Catholic church. In 2001, he was appointed titular Bishop of Falerone and general secretary of the Italian Episcopal Conference (CEI). He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 18 February 2012, ConservativeCurial
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Cardinal Antonio Cañizares Llovera10/15/19456760-70Utiel, Spain6/21/1970SpainEuropeEuropeThe conservative archbishop emeritus of Toledo was appointed prefect of the Congregation of Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments by Benedict XVI in 2008, giving him oversight of liturgy. A member of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith since 1995, he also founded the St Teresa of Jesus Catholic University in Ávila. He was created a cardinal by Benedict on 24 March 2006. ultra-ConservativeCurial
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Cardinal Stanisław Ryłko7/4/19456760-70Andrychów, Poland3/30/1969PolandEuropeEuropeCardinal Stanisław Ryłko was made head of the youth section of the Pontifical Council for the Laity in 1987 and organised World Youth Days in Santiago de Compostela, Częstochowa and Denver. Named archbishop and President of the Council for the Laity in 2003, he has organised further World Youth Days in Cologne, Sydney and Madrid. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 24 November 2007. ConservativeCurialRecovering lost believers
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Cardinal Vinko Puljić9/8/19456760-70Prijećani6/29/1970BosniaEuropeEuropeCardinal Vinko Puljić, the 12th of 13 children, was appointed archbishop of Vrhbosna, Sarajevo, on 19 November 1990. When war broke out in Bosnia in 1992, he helped thousands of refugees and exiles; during one of his pastoral trips to his parishes, he was imprisoned for 12 hours by the Serbian military in Ilida, near Sarajevo. He was president of the Bishops’ Conference of Bosnia-Ercegovina from 1995-2002 and again from 2005-2010. He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 26 November 1994. ConservativePastoralDefensive
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Cardinal Christoph Schönborn1/22/19456860-70Skalsko, Czechosolovakia12/27/1970AustriaEuropeEuropeThe archbishop of Vienna is considered one of the forerunners for the papacy. In addition to being a polyglot (as well as German he speaks French, Italian, English, Spanish and Latin fluently) his education in theology, philosophy and psychology may stand him in good stead for success. His public stance has been more moderate on issues such as HIV/Aids than some of the other candidates. He has been much more sympathetic than the norm to divorced and remarried Catholics who wish to take communion. The cardinal has also gained respect for his handling of the sex abuse scandal stating: “The days of cover-up are over. For a long while the church’s principle of forgiveness was falsely interpreted and was in favour of those responsible and not the victims”. He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 21 February 1998. ConservativeAcademicToPreventDiseaseOpenToDialogueNotFacingCriticismNotFacingCriticismShortage of priestsyes
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Cardinal Jean-Pierre Ricard9/26/19446860-70Marseille, France10/5/1968FranceEuropeEuropeThe cardinal was appointed titular bishop of Pulcheriopolis and auxiliary of Grenoble in 1993 and became archbishop of Bordeaux in 2001. He has worked hard to further relations with Jews and to revive bonds between the church in France and Africa, setting up an “African sector” and a “European sector” within the presidency of the Bishops’s Conference. He has spoken out against euthanasia and marriage licenses for homosexual couples. Commenting on the importance of marriage in society, he said: “A child born of the union of a man and a woman needs a father and a mother. In order to structure his own personality, he needs the model of a father and a mother.” He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 24 March 2006 ConservativeOpenToDialogue
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Cardinal Mauro Piacenza9/15/19446860-70Genoa, Italy12/21/1969ItalyEuropeEuropeCardinal Mauro Piacenza was named secretary of the Congregation for the Clergy and was elevated to the dignity of archbishop in May 2007. Three years later he was appointed prefect of the congregation for the Clergy. He has commented in the past about the feeling that there are too few priests to fulfil the churches’ needs, stating “at times the fatigue is truly great”. <a href="http://www.catholicnewsagency.com/news/cardinal-piacenza-explains-crisis-of-catholic-priesthood" title="">Asked in an interview about the sexual abuse scandal, the cardinal replied: “The horrible sins of a few do not delegitimise the good actions of many, nor do they change the nature of the church.”</a> He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI in the consistory of 20 November 2010. ConservativeShortage of priests
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Cardinal Angelo Comastri9/17/19436960-70Sorano, Italy3/11/1967ItalyEuropeEuropeComastri, who is archpriest of St Peter’s Basilica, vicar general of His Holiness for Vatican City State and president of the Fabric of Saint Peter’s, was a close friend of Mother Teresa. He was appointed bishop of Massa Marittima-Piombino in 1990 but had to resign due to heart problems four years later. Comastri, a member of the congregation for the Causes of Saints, was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 24 November 2007.
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Cardinal Crescenzio Sepe6/2/19436960-70Carinaro, Italy3/12/1967ItalyEuropeEuropeAfter serving as Ppresident of the Commission for Vatican Telecommunications and Grand Chancellor of the Pontifical Urban University, Cardinal Sepe was appointed Archbishop of Naples in May 2006. In June 2010, the cardinalwas dragged into a corruption scandal. Italian media alleged that Sepe was involved striking in deals while head of the Congregation for the Evangelisation of Peoples - the Vatican congregation that uses proceeds from a property empire including 2,000 Rome apartments to fund missionary efforts. Sepe countered with a fiery sermon, asking: “How many martyrs are there, even today, who in the name of the truth … are tortured, humiliated and disrespected?” The case further highlighted the complex relationship between politics in Rome and the Vatican. He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 21 February 2001.
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Cardinal Dominik Jaroslav Duka4/26/19436960-70Hradec Králové, Czechoslovakia6/22/1970Czech RepublicEuropeEuropeIn 1968, Duka secretly entered the Dominican Order, which was then illegal in Czechoslovakia. Following his ordination, he was unable to carry out his ministry as the government withdrew his licence as a “spiritual administrator”, so he had to work as a designer in a car factory. Undeterred by the state repression, he carried on studying and attending secret Dominican meetings. In 1981, his “religious activities” led to a 15-month prison sentence. Benedict XVI appointed him archbishop of Prague in 2010 and created him a cardinal on 18 February 2012.FacingCriticism
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Cardinal Giuseppe Versaldi7/30/19436960-70Villarboit, Vercelli, Italy6/29/1967ItalyEuropeEuropeVersaldi, who has a degree in psychology and a doctorate in canon law, was appointed bishop of Alessandria in 2007 and is now president of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See. As well as trying to look after the Vatican’s finances, Versaldi has defended Benedict’s handling of the sexual abuse crisis. In 2010, he wrote a front-page article in the semi-official Vatican newspaper L’Osservatore Romano arguing that sexual abuse of minors was “more common amongst lay and married people than among celibate priests”, and insisting that Benedict was actively leading the “battle” against paedophilia despite his image as “an academic who is only interested in writing books”. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 18 February 2012.
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Cardinal Jean-Louis Tauran4/5/19436960-70Bordeaux, France9/20/1969FranceEuropeEuropeIn 1975 Tauran entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See, serving first in the Dominican Republic, then in Lebanon. In 2007, he was appointed as president of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue, a post which also means that he is in charge of the Commission for Religious Relations with Muslims. Despite having Parkinson’s disease, he is also a member of several other Vatican organisations and has been a loud critic of the American-led invasion of Iraq, claiming that it was a “crime against peace” and that Christians were better protected under Saddam. He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 21 October 2003. ModerateDiplomatOpenToDialogueRelations with Islam
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Cardinal André Armand Vingt-Trois11/7/19427070-80Paris, France6/28/1969FranceEuropeEuropeVingt-Trois holds a doctorate in moral theology from the Catholic Institute in Paris. According to the cardinal, his surname is derived from an ancestor who, as a child or baby, was abandoned and found on the 23rd day of the month. <a href="www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/sep/19/paris-magazine-muhammad-cartoons-french?DCMP=EMC-thewrap08" title="">After the Paris-based satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo published cartoons mocking the prophet Muhammad last year, Vingt-Trois warned that there were limits to freedom of expression</a>, telling French radio that the images would “provoke revulsion among many Muslim believers, who will feel their faith has been insulted”. At the beginning of February this year, <a href="http://www.lefigaro.fr/actualite-france/2013/02/02/01016-20130202ARTFIG00371-mariage-gay-andre-vingt-trois-fustige-le-gouvernement.php" title="">the archbishop of Paris also criticised French politicians the tactics they employed to pass the bill to legalise gay marriage</a>. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 24 November 2007.
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Cardinal Angelo Bagnasco1/14/19437070-80Pontevico, Brescia, Italy6/29/1966ItalyEuropeEuropeThe archbishop of Genoa hit the headlines in 2011<a href="http://www.catholicherald.co.uk/news/2011/09/28/cardinal-condemns-berlusconi-scandals/" title=""> when he launched a scathing attack on Italy’s corruption-mired political class, saying it was “mortifying” to behold the “intrinsically wretched and empty” behaviour that was tarnishing Italy’s image overseas</a>. He did not mention Silvio Berlusconi by name. In 2007, he received death threats and bullets after expressing his opposition to same-sex unions. Bagnasco provoked further controversy a year later by suggesting that married people who have affairs should be forgiven by their spouses to help keep the family together. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 24 November 2007. ConservativePastoralToPreventDiseaseOpenToDialogueNotFacingCriticismNotFacingCriticismReforming the Curiayes
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Cardinal Domenico Calcagno 3 February 1943,7070-80Italy2/25/1967ItalyEuropeEuropeAlthough he is the Vatican’s finance minister, or president of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, Calcagno is better known as Rambo because of his extensive collection of firearms, which includes a Smith &amp; Wesson magnum, a Turkish pump-action Hatsan shotgun and a Remington. The former bishop of Savona is a keen hunter who also enjoys maintaining and repairing his arsenal. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 18 February 2012. ConservativeCurial
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Cardinal Gianfranco Ravasi10/18/19427070-80Merate, Italy6/28/1966ItalyEuropeEuropeCardinal Gianfranco Ravasi was appointed titular archbishop of Villamagna in Proconsolari and president of the Pontifical Commissions for the Cultural Heritage of the Church and for Sacred Archeology in September 2007. He has been president of a cultural association dedicated to making the works of Dante known throughout Italy and abroad since March 2012. <a href="http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/religion/4588289/The-Vatican-claims-Darwins-theory-of-evolution-is-compatible-with-Christianity.html" title="">In 2009 he hosted a Vatican conference on evolution, inviting dialogue between scientists and believers and saying that Darwin’s theory of evolution was compatible with the church’s teachings</a>.<a href="http://ncronline.org/blogs/ncr-today/papabile-day-men-who-could-be-pope-7" title=""> Deemed papabile, he is also technology savvy and has commented on how the church ought to engage with new communications to get their messages across</a>. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 20 November 2010.AcademicOpenToDialogueNotFacingCriticismReforming the Curiayes
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Cardinal Giuseppe Bertello10/1/19427070-80Foglizzo, Turin, Italy6/29/1966ItalyEuropeEuropeAfter studying at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Bertello entered the Vatican diplomatic service and served in Sudan, Turkey and Venezuela. He was made apostolic nuncio to Rwanda in 1991 and later became permanent observer of the Holy See to the UN in Geneva and to the World Trade Organisation. In 2011, he was appointed president of the Governorate of Vatican City State and President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 18 February 2012.Diplomat
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Cardinal Angelo Scola 7 November 1941,7170-80Italy7/18/1970ItalyEuropeEuropeScola, the son of a truck driver, holds doctorates in philosophy and theology and was professor of theological anthropology at the John Paul II Institute for Studies on Marriage and Family. He was appointed bishop of Grosseto in 1991, patriarch of Venice in 2002, created a cardinal in 2003, and appointed archbishop of Milan in 2011. In spite of his place at the top of the Vatican hierarchy and his academic pedigree, he has urged the church to do more to appeal to the modern world, arguing it needs to build on the second Vatican Council of the 1960s, which proved a landmark moment in Roman Catholic history. An ardent believer in the church’s role at the centre of society, Scola has publicly bemoaned its inability to clearly communicate its message on matters such as marriage. He is strongly tipped to replace Benedict XVI as pope. ConservativeAcademicOpenToDialogueNotFacingCriticismRecovering lost believersyes
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Cardinal Agostino Vallini4/17/19407270-80Poli, Italy7/19/1964ItalyEuropeEuropeVallini is vicar general of His Holiness for the Diocese of Rome, archpriest of the Papal Lateran Basilica and grand chancellor of the Pontifical Lateran University.<a href="http://www.catholicnewsagency.com/news/cardinal_vallini_deplores_distribution_of_condoms_in_rome_schools/" title=""> In 2009, he hit out at the decision to install condom machines in schools in Rome</a>, saying it was deplorable that the move had been portrayed as positive action. “[It] has no consensus among the ecclesial community of Rome or in Christian families who are seriously concerned about the education of their children,” he said, adding: “We need to reaffirm that it is best to teach people - especially young people - that sexuality must be used as a gift of God’s love and that their bodies must be valued.” He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 24 March 2006.
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Cardinal Seán Baptist Brady8/16/19397370-80Drumcalpin, County Cavan, Ireland2/22/1964IrelandEuropeEuropeBrady, archbishop of Armagh and primate of Ireland, has faced calls to resign over<a href="www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/mar/17/catholic-apology-paedophile-priest?DCMP=EMC-thewrap08" title=""> his failure in the 1970s to report the activities of a paedophile priest</a>. He has admitted attending meetings where two 10-year-olds were forced to sign vows of silence over complaints against Father Brendan Smyth, who continued abusing children for another 18 years. His apologies have done little to quell the anger, and his decision to travel to the conclave has been widely criticised by survivors of abuse. He has refused to step down, saying he has received “many, many calls from people who want me to stay on”. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 24 November 2007. ConservativePastoralFacingCriticism
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Cardinal Stanisław Dziwisz4/27/19397370-80Raba Wyżna, Poland6/23/1963PolandEuropeEuropeDziwisz, who was ordained by Karol Wojtyła, served as the future pope’s personal secretary from 1966 until John Paul II died in 2005. Despite spending nearly 40 years at Wojtyła’s side, Dziwisz could not bring himself to follow one of the conditions of John Paul’s will. He defended his decision not to burn the late pontiff’s notes as instructed, saying: “These are great riches that should gradually be made available to the public.” Pope Benedict XVI appointed him archbishop of Krakow in 2005 and created him a cardinal on 24 March 2006. ultra-ConservativeCurial
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Cardinal Zenon Grocholewski10/11/19397370-80Bródki, Poland5/27/1963PolandEuropeEuropeThe prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education and grand chancellor of the Pontifical Gregorian University found himself at the centre of a controversy in 2008 when he proposed screening would-be priests for homosexuality. <a href="http://archive.catholicherald.co.uk/article/7th-november-2008/3/testing-to-rule-out-gays-from-priesthood" title="">“Homosexuality is a type of deviation, a type of irregularity, as explained in two documents of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith,” he wrote. “Therefore it is a type of wound in the exercise of the priesthood, in forming relations with others.”</a> He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 21 February 2001. ultra-ConservativeAcademic
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Cardinal Angelo Amato6/8/19387470-80Molfetta, Italy12/22/1967ItalyEuropeEuropeThe titular Archbishop of Sila was appointed secretary of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in 2002 and nominated to be prefect for the Causes of Saints six years later. Amato, seen as papabile - or suitable for the papacy - <a href="http://archive.catholicherald.co.uk/article/5th-september-2003/4/vatican" title="">has challenged the received wisdom on the church’s treatment of Galileo</a>. He has claimed that a letter written by an inquisition commissioner in 1633, expressing concerns for the astronomer’s health and suggesting the trial be concluded a quickly as possible, shows the church did not treat Galileo as cruelly as is commonly supposed. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 20 November 2010. ConservativeNotFacingCriticism
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Cardinal Carlo Caffarra6/1/19387470-80Samboseto di Busseto, Italy7/2/1961ItalyEuropeEuropeThe archbishop of Bologna has been blunt on condom use and same-sex marriage. <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/1989/11/14/world/vatican-aids-meeting-hears-o-connor-assail-condom-use.html" title="">In 1989, he told a Vatican Aids conference that condoms were “far from reliable” as a mean of protection, saying: “In addition, their use encourages individuals to continue their high-risk behaviour.”</a> He has also attacked Catholic politicians who advocate gay marriage, saying: <a href="http://www.ncregister.com/site/article/cardinal_clears_the_air/" title="">“It is impossible for anyone to consider themselves Catholic if in one way or another they recognise the right to marriage between persons of the same sex.”</a> He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 24 March 2006.InNoCircumstances
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Cardinal Manuel Monteiro de Castro3/29/19387470-80Santa Eufémia de Prazins, Portugal7/9/1961PortugalEuropeEuropeThe cardinal, who entered the Vatican diplomatic service in 1967, has served in countries including Panama, Guatemala, Vietnam, Cambodia, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Mexico and Belgium. <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2004/may/05/gayrights.catholicism?DCMP=EMC-thewrap08" title="">In 2004, while nuncio in Spain and Andorra, he appeared to hint that the church should “acknowledge” gay partnerships</a>, saying that although many countries defined marriage as the union of a man and a woman, “there are other forms of cohabitation and it is good that they be recognised”. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 18 February 2012 ModerateDiplomat
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Cardinal Antonio Maria Vegliò2/3/19387570-80Macerata Feltria, Italy3/18/1962ItalyEuropeEuropeVegliò is a well-travelled man, having served in Peru, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, Mali, Mauritania, Lebanon, Kuwait and the UK. As president of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People, Vegliò has spoken out on behalf of migrants and refugees, insisting that they need to be treated with kindness and respect. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 18 February 2012.
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Cardinal Attilio Nicora3/16/19377570-80Varese, Italy6/27/1964ItalyEuropeEuropeNicora, who holds a degree in jurisprudence, a licentiate in theology and a doctorate in canon law, was a member of the Cardinal Commission for the Supervision of the Institute for the Works of Religion for six years, until February 2013. In January 2011 he was appointed president of the Vatican’s Financial Information Authority. He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 21 October 2003. ConservativeCurial
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Cardinal Francesco Coccopalmerio3/6/19387570-80San Giuliano Milanese, Italy6/29/1962ItalyEuropeEuropeCoccopalmerio, president of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts, has a licence in theology, a diploma in moral theology, a doctorate in canon law and a doctorate in jurisprudence from Sacred Heart Catholic University in Milan. He served in the tribunal of the archdiocese of Milan and was a professor of canon law before becoming a bishop in 1993. He is also a prolific author and a member of the congregations for the Doctrine of the Faith for the Causes of Saints. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 18 February 2012. ConservativeAcademic
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Cardinal Lluís Martínez i Sistach4/29/19377570-80Barcelona, Spain9/17/1961SpainEuropeEuropeA former professor of canon law and president of the Spanish Association of Canon Lawyers, the archbishop of Barcelona is a member of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura and the prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 24 November 2007.
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Cardinal Paolo Romeo2/20/19387570-80Sicily, Italy 3/18/1961ItalyEuropeEuropeThe archbishop of Palermo entered the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy in 1964 and has served as a pontifical representative in the Philippines, Belgium, Rwanda, Burundi, Venezuela and Luxembourg. He was sent as the representative for Pope John Paul II to Colombia in 1990 and was appointed archbishop of Palermo in 2006. He has been supportive of Pope Benedict XVI’s resignation, saying: “We were amazed by the Holy Father’s decision. But it is a choice that deserves respect and shows his profound love for the church.” He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 20 November 2010. ConservativeDiplomat
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Cardinal Antonio María Rouco Varela8/24/19367670-80Villalba, Spain3/28/1959SpainEuropeEuropeThe archbishop of Madrid studied law and theology at the University of Munich and earned a doctorate, with a dissertation on church-state relations in 16th Century Spain. He has published many books on the theological foundation of canon law and problems with the church-state relations. Named archbishop of Madrid in July 1994, he is passionate about reaching out to young people “so that they open their hearts wide to the saving grace of Christ”. He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 21 February 1998. ConservativeAcademic
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Cardinal Audrys Juozas Bačkis2/1/19377670-80Kaunas, Lithuania3/18/1961LithuaniaEuropeEuropeThe archbishop of Vilnius grew up in France where his father was a diplomat. He himself went on to join the Vatican’s diplomatic service in 1964 and has been posted to the Philippines, Costa Rica, Turkey, Nigeria and the Netherlands. He later served as president of the Lithuanian bishops’ conference. He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 21 February 2001.Diplomat
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Cardinal Ennio Antonelli11/18/19367670-80Todi, Umbria4/2/1960ItalyEuropeEuropeThe president emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Family, who, unsuprisingly, has stressed the importance of marriage, taught art in Italian schools for several years and has encouraged young people to become involved in the church. Antonelli, who also held candlelight prayer vigils with Muslim groups to oppose the war in Iraq, was considered papabile in 2005. He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 21 October 2003.CurialOpenToDialogueRecovering lost believers
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Cardinal Karl Lehmann5/16/19367670-80Sigmaringen, Germany10/10/1963GermanyEuropeEuropeLehmann, a former president of the German Bishops’ Conference, was blunt in his assessment of the damage done by the Vatican’s decision four years ago to rehabilitate the Holocaust-denying bishop Richard Williamson, describing it is <a href="www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/feb/04/holocaust-denying-bishop-vatican-recant-pope?DCMP=EMC-thewrap08" title="">“a disaster for all Holocaust survivors”</a>. Referring to the sexual abuse scandals of the last few years, the bishop of Mainz has also stressed the need for the church to live up to the high moral standards it sets, saying: <a href="www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/belief/2010/apr/10/catholic-church-abuse-scandals?DCMP=EMC-thewrap08" title="">“We as a church must not be surprised if we are judged more harshly than others, and even come in for malice and schadenfreude. We are merely being measured by the criteria which the church advocates in its moral teaching particularly as far as sexuality is concerned.”</a> He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 21 February 2001. ModeratePastoralNotFacingCriticismRecovering lost believers
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Cardinal José da Cruz Policarpo2/26/19367770-80lvorninha, Portugal8/15/1961PortugalEuropeEuropeThe patriach of Lisbon was appointed titular bishop of Caliabria and auxiliary of Lisbon in May 1978. He was elected president of the Portuguese Episcopal Conference in April 1999, serving until June 2005. He was re-elected resident of the conference in 2011. <a href="http://in.reuters.com/article/2009/01/14/idINIndia-37448920090114" title="">The Portuguese cardinal has issued a warning of marriage to Muslims, saying: “The advice that I give to young Portuguese girls is, ‘Be careful with relationships; think twice about marrying Muslims’.” </a>He has also been criticised by pro-life Catholics for not excommunicating those who openly supported legalisation of abortion. He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 21 February 2001. ConservativePastoralDefensive
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Cardinal Santos Abril y Castelló 21 September 1935,7770-80Alfambra, Spain3/19/1960SpainEuropeEuropeThe Vatican diplomat - who has served in countries including Pakistan, Turkey, Bolivia, Argentina, Cameroon, Gabon and Macedonia - was appointed vice-camerlengo (chamberlain) of the Holy Roman Church and archpriest of the Papal Basilica of Saint Mary Major in 2011. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 18 February 2012.
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Cardinal Velasio De Paolis9/19/19357770-80Sonnino, Italy3/18/1961ItalyEuropeEuropeIn July 2010, Benedict XVI appointed De Paolis, one of his right-hand men and most trusted collaborators, to supervise the reform of the Legionaries of Christ after it emerged that the order’s founder and leader, Marcial Maciel Degollado, had sexually abused boys and men over a 30-year period and fathered a number of children. De Paolis warned that reform of the order could take years. President emeritus of the Prefecture for Economic Affairs of the Holy See, he was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 20 November 2010.
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Cardinal Carlos Amigo Vallejo8/23/19347870-80Medina de Rioseco, Valladolid, Spain8/17/1960SpainEuropeEuropeThe archbishop emeritus of Seville has mediated in international disputes, sought to improve relations with Jews and Muslims and argued for the creation of centres to encourage the social promotion of Muslim women. In 2012, Pope Benedict XVI appointed him as his special envoy for the celebrations to mark the 500th anniversary of the arrival of the first bishop of Puerto Rico. He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 21 October 2003.
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Cardinal Dionigi Tettamanzi3/14/19347870-80Renate, Italy6/28/1957ItalyEuropeEuropeThe conservative Tettamanzi began his religious education early, entering a diocesan seminary at the age of 11. He served as archbishop of Milan between 2002 and 2011 and was tipped for Pope in 2005. While his praise for Opus Dei and its founder, Josemaría Escriva de Balaguer, has earned Tettamanzi support among traditionalists, his pronouncement in 2001 that “a single African child sick with Aids counts more than the entire universe” won him the support of many anti-globalisation campaigners. Once described by the disgraced Scottish Cardinal Kieth O'Brien as “that wee fat guy”, Tettamanzi was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 21 February 1998. ultra-ConservativePastoralToPreventDisease
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Cardinal Franc Rodé9/23/19347870-80Jarše, Ljubljana6/29/1960SloveniaEuropeEuropeCardinal Franc Rodé was appointed metropolitan archbishop of Ljubljana and was president of the Bishops’s Conference in 1997. In 2004 he was appointed prefect of the congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life.<a href="http://vaticaninsider.lastampa.it/en/world-news/detail/articolo/slovenia-eslovenia-18637/" title=""> The cardinal took a DNA test in 2012 after allegations surfaced in the media that he had fathered a son. He had strongly denied the validity of the claim and subsequently the test came back negative.</a> He was created a cardinal Benedict XVI on 24 March 2006.Curial
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Cardinal Francesco Monterisi5/28/19347870-80Barletta, Italy3/16/1957ItalyEuropeEuropeThe archpriest emeritus of the Basilica of St Paul Outside-the-Walls, who has doctorates in theology and canon law from the Pontifical Lateran University, has served as a papal diplomat in countries including Madagascar, Egypt, South Korea and Bosnia and Herzegovina. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 20 November 2010.Diplomat
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Cardinal Giovanni Lajolo1/3/19357870-80Novara, Italy4/29/1960ItalyEuropeEuropeLajolo, who is president emeritus of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State and president emeritus of the Governorate of Vatican City State, entered the Vatican diplomatic service in 1970 and went on to represent the Holy See at the UN general assembly from 2004 to 2006. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 24 November 2007.
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Cardinal Paolo Sardi9/1/19347870-80Ricaldone, Piedmont, Italy6/29/1958ItalyEuropeEuropeSardi, a former teacher of moral theology, is patron of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta and a member of the congregations for the Causes of Saints; and for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life. He served as vice-camerlengo (chamberlain) of the Holy Roman church from October 2004 until January 2011. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 20 November 2010. ConservativeCurial
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Cardinal Paul Josef Cordes9/5/19347870-80Kirchhundem, Paderborn, Germany12/21/1961GermanyEuropeEuropeCordes, who became an archbishop in 1995, <a href="www.guardian.co.uk/world/2002/feb/07/rorycarroll?DCMP=EMC-thewrap08" title="">once declared that sickness was linked to sin, and that keeping fit and eating healthily were worthy pursuits</a>. “Jesus heals illness and banishes sin,” he said in 2002. “He therefore tells us that there is a link between sin and sickness. Jesus highlights this fundamental law.” Cordes, president emeritus of the pontifical council Cor Unum - which oversees the church’s humanitarian aid - added: “Man’s desire to be healthy, good-looking and strong is justified because it is anticipating future salvation.” He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 24 November 2007.
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Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone12/2/19347870-80Romano Canavese, Italy7/1/1960ItalyEuropeEuropeBertone, who was Benedict XVI’s secretary of state, <a href="http://blogs.reuters.com/faithworld/tag/vatican-catholic-church-pope-benedict-cardinal-bertone-vatileaks-documents-butler-scandal/" title="">became the focus of the “Vatileaks” scandal</a>, in which he was accused of incompetence, covering up graft, and packing key Vatican posts with supporters. He provoked fury in 2010 when he claimed the church’s sexual abuse crisis was linked to homosexuality and paedophilia rather than celibacy among priests. The remarks damaged his reputation as a genial cleric with a human touch: while archbishop of Genoa in 2004, he swapped his robes for a sheepskin coat to do live commentary for a Serie A football match between the Genoa side Sampdoria and Juventus. He also memorably denounced the film of the Da Vinci Code as “a potpourri of lies, a phantasmagorical cocktail of inventions”. Bertone was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 21 October 2003. ultra-ConservativeCurialFacingCriticism
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Cardinal Giovanni Battista Re1/30/19347970-80Borno, Italy3/3/1957ItalyEuropeEuropeThe cardinal was appointed secretary of the Congregation for Bishops and titular Archbishop of Vescovìo in 1987 and was appointed prefect of the Congregation for Bishops and President of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America by the Holy Father in 2000. <a href="http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/story/2009/03/07/catholic-abortion.html" title="">He has spoken out about abortion, notably defending a Brazilian archbishop’s decision to excommunicate several doctors who performed an abortion on a nine-year-old girl who became pregnant after alleged sexual abuse by her step-father</a>. “It is a sad case, but the real problem is that the twins conceived were two innocent persons, who had the right to live and could not be eliminated,’’ he told La Stampa. He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 21 February 2001. ultra-ConservativeCurial
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Cardinal Godfried Danneels6/4/19337970-80Kanegem, diocese of Bruges, Eastern Flanders8/17/1957BelgiumEuropeEuropeOne of the church’s few moderate cardinals, Danneels broke the taboo on the use of condoms in 2004 by declaring that, in certain circumstances, they should be used to prevent the spread of Aids. He did, however, add that abstinence was a preferable means of prevention. He was caught up in the Belgian child abuse scandal after it emerged that <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/31/world/europe/31frnbriefs-BELGIUM.html?_r=0" title="">he had told the victim of serial sex abuse not to talk about what had happened until his uncle and abuser, Bishop Roger Vangheluwe, had retired</a>. Danneels later said he realised that he had acted incorrectly. He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 2 February 1983. ModeratePastoralToPreventDiseaseOpenToDialogueFacingCriticism
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Cardinal Joachim Meisner12/25/19337970-80Breslau, Germany 12/22/1962GermanyEuropeEuropeIn 2007, Meisner, the archbishop of Cologne, spoke out against plans to build a huge mosque and Islamic centre in the city, saying the project gave him a “bad feeling”, and adding that the proposed minarets would “change the skyline of the city”. In 2001, the ultra-conservative cardinal, who was close to both John Paul II and Benedict,<a href="www.guardian.co.uk/world/2001/nov/15/afghanistan.terrorism5?DCMP=EMC-thewrap08" title=""> said that killing Osama bin Laden would be morally justified because he was a “monster”, but stressed that it would be better to bring him to trial.</a> He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 2 February 1983 ultra-ConservativePastoralDefensive
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Cardinal Raffaele Farina9/24/19337970-80Buonalbergo, Benevento, Italy7/1/1958ItalyEuropeEuropeFarina, who entered the Salesian order as a teenager, taught ecclesiastical history and patrology (the study of the writings of the fathers of the church) before becoming director of the Salesian central archive in Rome and president of the editorial commission of the Vatican Publishing House. He was appointed prefect of the Vatican Apostolic Library in 1997 and is now archivist and librarian emeritus of the Holy Roman Church. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 24 November 2007.
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Cardinal Severino Poletto3/18/19337970-80Salgareda, Italy6/29/1957ItalyEuropeEuropeCardinal Severino Poletto was appointed coadjutor bishop of Fossano in May 1980. Five months later he succeeded Archbishop Giovanni Dadone and nine years later was named bishop of Asti and archbishop of Turin in 1999. Eleven years later, he became the city’s archbishop emeritus. He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 21 February 2001.
84
Cardinal Walter Kasper3/5/19338080+Heidenheim an der Brenz, Germany4/6/1957GermanyEuropeEuropeKasper, now president emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, <a href="www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/jul/31/religion?DCMP=EMC-thewrap08" title="">caused a stir in 2008 by telling the Lambeth conference that the Anglican communion ought to condemn homosexuality as “a disordered behaviour”</a>, adding that such a move would help bring the two churches closer together. Two years later, he refused to apologise for <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/sep/15/pope-benedict-xvi-aide-remarks?DCMP=EMC-thewrap08" title="">comparing Britain to a third-world country on the eve of Benedict’s visit to the UK</a>. Kasper, the Vatican’s leading expert on relations with the Church of England, did not accompany the pope on the trip. He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 21 February 2001. ConservativeCurial
85
Cardinal Daniel Nicholas DiNardo5/23/19496360-70Steubenville, Ohio7/16/1977USNorth AmericaAmericasThe archbishop of Galveston-Houston, who admiringly describes the church in Texas as “more laid-back” and “informal”, spent a few years in Rome before returning to the US and becoming a bishop. <a href="http://cnsnews.com/news/article/catholic-bishops-more-exorcists-needed" title="">He has spoken about the value of exorcism, but stressed that some of the Catholics who seek the rite may really be seeking “prayerful support”</a>. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 24 November 2007.
86
Cardinal James Michael Harvey10/20/19496360-70Milwaukee, Wisonsin6/29/1975USNorth AmericaAmericasThe archpriest of the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside-the-Walls is a member of the congregations for the Causes of Saints, for the Evangelisation of Peoples and of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See. Harvey was appointed prefect of the papal household in 1998, making him gatekeeper for both John Paul II and Benedict XVI.<a href="http://vaticaninsider.lastampa.it/en/the-vatican/detail/articolo/vatileaks-concistoro-consistory-consistorio-20003/" title=""> He lost a power struggle as a result of his support for Paolo Gabriele,</a> the papal butler at the centre of the <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/may/28/vatileaks-scandal-pope-butler-gabriele?DCMP=EMC-thewrap08" title="">Vatileaks</a> scandal, but was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 24 November 2012, with a post widely regarded as a demotion. ConservativeCurial
87
Cardinal Timothy Michael Dolan2/6/19506360-70Saint Louis, Missouri, US6/19/1976USNorth AmericaAmericasDolan, the archbishop of New York, is another cardinal facing questions about his past. Earlier this month, he was questioned over the abuse of children by priests in his former archdiocese of Milwaukee. Lawyers are interested in knowing when Dolan learned of the allegations and when he made them public. Dolan has indicated he took steps "to ensure the protection of children and pastoral outreach to victims." Dolan, who some believe a candidate to be the first US pope, had played down the speculation, saying it would be “highly improbable” that he would be considered for the job. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 18 February 2012. ConservativePastoralFacingCriticismReforming the Curiayes
88
Cardinal José Francisco Robles Ortega3/2/19496460-70Mascota, Mexico7/20/1976MexicoNorth AmericaAmericasThe cardinal, who has campaigned against secularisation, poverty and the political influence of drug cartels, was appointed archbishop of Guadalajara in 2011 and in November 2012 became president of the Mexican Bishops’ Conference. He is a member of the Pontifical Councils for Promoting New Evangelisation, for Social Communications and of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 24 November 2007. ModerateNotFacingCriticism
89
Cardinal Raymond Leo Burke6/30/19486460-70Richland Center, Wisconsin, US6/29/1975USNorth AmericaAmericasBurke, archbishop emeritus of Saint Louis and head of the Vatican’s highest appeals court, is an outspoken opponent of abortion and those celebrities and politicians who are pro-choice. He is also a champion of the traditional, Latin liturgy. He has criticised the Democratic party for its attitude to the sanctity of life, saying it risked “transforming itself definitely into a ‘party of death’”. He went further in 2009, when he attacked the US president and those Catholics who had voted for him, saying: “<a href="http://www.nationalreview.com/articles/227481/archbishop-ray-clarity/kathryn-jean-lopez" title="">Since President Obama clearly announced, during the election campaign, his anti-life and anti-family agenda, a Catholic who knew his agenda regarding, for example, procured abortion, embryonic-stem-cell research, and same-sex marriage, could not have voted for him with a clear conscience.</a>” He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 20 November 2010. ultra-ConservativeCurialInNoCircumstances
90
Cardinal Thomas Christopher Collins1/16/19476660-70Guelph, Ontario, Canada5/5/1973CanadaNorth AmericaAmericasThe archbishop of Toronto, a specialist in sacred scripture and the Book of Revelation, has recently spoken of the awe he feels at the prospect of taking part in the conclave. <a href="http://news.nationalpost.com/2013/02/25/toronto-cardinal-heading-to-rome-to-begin-awesome-process-of-choosing-the-next-pope/" title="">“Obviously, we want a holy person … and there are many, many possibilities there,” he said. “But the question is, which one for now? Which one is the one that we choose to be Pope for this situation in the Church?”</a> He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 18 February 2012.
91
Cardinal Marc Ouellet6/8/19446860-70Lamotte, Canada5/25/1968CanadaNorth AmericaAmericasOuellet was named titular bishop of Agropoli and secretary of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity in March 2001 and was ordained a bishop by Pope John Paul II in the same month. A year later he was appointed metropolitan archbishop of Quebec and in 2010 he was nominated prefect of the Congregation for Bishops and President of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America. Tipped as a strong candidate for pope, <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/jun/30/pope-abortion-cardinal-marc-ouellet?DCMP=EMC-thewrap08" title="">the cardinal caused controversy when, in 2010, he told an anti-abortion conference that terminating a pregnancy was a “moral crime” even in rape cases</a>. He has also testified before the Canadian senate, urging legislators to vote against legalising <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/feb/15/marc-ouellet-pope-prospect?DCMP=EMC-thewrap08" title="">gay unions, which he described as “pseudo-marriage, a fiction”</a>. He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 21 October 2003. ConservativeCurialFacingCriticismRecovering lost believersyes
92
Cardinal Seán Patrick O’Malley6/29/19446860-70Ohio, US8/29/1970USNorth AmericaAmericasThe multilingual archbishop of Boston, who has a doctorate in Spanish and Portuguese literature, was assigned to serve the Hispanic population by the archdiocese of Washington after being ordained a priest in 1970. He was director of the Apostolate for Hispanics in Washington, DC, and director of social services for Spanish-speaking ministries in San Francisco. In 1984 he was appointed coadjutor bishop of Saint Thomas in the Virgin Islands and is known for his work with the homeless and for opening a home for those with Aids. In 2003 he was appointed archbishop of Boston. <a href="http://www.boston.com/globe/spotlight/abuse/stories3/090402_bishop.htm" title="">O’Malley helped pioneer a system in which abuse allegations were referred to a social worker outside the church and has stated a zero tolerance policy towards sexual abuse</a>. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 24 March 2006. ConservativePastoralToPreventDiseaseNotFacingCriticismShortage of priestsyes
93
Cardinal Norberto Rivera Carrera6/6/19427070-80La Purísima, Mexico7/3/1966MexicoNorth AmericaAmericasThe cardinal was nominated Bishop of Tehuacán by John Paul II in 1985. Ten years later he was appointed archbishop Primate of Mexico. <a href="http://www.catholicnewsagency.com/news/abortion-solves-nothing-mexican-cardinal-tells-court/" title="">He has strong anti-abortion views and has said that “abortion is never a solution” and that human life should not be considered “a commercial product”. </a>His <a href="http://www.nationalcatholicreporter.org/update/conclave/top_candidates.htm#Carrera" title="">criticism of globalisation and political corruption has in the past caused tension with the Mexican government</a>. He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 21 February 1998. ultra-ConservativeFacingCriticism
94
Cardinal Donald William Wuerl11/12/19407270-80Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, US12/17/1966USNorth AmericaAmericasThe archbishop of Washington attacked the Obama administration last year over its plans to require Catholic-run schools and hospitals to provide free contraception to workers, saying the move was upsetting people of all faiths. <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/feb/09/barack-obama-contraception-rules-congress?DCMP=EMC-thewrap08" title="">“I think what’s happening across the country is that the more people learn about this mandate, the more they’re saying this is wrong,” he said.</a> An advocate of swift and thorough action on allegations of clerical sexual abuse, Wuerl has also been reluctant to use the denial of communion as a means of punishing Catholic politicians who depart from the church’s teachings on abortion. <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2006/05/17/us/17archbishop.html" title="">“Our primary job is to teach and try to convince people,” he said. “The tradition in our country has not been in the direction of refusing communion, and I think it’s served us well.”</a> He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 20 November 2010.FacingCriticism
95
Cardinal Edwin Frederick O’Brien4/8/19397370-80New York, US5/29/1965USNorth AmericaAmericasO’Brien served as civilian chaplain at the West Point military academy until 1970, when he became an army chaplain with the rank of captain. During his time with the military he learned to fly and to parachute and was chaplain at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, and later in Vietnam. In 2011 he was appointed Pro-Grand Master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem and a year later became Grand Master. In 2005 O’Brien stated that homosexuals should not be allowed to become priests. He has also spoken out for immigrants, against the death penalty and is a strong pro-life advocate. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 18 February 2012. ConservativePastoral
96
Cardinal Francis Eugene George1/16/19377670-80Chicago, US12/21/1963USNorth AmericaAmericasThe conservative archbishop of Chicago, a former president of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, is not afraid to speak his mind on issues such as abortion, same-sex marriage and homosexuality. He found himself at the centre of a storm in December 2011 after <a href="http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2012-01-07/news/ct-met-cardinal-george-apology-20120107_1_gay-pride-parade-gay-rights-lesbian-and-transgender" title="">he compared the Chicago gay pride march to the Ku Klux Klan when commenting on plans for the marchers to pass close to a church</a>. “You know, you don’t want the gay liberation movement to morph into something like the Ku Klux Klan, demonstrating in the streets against Catholicism,” he told Fox News. He later apologised for the remarks. He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 21 February 1998. ultra-ConservativePastoral
97
Cardinal Jean-Claude Turcotte6/26/19367670-80Montreal, Canada5/24/1959CanadaNorth AmericaAmericas“Personally, I’m against murder, but I can understand that sometimes, when someone is being attacked, they need to kill in self-defence,” <a href="http://www.ledevoir.com/societe/ethique-et-religion/245045/rencontre-avec-le-cardinal-turcotte-l-eglise-est-en-quete-d-un-equilibre-entre-le-dogme-et-la-pastorale" title="">he said in a newspaper interview in 2009</a>. “I’m against abortion, but I can understand that in certain cases, there is almost no other choice than to practise it.” He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 26 November 1994.
98
Cardinal Nicolás de Jesús López Rodríguez10/31/19367670-80La Vega, Dominican Republic3/18/1961Dominican RepublicNorth AmericaAmericas A member of the congregations for the Clergy and for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, and the pontifical commission for Latin America, López Rodríguez is the archbishop of Santo Domingo and military ordinary for the Dominican Republic. He has degrees in pastoral sociology and social science. He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 28 June 1991.
99
Cardinal William Joseph Levada6/15/19367670-80Long Beach, Californiaon 20 December 1961USNorth AmericaAmericasIn 2010, Levada, who succeeded Benedict as prefect for the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, rounded on the New York Times for its investigations into what Benedict XVI may or may not have known about a cover-up involving a paedophile priest. He accused the newspaper of going into “attack mode” in its coverage of the pope and said that it should “give the world a more balanced view of a leader it can and should count on”. He has also been criticised for his own record on tackling clergy involved in sexual abuse and for his opposition to same-sex marriage. He was created a cardinal by Benedict XVI on 24 March 2006. ultra-ConservativeCurialFacingCriticism
100
Cardinal Justin Francis Rigali4/19/19357770-80California, US4/25/1961USNorth AmericaAmericasRigali was appointed titular archbishop of Bolsena in 1985 and then archbishop of Saint Louis, Missouri in 1994. On 15 July 2003 he was appointed Archbishop of Philadelphia<a href="http://travel.nytimes.com/2011/07/19/us/19bishop.html?_r=0" title=""> but resigned eight years later after the mishandling of decades of sexual abuse cases in his archdiocese caused a huge storm</a>. He was created a cardinal by John Paul II in the consistory on 21 October 2003. ultra-ConservativePastoralFacingCriticism
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